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The Dual Revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries

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Title: The Dual Revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries


1
The Dual Revolutions of the 18th and 19th
centuries
  • The French and Industrial Revolutions and their
    aftermath

2
The Industrial Revolution
  • Economic, Political and Social Change

3
Definition
  • The process of change from an agrarian and
    handicraft based economy to one dominated by
    industry and machine manufacture
  • Arnold Toynbee first used the term to describe
    developments in England from 1760 to 1840.

4
Mechanization
  • During the first half of the 19th century, the
    European manufacturing process shifted from
    small-scale production by hand at home to
    large-scale production by machine in a factory
    setting.

5
Why England?
  • Britannia rules the waves
  • Profitable agricultureEnclosure movement
  • Coal and iron in Lancashire and Yorkshire
  • Money to risk on innovation from profits of the
    colonial empire and slavery
  • The colonies supply raw materials (cotton, sugar)
    and also serve as a market for the products of
    the factories (English cotton cloth destroys the
    domestic textile industry in India.

6
Characteristics of the I.R.
  • Starts in English cotton textile industry.
  • New machines increase production with less human
    energy.
  • The spinning jenny, power loom, etc. are first
    powered by water power, then b y the steam
    engine, using coal as a fuel.
  • New organization of work, the FACTORY SYSTEM,
    based on the division of labor and the
    specialization of function.
  • Improvements in transportationcanals, roads,
    steam locomotive and steamship.
  • Application of applied science to industry
    engineering, chemistry

7
New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
8
John Kays Flying Shuttle-1730s mechanization
of weaving
9
1765 James Hargreaves the Spinning Jenny
  • First invention to improve on the spinning wheel
  • Could be located in homes of spinners (spinsters)
  • Vital to the domestic or putting out system of
    cloth production

10
Richard Arkwright Pioneer of the Factory System
The Water Frame 1769
11
1785 Edmund Cartwright - The Power Loom
12
1765 James Watt the Steam Engine
  • Most important invention of the I.R.
  • Coal powered-heats water to create steam that
    forces piston to turn a wheel.
  • 1,000 engines in use by 1800
  • Applied to transportation technology

13
Steam Ship
14
An Early Steam Locomotive
15
Factory Production
  • Concentrates production in one place materials,
    machines, labor.
  • Located near sources of power rather than labor
    or markets.
  • Requires a lot of capital investment factory,
    machines, etc. more than skilled labor.
  • Only 10 of English industry in 1850.

16
The Factory System
  • Rigid schedule.
  • 12-14 hour day, six days a week.
  • Dangerous conditions.
  • Mind-numbing monotony.

17
At the Expense of Workers
  • The shift meant high quality products at
    competitive prices, but often at the expense of
    workers. For example, the raw wool and cotton
    that fed the British textile mills came from
  • Lands converted from farming to sheep raising,
    leaving farm workers without jobs
  • The southern plantations of the United States,
    which were dependent upon slave labor

18
Textile Factory Workers in England
19
CHILD LABOR IN MINES AND FACTORIES
  • In 1788, two thirds of the workers in English
    textile mills were children.
  • They worked up to 14 hours a day in dangerous
    and unsanitary conditions.
  • Poor families could not survive if their children
    were not employed.
  • Factory Act of 1833 limits hours of work and
    forbids employment under the age of nine.
  • Ages 11-18 12 hours a day
  • Ages 9-11 8 hours a day

20
Child Labor in factories and Mines
21
Urban Growth
  • Those who could no longer make a living on the
    land migrated from the countryside to the cities
    to seek work in the factories.

22
Population Growth
  • At the same time, the population of Europe
    continued to grow.

23
The Plight of the Cities
  • The sheer number of human beings put pressure on
    city resources
  • Housing, water, sewers, food supplies, and
    lighting were completely inadequate.
  • Slums grew and disease, especially cholera,
    ravaged the population.
  • Crime increased and became a way of life for
    those who could make a living in no other way.

24
Conditions in the Countryside
  • The only successful farmers were those with large
    landholdings who could afford agricultural
    innovations.
  • Most peasants
  • Didnt have enough land to support themselves
  • Were devastated by poor harvests (e.g., the Irish
    Potato Famine of 1845-47)
  • Were forced to move to the cities to find work in
    the factories.

25
The Role of the Railroads
  • The railroads, built during the 1830s and 1840s
  • Enabled people to leave the place of their birth
    and migrate easily to the cities.
  • Allowed cheaper and more rapid transport of raw
    materials and finished products.
  • Created an increased demand for iron and steel
    and a skilled labor force.

26
The Labor Force
  • No single description could include all of these
    19th century workers
  • Factory workers
  • Urban artisans
  • Domestic system craftsmen
  • Household servants
  • Miners
  • Countryside peddlers
  • Farm workers
  • Railroad workers
  • Variations in duties, income, and working
    conditions made it difficult for them to unite.

27
The Condition of Labor
  • All working people, however, faced possible
    unemployment, with little or no provision for
    security.
  • In addition, they were subject to various kinds
    of discipline
  • The closing of factory gates to late workers
  • Fines for tardiness
  • Dismissal for drunkenness
  • Public censure for poor quality workmanship
  • Beatings for non-submissiveness

28
Proletarianization
  • Factory workers lose control of the means of
    production
  • Factory owners provide the financial capital to
    construct factory and purchase machines and raw
    materials
  • Factory workers can only exchange their labor for
    wages

29
Upstairs/Downstairs Life
30
Industrial Staffordshire
31
Worker Resistance
  • The Luddites1811-1816 Craftsman destroy the new
    textile machines
  • 1819 Peterloo massacre Troops fire on workers
    demonstrating in Manchester
  • The Chartist Movement 3 million sign the
    Peoples Charter, which called for universal
    manhood suffrage and the secret ballot
  • Trade unions were illegal

32
Family Structures Changed
  • With the decline of the domestic system and the
    rise of the factory system, family life changed.
  • At first, the entire family, including the
    children, worked in the factory, just as they had
    at home.
  • Later, family life became fragmented (the father
    worked in the factory, the mother handled
    domestic chores, the children went to school).

33
Family as a Unit of Consumption
  • In short, the European family changed from being
    a unit of production and consumption to being a
    unit of consumption alone.

34
Gender-Determined Roles
  • That transformation prepared the way for
    gender-determined roles.
  • Women came to be associated with domestic duties,
    such as housekeeping, food preparation, child
    rearing and nurturing, and household management.
  • The man came to be associated almost exclusively
    with breadwinning.

35
Political and social changes
  • Decline in the importance of the aristocracy.
  • Rise in power of the Bourgeoisie
  • Liberalism becomes the dominant ideology of the
    middle classes
  • Working class organizes in labor unions and
    socialist parties based on the ideas of Karl Marx
    (1848 The Communist Manifesto)

36
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Communist
Manifesto 1848
  • History has a directionit moves along through
    necessary stages
  • History is moved along by changes in the economic
    life of each societythe mode of production and
    exchange
  • History is moved along by class strugglea
    struggle between dominant and the subordinate
    social classes
  • In the industrial era, the struggle is between
    the bourgeoisie (the owners of the means of
    production) and the proletariat (workers who only
    own their own labor)
  • The Communist Revolution will destroy capitalism
    and the class system.

37
The French Revolution
38
The Revolutionary Ideas
  • -Ideological Foundation for Political Liberalism
    and Democracy

39
Liberty
  • The notion of individual human rights
  • A new type of government in which the people are
    sovereign
  • The importance of a representative assembly
  • The importance of a written constitution
  • The notion of self-determination
  • Freedom to accumulate property

40
Equality
  • Equality of rights and civil liberties
  • Equality before the law
  • No special privileges for the rich
  • Equality of opportunity
  • Careers Open to Talent
  • Inherent tension between liberty and equality

41
The Atlantic Revolution
  • French Revolution was a part of a whole series of
    revolutions which took place during the late 18th
    century
  • --Political agitation in England, Ireland,
    Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Germany,
    Hungary, Poland and the North and South American
    colonies
  • One big movement of revolutionary agitation that
    continues well into the 19th c.

42
The American Revolution
  • 1760sBritish Parliament taxes the 13 North
    American colonies to pay for the Seven Years war
    with France
  • 1774 Continental Congress No taxation without
    representation
  • 1775 Battles at Lexi9ngton and Concord
  • July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence All
    Men are Created Equal. Influenced by ideas of
    John Locke and the Enlightenment.
  • American victory made possible by military
    support from France and the Netherlands.
  • 1783 Peace of Paris
  • The significance of the American constitution
    (1787)
  • The influence of the American Revolution on
    revolutions throughout the world

43
The Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776
  • When in the Course of human events it becomes
    necessary for one people to dissolve the
    political bands which have connected them with
    another and to assume among the powers of the
    earth, the separate and equal station to which
    the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle
    them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind
    requires that they should declare the causes
    which impel them to the separation.
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all
    men are created equal, that they are endowed by
    their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
    that among these are Life, Liberty and the
    pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these
    rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
    deriving their just powers from the consent of
    the governed, That whenever any Form of
    Government becomes destructive of these ends, it
    is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish
    it, and to institute new Government, laying its
    foundation on such principles and organizing its
    powers in such form, as to them shall seem most
    likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
    Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments
    long established should not be changed for light
    and transient causes and accordingly all
    experience hath shewn that mankind are more
    disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable
    than to right themselves by abolishing the forms
    to which they are accustomed. But when a long
    train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing
    invariably the same Object evinces a design to
    reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their
    right, it is their duty, to throw off such
    Government, and to provide new Guards for their
    future security. Such has been the patient
    sufferance of these Colonies and such is now the
    necessity which constrains them to alter their
    former Systems of Government. The history of the
    present King of Great Britain is a history of
    repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in
    direct object the establishment of an absolute
    Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let
    Facts be submitted to a candid world.

44
The Bill of Rights- first 10 amendments to the
U.S. Constitution, ratified on December 15, 1791
  • Amendment I Congress shall make no law
    respecting an establishment of religion, or
    prohibiting the free exercise thereof or
    abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press
    or the right of the people peaceably to assemble,
    and to petition the government for a redress of
    grievances.
  • Amendment II A well regulated militia, being
    necessary to the security of a free state, the
    right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall
    not be infringed.
  • Amendment III No soldier shall, in time of peace
    be quartered in any house, without the consent of
    the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to
    be prescribed by law.
  • Amendment IV The right of the people to be
    secure in their persons, houses, papers, and
    effects, against unreasonable searches and
    seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants
    shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported
    by oath or affirmation, and particularly
    describing the place to be searched, and the
    persons or things to be seized.
  • Amendment V No person shall be held to answer
    for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime,
    unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand
    jury, except in cases arising in the land or
    naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual
    service in time of war or public danger nor
    shall any person be subject for the same offense
    to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb nor
    shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a
    witness against himself, nor be deprived of life,
    liberty, or property, without due process of law
    nor shall private property be taken for public
    use, without just compensation.
  • Amendment VI In all criminal prosecutions, the
    accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and
    public trial, by an impartial jury of the state
    and district wherein the crime shall have been
    committed, which district shall have been
    previously ascertained by law, and to be informed
    of the nature and cause of the accusation to be
    confronted with the witnesses against him to
    have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses
    in his favor, and to have the assistance of
    counsel for his defense.
  • Amendment VII In suits at common law, where the
    value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars,
    the right of trial by jury shall be preserved,
    and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise
    reexamined in any court of the United States,
    than according to the rules of the common law.
  • Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be
    required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel
    and unusual punishments inflicted.
  • Amendment IX The enumeration in the
    Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be
    construed to deny or disparage others retained by
    the people.
  • Amendment X The powers not delegated to the
    United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited
    by it to the states, are reserved to the states
    respectively, or to the people.

45
Revolutions in Mexico and Central and South
America
  • Led by wealthy Creole class
  • Goal Independence from Spanish and Portuguese
    rule
  • Simon Bolivar, the father of Latin American
    independence led revolts in Columbia, Venezuela,
    Ecuador and Peru
  • Bolivar cooperated with Jose de San Martin and
    Bernardo OHiggins in successful revolts in
    Argentina and Chile
  • Bolivars goal a United Sates of South America
  • By 1825 Spanish rule ended in South America
  • 1822 Independence of Brazil under Emperor Pedro I
  • 1821 End of Spanish rule in Mexico and Central
    America
  • Continued dominance of the white Creole elites

46
Background of Haitian Revolution
  • Treaty of Ryswick (1697) Spain cedes Western
    third of Hispaniola to France
  • From 1697 to 1789, Saint Domingue becomes the
    richest colony in the world based on slave
    produced sugar, coffee indigo dye, cotton,
    tobacco and exotic spices
  • The plantation system on S.D. was the most brutal
    the world had ever seen.

47
1791 The structure of Saint Domingue society
  • 20,000 whites (Planters and Petit Blancs)
  • 50,000 free people of color (affranchis)
  • 500,000 African slaves (most born in Africa)
  • 10,000 to 20,000 Maroons (runaway slaves) living
    in the mountains.

48
Impact of American and French Revolutions on
Saint Domingue
  • 500 gens de couleur (affranchis) serve in French
    army and participate in the American Revolution.
    Bring revolutionary ideas back to S.D.
  • The planters want an independent S.D. that they
    can control without interference from Paris.
  • The petit blancs are the only group loyal to
    France hostile to the free persons of color and
    want to retain slavery.
  • The affranchis want a free Saint Dominguewith
    slavery- and equal rights with the whites.
  • The slaves want only one thingfreedom!

49
The Haitian Revolution Begins
  • August 21, 1791 revolt of the slaves on the
    northern plain.
  • More than a thousand planters and their families
    killed
  • Whites and affranchis unite to put down the
    rebellion

50
Francois-DominiqueToussaint (LOuverture)
1744-1803
  • Former slave, 47 years old, joins rebels as a
    medical officer
  • Rises to become a general and the leader of the
    revolution
  • To get rid of French he allies with the English
    and Spanish

51
Toussaint LOuverture
  • In 1793, the National Assembly in France
    abolishes slavery.
  • Sonthanax, the French representative in S.D.
    issues proclamation ending slavery.
  • In 1794, Toussaint joins the French side as . a
    brigadier general
  • He defeats the Spanish and English and conquers
    the whole island of Hispaniola by 1801
  • July 26, 1801 Toussaints Constitution

52
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Napoleon wants to take power back from the
    gilded African
  • 1802 General Laclerc lands at Cap Francois
  • Toussaint betrayed, arrested and sent to
    Francedies in prison in April 1803.

53
The Republic of Haiti
  • Henri Christophe and Jean Jacques Dessalines
    continue war.
  • French surrender in November 1803.
  • Napoleon, disgusted at the cost of colonial wars,
    sells Louisiana to the U.S.
  • January 1, 1804 Dessalines proclaims the
    independence of Haiti

54
The problems of independence
  • A devastated economy Former slaves refuse to
    return to plantation labor. Do not produce for
    export.
  • International boycott against trade with Haiti
  • Haitian independence recognized by France in
    1825 England in 1833 the United States in
    1862!!!
  • The affranchis form a Haitian ruling class.
  • Between 1843 -1915, a succession of 20 rulers 16
    overthrown by revolution or assassination.
  • United States military occupation of Haiti
    (1915-1934)

55
The French Revolution
  • More fundamental and profound consequences than
    the American Revolution and the revolutions in
    Latin America
  • France most powerful and populous state in
    Europe
  • Massive social revolution
  • Worldwide impact
  • Becomes model for future revolutions

56
How Should We Look at the French Revolution?
  • Series of revolutions which became more radical
    as leadership cascaded down through French
    society.

57
Background to the French Revolution
  • The ideas of the Enlightenment Locke, Voltaire,
    Diderot, Montesquieu, Rousseau
  • Primary idea is popular sovereignty. Government
    should be based on the will of the people.
  • The burdens on the French peasantry tithes to
    the church taxes to the State and to wealthy
    landlords the corveeunpaid labor services the
    salt monopoly
  • Grievances of the bourgeoisie
  • Grievances of the urban poor

58
The Events of the French Revolution
  • Watch for the different revolutions within the
    Revolution!

59
The Origins The financial crisis of Louis XVIs
government
  • Began as a revolt of the aristocracy
  • Attempt to capitalize on the financial woes of
    the monarchy
  • Only solution tax reform and a direct tax on
    all property
  • Aristocracy refused and forces the issue

60
The Estates-General
  • An old feudal assembly that had not met since
    1614
  • Three Estates Clergy, Nobility, All Others
  • 1788 the cahiers des doleances
  • The miscalculation and lack of social awareness
    of the aristocracy

61
The Third Estate
  • Who were they?
  • Third Estate was dominated by the middle class
  • Blending of aristocratic and bourgeois classes by
    1789
  • Middle class Big Winners
  • Revolutionary goals of the middle class

62
An Agenda of Classical Liberalism
  • Representative government did not mean democracy
    or mob rule
  • Estates-General became the National Assembly in
    June of 1789 with the power to frame a
    constitution
  • --Tennis Court Oath

63
Revolutionaries in the Streets
  • Who were they?
  • Sans-culottes (without knee britches)
  • Picked up the ideas and slogans of the Revolution
    from the more educated leadership of lawyers and
    journalists

64
What were the Motivations of these
Revolutionaries?
  • Poverty and Hunger
  • Low wages and fear of unemployment
  • Heightened expectations and the exposure to a
    political perspective
  • -- Cahiers
  • Strong dislike for and distrust of the wealthy
  • The role of conspiracy

65
The Storming the Bastille July 14, 1789
  • Reasons for the attack on the Bastille on the
    morning of July 14
  • The stubbornness of the governor of the fortress
  • Celebrations on the night of July 14th
  • Sparks tremendous popular revolution all over
    France

66
The Great Fear
  • Independent revolutionary agitation in the
    countryside
  • Rumors of Royalist troops becoming wandering
    vandals
  • Fear breeds fear and peasants start marching
  • Within 3 weeks of July 14, the countryside of
    France had been completely changed
  • Abolition of the Nobility

67
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
August 26, 1789
  • The representatives of the French people,
    organized as a National Assembly, believing that
    the ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights
    of man are the sole cause of public calamities
    and of the corruption of governments, have
    determined to set forth in a solemn declaration
    the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of
    man, in order that this declaration, being
    constantly before all the members of the Social
    body, shall remind them continually of their
    rights and duties in order that the acts of the
    legislative power, as well as those of the
    executive power, may be compared at any moment
    with the objects and purposes of all political
    institutions and may thus be more respected, and,
    lastly, in order that the grievances of the
    citizens, based hereafter upon simple and
    incontestable principles, shall tend to the
    maintenance of the constitution and redound to
    the happiness of all. Therefore the National
    Assembly recognizes and proclaims, in the
    presence and under the auspices of the Supreme
    Being, the following rights of man and of the
    citizenArticles1.  Men are born and remain free
    and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be
    founded only upon the general good.2.  The aim of
    all political association is the preservation of
    the natural and imprescriptible rights of man.
    These rights are liberty, property, security, and
    resistance to oppression.3.  The principle of all
    sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No
    body nor individual may exercise any authority
    which does not proceed directly from the
    nation.4.  Liberty consists in the freedom to do
    everything which injures no one else hence the
    exercise of the natural rights of each man has no
    limits except those which assure to the other
    members of the society the enjoyment of the same
    rights. These limits can only be determined by
    law.5.  Law can only prohibit such actions as are
    hurtful to society. Nothing may be prevented
    which is not forbidden by law, and no one may be
    forced to do anything not provided for by law.6. 
    Law is the expression of the general will. Every
    citizen has a right to participate personally, or
    through his representative, in its foundation. It
    must be the same for all, whether it protects or
    punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes
    of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities
    and to all public positions and occupations,
    according to their abilities, and without
    distinction except that of their virtues and
    talents.7.  No person shall be accused, arrested,
    or imprisoned except in the cases and according
    to the forms prescribed by law. Any one
    soliciting, transmitting, executing, or causing
    to be executed, any arbitrary order, shall be
    punished. But any citizen summoned or arrested in
    virtue of the law shall submit without delay, as
    resistance constitutes an offense.8.  The law
    shall provide for such punishments only as are
    strictly and obviously necessary, and no one
    shall suffer punishment except it be legally
    inflicted in virtue of a law passed and
    promulgated before the commission of the
    offense.9.  As all persons are held innocent
    until they shall have been declared guilty, if
    arrest shall be deemed indispensable, all
    harshness not essential to the securing of the
    prisoner's person shall be severely repressed by
    law.10.  No one shall be disquieted on account of
    his opinions, including his religious views,
    provided their manifestation does not disturb the
    public order established by law.11.  The free
    communication of ideas and opinions is one of the
    most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen
    may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with
    freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses
    of this freedom as shall be defined by law.12. 
    The security of the rights of man and of the
    citizen requires public military forces. These
    forces are, therefore, established for the good
    of all and not for the personal advantage of
    those to whom they shall be intrusted.13.  A
    common contribution is essential for the
    maintenance of the public forces and for the cost
    of administration. This should be equitably
    distributed among all the citizens in proportion
    to their means.14.  All the citizens have a right
    to decide, either personally or by their
    representatives, as to the necessity of the
    public contribution to grant this freely to
    know to what uses it is put and to fix the
    proportion, the mode of assessment and of
    collection and the duration of the taxes.15. 
    Society has the right to require of every public
    agent an account of his administration.16.  A
    society in which the observance of the law is not
    assured, nor the separation of powers defined,
    has no constitution at all.17.  Since property is
    an inviolable and sacred right, no one shall be
    deprived thereof except where public necessity,
    legally determined, shall clearly demand it, and
    then only on condition that the owner shall have
    been previously and equitably indemnified.

68
Women in the Age of Revolution
  • Olympe de Gouges
  • 1791 Declaration of the Rights of Women and the
    Female Citizen
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
  • 1792 A Vindication of the Rights of Women
  • Olympe de Gouges
  • 1791 Declaration of the Rights of Women and the
    Female Citizen
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
  • 1792 A Vindication of the Rights e.doc

69
Women take the Lead!
  • Mounting unemployment and hunger in Paris in the
    fall of 1789
  • October Days The march to Versailles
  • -- The point is that we want bread!
  • The Royal Family returns to Paris on October 6,
    1789

70
The Consolidation of the Liberal Revolution
  • Events from October, 1789 through September, 1791
  • Abolition of the French nobility as a legal order
  • Constitutional Monarchy established
  • Economic centralization
  • Nationalization of the Church
  • --Stage set for subsequent civil war

71
Popular Political Mobilization
  • Revolutionary Talk
  • --More than 500 new newspapers
  • --Oath of Loyalty
  • -- Liberte, Equalite, Fraternite!
  • Revolutionary Symbols
  • Revolutionary Clubs
  • --The Jacobins
  • Revolutionary Leaders

72
Growing Radicalism
  • Reasons
  • --Snowball Effect
  • --Unsatisfied Expectations
  • --Outbreak of War
  • Results
  • --Increasing Violence
  • --Change in Political Leadership

73
Robespierres Reign of Terror
  • The Committee of Public Safety
  • The Concept of Total War
  • Maximum price ceilings on certain goods
  • Nationalization of Small Workshops

74
The Reign of Terror (cont)
  • Execution of 40,000 Enemies of the Nation
  • Stress on radical definition of equality
  • Wanted a legal maximum on personal wealth
  • Wanted a regulation of commercial profits
  • End of Robespierres dictatorship on July 28, 1794

75
The Directory and Napoleon Bonaparte
  • The Directory (1794-1799)
  • Napoleons Rise to Power
  • The Napoleonic Code
  • Establishment of the Bank of France
  • Reconciliation with the Catholic Church
  • --Concordat of 1801
  • Heavy Censorship
  • Napoleons Art of War
  • The Napoleonic Code

76
Legacies of the French Revolution
  • A revolutionary model
  • A mass political consciousness
  • Inspires nationalist movementsunification of
    Italy (1867) and Germany (1871
  • Conflict within the Liberal Tradition
    Libertarianism vs. Egalitarianism
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