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Human Resource Development

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Title: Human Resource Development


1
Human Resource Development
  • Tejashree Talpade

2
Definition of HRD
  • A set of systematic and planned activities
    designed by an organization to provide its
    members with the necessary skills to meet current
    and future job demands.

3
Emergence of HRD
  • Employee needs extend beyond the training
    classroom
  • Includes coaching, group work, and problem
    solving
  • Need for basic employee development
  • Need for structured career development

4
Relationship Between HRM and HRD
  • Human resource management (HRM) encompasses many
    functions
  • Human resource development (HRD) is just one of
    the functions within HRM

5
Primary Functions of HRM
  • Human resource planning
  • Equal employment opportunity
  • Staffing (recruitment and selection)
  • Compensation and benefits
  • Employee and labor relations
  • Health, safety, and security
  • Human resource development

6
Secondary HRM Functions
  • Organization and job design
  • Performance management/ performance appraisal
    systems
  • Research and information systems

7
HRD Functions
  • Training and development (TD)
  • Organizational development
  • Career development

8
Training and Development (TD)
  • Training improving the knowledge, skills and
    attitudes of employees for the short-term,
    particular to a specific job or task e.g.,
  • Employee orientation
  • Skills technical training
  • Coaching
  • Counseling

9
Training and Development (TD)
  • Development preparing for future
    responsibilities, while increasing the capacity
    to perform at a current job
  • Management training
  • Supervisor development

10
Organizational Development
  • The process of improving an organizations
    effectiveness and members well-being through the
    application of behavioral science concepts
  • Focuses on both macro- and micro-levels
  • HRD plays the role of a change agent

11
Career Development
  • Ongoing process by which individuals progress
    through series of changes until they achieve
    their personal level of maximum achievement.
  • Career planning
  • Career management

12
Learning Performance
13
Critical HRD Issues
  • Strategic management and HRD
  • The supervisors role in HRD
  • Organizational structure of HRD

14
Strategic Management HRD
  • Strategic management aims to ensure
    organizational effectiveness for the foreseeable
    future e.g., maximizing profits in the next 3
    to 5 years
  • HRD aims to get managers and workers ready for
    new products, procedures, and materials

15
Supervisors Role in HRD
  • Implements HRD programs and procedures
  • On-the-job training (OJT)
  • Coaching/mentoring/counseling
  • Career and employee development
  • A front-line participant in HRD

16
Organizational Structure of HRD Departments
  • Depends on company size, industry and maturity
  • No single structure used
  • Depends in large part on how well the HRD manager
    becomes an institutional part of the company
    i.e., a revenue contributor, not just a revenue
    user

17
Sample HRD Jobs/Roles
  • Executive/Manager
  • HR Strategic Advisor
  • HR Systems Designer/Developer
  • Organization Change Agent
  • Organization Design Consultant
  • Learning Program Specialist
  • Instructor/Facilitator
  • Individual Development and Career Counselor
  • Performance Consultant (Coach)
  • Researcher

18
HRs strategic role
  • Employees as organisations assets
  • Driving business strategy
  • Spanning organizational functions
  • HRD Deliverables
  • Performance
  • Capacity Building
  • Problem solving/consulting
  • Org. change and development

19
Strategic HRD
  • Integration of HRD with strategy formulation and
    implementation
  • Long-term view of HR policy
  • Horizontal integration among HR functions
  • Vertical integration with corporate strategy
  • SHR as core competitive advantage

20
Firm Capitals
  • Human Capital
  • Knowledge, skills, abilities of individuals
  • Social Capital
  • Relationships in social networks
  • Structural, cognitive, relational dimensions
  • Intellectual capital
  • Knowledge and knowing capability of social
    collectivities
  • Procedural/declarative tacit/explicit
    individual/social
  • Value and Uniqueness of capitals

21
Multiple Roles for HR (Ulrich, 1997)
Future/Strategic Focus
Mgmt of Trans- Formation/Change
Mgmt of SHR
Processes
People
Mgmt of Employee Contributions
Mgmt of Firm Infrastructure
Day-to-day/Operational Focus
22
Definition of HR Roles
23
Importance of Human Resources
  • Human resources are an important part of the
    value chain
  • They can be unique, and thus a source of core
    competence in an organization
  • If a core competence is related to HR, then HR
    can contribute to competitive advantage

24
Strategic Analysis of HR Purpose
  • People related strategies may be important to new
    strategy (for example, a change in the way the
    organization does business)
  • In todays technologically complex business
    world, analysis of existing human resources is
    important in order to determine what options are
    available
  • The network of people within an organization and
    their relationships with people can be an
    important part of strategy

25
HR and Sustainable Competitive Advantage
  • In some industries, people are the most important
    factor in success
  • - advertising and creative development
  • - leisure and tourism
  • - management consulting
  • - hospitals and medical professions
  • The adaptability of people to changing
    environments is an important skill
  • The ability to learn faster than your
    competitors may be the only sustainable
    advantage Arie De Geus, former head of
    planning at Royal Dutch Shell

26
Challenges for HRD
  • Changing workforce demographics
  • Competing in global economy
  • Eliminating the skills gap
  • Need for lifelong learning
  • Need for organizational learning

27
Competing in the Global Economy
  • New technologies
  • Need for more skilled and educated workers
  • Cultural sensitivity required
  • Team involvement
  • Problem solving
  • Better communications skills

28
Need for Lifelong Learning
  • Organizations change
  • Technologies change
  • Products change
  • Processes change
  • PEOPLE must change!!

29
Creating a learning organisation
30
Need for Organizational Learning
  • Organizations must be able to learn, adapt, and
    change
  • Principles
  • Systems thinking
  • Personal mastery
  • Mental models
  • Shared visions
  • Team learning

31
Creating a Learning Organization
  • Senge suggests top managers follow several steps
    to build in learning
  • Personal Mastery managers empower employees and
    allow them to create and explore.
  • Mental Models challenge employees to find new,
    better methods to perform a task.
  • Team Learning is more important than individual
    learning since most decisions are made in groups.
  • Build a Shared Vision people share a common
    mental model of the firm to evaluate
    opportunities.
  • Systems Thinking know that actions in one area
    of the firm impacts all others.

32
A Framework for the HRD Process
  • HRD efforts should use the following four phases
    (or stages)
  • Needs assessment
  • Design
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

33
Training HRD Process Model
34
Needs Assessment Phase
  • Establishing HRD priorities
  • Defining specific training and objectives
  • Establishing evaluation criteria

35
Design Phase
  • Selecting who delivers program
  • Selecting and developing program content
  • Scheduling the training program

36
Implementation Phase
  • Implementing or delivering the program

37
Evaluation Phase
  • Determining program effectiveness e.g.,
  • Keep or change providers?
  • Offer it again?
  • What are the true costs?
  • Can we do it another way?

38
Motivation, Reward and Recognition System
Management
39
Motivation
The force within us that activates our behavior.
It is a function of three distinct components,
Intensity, Direction, and Persistence.
40
Motivation - Intensity
Intensity refers to the amount of mental and
physical effort put forth by the person.
Motivation
Intensity
41
Motivation - Direction
The extent to which an individual determines and
chooses efforts focused on a particular goal.
Motivation
Direction
42
Motivation - Persistence
The extent to which the goal-directed effort is
put forth over time.
Motivation
Persistence
43
Motivation Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic
  • Intrinsic
  • When doing the job is inherently motivating
  • Extrinsic
  • When rewards such as pay and formal recognition
    act as motivators

44
Two Basic Categories of Rewards
Compensation Rewards Those given in return for
acceptable performance or effort. They can
include nonfinancial compensation.
Non-Compensation Rewards Those beneficial
factors related to the work situation and
well-being of each person.
45
Types of Rewards
46
Financial Compensation Straight Salary
  • Advantages
  • Salaries are simple to administer
  • Planned earnings are easy to project.
  • Salaries are useful when substantial development
    work is required.
  • Disadvantages
  • Salaries offer little incentive for better
    performance.
  • Salaries represent fixed overhead.

47
Financial Compensation Pay for Performance
  • Reward Systems in most cases should be consistent
    with other HR systems.
  • The Reward System is a key driver of
  • HR Strategy
  • Business Strategy
  • Organization Culture

48
Need for Consistency with Other HR Systems
49
Financial Compensation Performance Bonuses
  • Advantages
  • Organization can direct emphasis to what it
    considers important.
  • Bonuses are particularly useful for tying rewards
    to accomplishment of objectives.
  • Disadvantages
  • It may be difficult to determine a formula for
    calculating bonus achievement if the objective is
    expressed in subjective terms.

50
Non-financial Compensation
  • Opportunity for Promotion
  • The ability to move up in an organization along
    one or more career paths
  • Sense of Accomplishment
  • The internal sense of satisfaction from
    successful performance

51
Non-financial Compensation
  • Opportunity for Personal Growth
  • Access to programs that allow for personal
    development (e.g., tuition reimbursement,
    leadership development seminars)
  • Recognition
  • The informal or formal acknowledgement of a
    desired accomplishment
  • Job Security
  • A sense of being a desired employee that comes
    from consistent exceptional performance

52
Understanding Reward Recognition
  • Definitions
  • A reward is an item or experience with monetary
    value that is provided for a desired behavior or
    performance, often with accompanying recognition
  • Recognition is a positive consequence provided to
    a person for a behavior or a result in the form
    of acknowledgement, approval or the expression of
    gratitude
  • Recognition is more of an activity or an
    association (a social or interpersonal activity)
    while a Reward is more of a thing (Money,
    Merchandise, Trophy, Travel etc)

53
Why Reward Recognise employees
  • By valuating and recognizing people, you harness
    the power of motivation, which is the single most
    powerful strategy used to promote performance and
    positive behaviors
  • Drives Stretch in Performance
  • Enhances aspirations and creates Motivation
  • Feeling Valued
  • Builds Self Esteem and sense of Belonging
  • Improves Individual Attitudes

54
Reward is a Right Recognition is a Gift..
  • Rewards at work
  • Direct Financial (pay)
  • Indirect Financial (benefits)
  • Work Content (work)
  • Careers (development)
  • Affiliation (feeling of belonging)
  • Study results Surprisingly, all 5 types of
    rewards were considered equally important.
  • Recognition
  • Praise
  • Time
  • Toys, Trophies Trinkets
  • Fun, Freedom Food
  • Small Money
  • Others
  • Common thread Genuine, positive, emotion

Gerald Ledford Jr. and Peter LeBlanc, World at
Work 9, no.3 (Q3 2000)1-11
55
What is Recognition?
  • Recognition is any thought, word, or deed
    towards making someone feel appreciated for who
    they are and recognized for what they do. 1
  • Recognition can be a strategic tool for shaping
    behavior and moving an organization in a desired
    direction. 2
  • Recognition is something a manager should be
    doing all the timeits a running dialogue with
    people. 3

1 Making Recognition a Daily Event by Roy
Saunderson, Recognition Management Institute 2 A
Culture of Recognition Building a System to
Celebrate Great Performance by Rhonda
Sunnarborg, BI Business Improvement Series 3 Ron
Zemke, Training magazine
56
Why Focus on Recognition?
  • Employees identify recognition as one of the most
    effective motivators1
  • Even small increases in supportive practices are
    associated with decreased turnover and increased
    sales/profitability2
  • Employees who feel that their organization values
    them are more likely to value their customers2
  • Appreciation and/or praise are among the top
    three drivers of employee motivation and
    engagement across a variety of industries and
    companies3

1 The Conference Board, 1999 HR Executive
Review Employee Recognition Programs 2
Pfeffer 2001 study 3 Hewitt Associates
57
Exercise
  • You are the HR Manager of an FMCG organisation
    which has 400 employees at their HO.
  • You have been asked to develop an RR program for
    your organisation to keep employees engaged and
    motivation levels high.
  • A separate budget would be provided for the RR
    activities.
  • You and you team has to design a program and
    present it to your leadership team.

58
Differentiation between Reward and Recognition
Reward
Monetary
A reward is given by an organization to value
something it already has or it ascribes a value
to a particular job / event
Feelings
Recognition
A recognition is just an expression of feeling.
It happens when a person is impacted by another
person and he / she expresses it openly
59
Diversity _at_ workplace
60
What is Diversity?
  • In simple terms, diversity is "otherness," or
    those human qualities that are different from our
    own and outside the groups in which we belong.
    There are various qualities that differentiate
    one individual from the next.

61
Elements of Diversity
  • Income
  • Education
  • Marital Status
  • Religious Beliefs
  • Geographic Location
  • Parental Status
  • Personality Type
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Ethnicity
  • Race
  • Physical Ability
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Physical Characteristics

62
  • Diversity
  • The uniqueness of all individuals includes
    everyone.

63
Principles of Diversity Management
  • Establish a business strategy for effectively
    managing a diverse workforce
  • Create a positive work environment
  • Promote personal and professional development
  • Empower all people to reach their full potential
  • Remove barriers that hinder progress
  • Ensure equal opportunities and prevent
    discrimination

64
Creating an Organization That Can Manage Diversity
  • Organizational vision
  • Top management commitment
  • Auditing and assessment of needs
  • Clarity of objectives
  • Clear accountability
  • Effective communication
  • Coordination of activity
  • Evaluation

65
Techniques for Managing Diversity
  • Managing diversity training programs
  • Core groups
  • Multicultural teams
  • Senior managers of diversity
  • Targeted recruitment and selection programs

66
Techniques for Managing Diversity
  • Compensation and reward programs tied to
    achieving diversity goals
  • Language training
  • Mentoring programs
  • Cultural advisory groups
  • Corporate social activities that celebrate
    diversity

67
Managing diversity effectively
  • Greater range of perspectives, ideas, and
    creativity.
  • Better problem definition, generation of
    alternatives, and decisions.
  • Greater potential of developing a high
    performance team.
  • Greater resilience in dealing with escalating
    demands.

68
Mismanaging diversity
  • Disrupts development of trust, constructive
    working relationships, arriving at consensus
    agreement.
  • Stereotyping of other members and sub grouping
    along cultural lines.
  • Misunderstanding and disruptive communication.
  • Low levels of efficiency, effectiveness
    productivity

69
Unintended Results of Managing Diversity
  • Programs that focus on encouraging certain groups
    may create feelings of unfairness or exclusion in
    others
  • Giving preferential treatment to certain groups
    may stigmatize their members
  • Increasing diversity without recognition and
    rewards for the new members can create
    organizational tension

70
Convergence or Divergence?
  • Increasing domestic multiculturalism
  • Increasing globalization of organizations
  • Homogeneous populations may see managing
    diversity as unimportant or irrelevant

71
Implications for Managers
  • Managing a diverse workforce is an important part
    of an international managers job
  • Must understand the impact of diversity and know
    how to utilize
  • Realize different cultures view diversity
    differently and consider impact on manager

72
Potential Benefits of an Effective Diversity
Management Program
  • Improve organizational performance
  • Help prevent unlawful discrimination or
    harassment incidents
  • Improve workplace relations
  • Build more effective work teams
  • Improve organizational problem solving
  • Improve customer service
  • Enhanced recruitment efforts

73
Making heads count is more important than
counting heads
74
Possible barriers in the organization that
prevent a more balanced workforce?
  • Limiting area of consideration
  • Lack of diversity at the senior ranks
  • Categorizing people into certain positions
  • Always recruiting from same source
  • Grooming/developing only one person

75
Strategies for Inclusion
76
The Value of Mentoring
  • Without regard to race, gender, religion,
    national origin .
  • Inconvenience yourself to show someone else the
    way
  • Unleash someone elses potential

77
Professional Development
  • Identify training and development needs for all
    employees
  • Utilize Individual Development Plans
  • Rotational Developmental Assignments
  • Rotate acting supervisor

78
  • Diversity management is about full utilization of
    people with different backgrounds and
    experiences.
  • Effective diversity management strategy has a
    positive effect on cost reduction, creativity,
    problem solving, and organizational flexibility

79
Human Resource Audit
80
How is Human Resource Analysis Done?
  • Human Resource Audit
  • Purpose
  • To identify the size, skills and structure
    surrounding current employees and
  • to identify future human resource needs of the
    organization
  • Question Answered
  • Are the human resources a strength or a
    weakness?

81
The Audit Principles
  • Obtain some basic information on the people and
    policies involved in the organization
  • Explore in detail the role and contribution of
    the human resources management function in the
    development of strategy

82
The Audit Contents
  • People in the Organization
  • Role and Contribution of HR strategy

83
HR Audit People in the organization
  • Employee numbers and turnover
  • Organization structure
  • Structures for controlling the
  • organization
  • Use of special teams, e.g. for
  • Innovation
  • Level of skills and capabilities
  • required
  • Morale and rewards
  • Employee and industrial
  • relations
  • Selection, training and development
  • Staffing levels
  • Capital investment/employee
  • Role of quality and personal service
  • in delivering the products or services
  • of the organization
  • Role of professional advice in
  • delivering the product or service

84
Role Contribution of HR Strategy
  • Relationship with strategy
  • Key characteristics of HR strategy
  • Consistency of strategy across different levels
  • Responsiveness of HR strategy in leading change
    in the organization
  • Role of HR strategy in leading change in the
    organization
  • Monitoring and review of HR strategy
  • Time horizon for operation of HR strategy

85
What the Audit Achieves
  • Provides information that is useful in deciding
    how feasible a strategy is
  • Identifies any human resource gaps (human
    resources necessary for a proposed strategy minus
    the current state of human resources)
  • Allows the organization to benchmark their
    performance against other organizations
    (benchmark is a process of comparison)

86
Human Resources as a CSF
  • Critical Success Factor (CSF) a reason why one
    organization is superior to another
  • HR can be a CSF if employees have unique skills

87
Coaching and Mentoring
88
Coaching and Mentoring
  • These definitions indicate some overlap and some
    differences between Mentoring and Coaching.
    Mentoring is often seen as a longer term process,
    for example offering support during a career
    change such as induction or becoming a senior
    manager.

89
Mentoring
  • Mentoring is usually concerned with supporting
    practitioners whilst they make a significant
    career transition.
  • Mentoring in intended to be supportive of the
    individual and occurs at need. Here the
    emphasis is on ready and confidential access to a
    critical friend who can be used as a sounding
    board and who offers a free form of advice.

90
Coaching
  • Coaching is normally used to support the process
    of reviewing established or emerging practices.
    It is focused on innovation, change or specific
    skills.
  • Coaching is conceived as a more structured
    learning process aimed at explicit professional
    development in an agreed area of performance.

91
Activities involved in mentoring and coaching and
their overlap
92
The learner (the personal dimension)
If writers are more aware of their own writing
processes and what helps and hinders their
writing then they are more likely both to become
more confident writers and are able to support
others in their writing too. The same principles
apply to leaders and managers. The Mentor/Coach
needs to be aware of the ways in which
Mentees/Coachees can focus on themselves as
learners.
93
The learning (the transformational dimension)
  • In Mentoring and Coaching transformation or
    change comes about through the learning
    conversation. The conversation enables the
    process of Mentoring/Coaching in which there
    needs to be an explicit focus on learning.
    Dennison and Kirks cycle of learning (1990) is
    useful for this purpose.

This model can be applied to developing leaders
and managers ie understanding themselves before
understanding others!
94
What Mentoring and Coaching is not
  • Mentoring and Coaching is not counseling
    although some counseling skills may be used by
    the Mentor/Coach. Learning conversations do not
    focus on personal problems.
  • Neither is the learning conversation therapy
    although the outcome of the conversation may
    leave the person feeling up-lifted and may feel
    their emotions have changed. But learning is
    always the focus.

95
Competency Modeling
96
Competency
  • It is derived from the Latin word Competere,
    which means to be suitable.
  • The concept was originally developed in
    Psychology denoting Individuals ability to
    respond to demand placed on them by the
    environment.
  • Any underlying characteristic required performing
    a given task, activity, or role successfully can
    be considered as competency.

97
Competencies defined
  • A collection of characteristics (i.e. skills,
    knowledge and self-concept, traits, behaviour,
    motivation, etc.), that enables us to
    successfully complete a given task.

Knowledge
Skills
Self-concept (Attitude)
98
Iceberg Model of Competencies
  • Skills a learned ability
  • Knowledge acquiring information in a particular
    field
  • Self-Image attitudes and values
  • Traits why and how we behave a certain way
  • Motives what drives us, i.e., the need to seek
    achievement, power/influence, affliliation

99
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100
Competencies in the Corporate World
  • Communication without offending others
  • Critical Thinking Seeing the Big picture
  • Ethics / Social Responsibility Ethical
    behaviour
  • Information Technology creativity optimization
  • Interpersonal Diversity Being non-judgmental
  • Leadership
  • Managing Change
  • Self-managed Learning self motivated
  • Teamwork collaboration impact of self
  • Technical know-how

101
Emotional Competency Framework
from Working With Emotional Intelligence, by
Daniel Goleman
102
Competency Classification
103
Why use competencies
  • Competencies
  • help individuals and organisations to improve
    their performance and deliver results
  • can be quantified and communicated
  • can be taught, learned, measured and monitored

104
Benefits of competency-modeling
  • Integrates fragmented management and practices
  • Links individual or group performance to
    strategic direction
  • Helps develop high value activities for the
    organisation
  • Focusing on what people do, not what they are
  • Leads to organisational flexibility and stability
  • Leads to competitive advantage
  • Is participatory and involving
  • Is objective therefore, can be geared to
    possible change in business future and to ensure
    relevance

105
Benefits of competency-modeling HR Delivery
  • Matching of Individuals and Jobs
  • Employee Selection
  • Training and Development
  • Professional and Personal Development
  • Performance Measurement
  • Succession Planning

106
Who Identifies competencies?
  • Competencies can be identified by one of more of
    the following category of people
  • Experts
  • HR Specialists
  • Job analysts
  • Psychologists
  • Industrial Engineers etc.
  • in consultation with Line Managers, Current
    Past Role holders, Supervising Seniors, Reporting
    and Reviewing Officers, Internal Customers,
    Subordinates of the role holders and Other role
    set members of the role (those who have
    expectations from the role holder and who
    interact with him/her).

107
What Methodology is used?
  • The following methods are used in combination for
    competency mapping
  • Interviews
  • Group work
  • Task Forces
  • Task Analysis workshops
  • Questionnaire
  • Use of Job descriptions
  • Performance Appraisal Formats etc.

108
How are they Identified?
  • The process of identification is not very
    complex. One of the methods is given below
  • 1. Simply ask each person who is currently
    performing the role to list the tasks to be
    performed by him one by one, and identify the
    Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills required to
    perform each of these.
  • Consolidate the list.
  • Present it to a role set group or a special task
    force constituted for that role.
  • Edit and Finalize.

109
What Language to Use?
  • Use Technical language for technical
    competencies. For example knowledge of
    hydraulics.
  • Use business language for business competencies.
    Example Knowledge of markets for watch business
    or Strategic thinking.
  • Use your own language or standard terms for
    Behavior competencies. Example Ability to
    Negotiate, Interpersonal sensitivity, Sales
    techniques. Too technical and conceptual
    knowledge align to the organization and people
    may create more problems than help

110
Assessment Centers
111
Assessment Centre
  • Assessment centers typically involve the
    participants completing a range of exercises
    which simulate the activities carried out in the
    target job.
  • Various combinations of these exercises and
    sometimes other assessment methods like
    psychometric testing and interviews are used to
    assess particular competencies in individuals.

112
  • The theory behind this is that if one wishes to
    predict future job performance then the best way
    of doing this is to get the individual to carry
    out a set of tasks which accurately sample those
    required in the job and are as similar to them as
    possible.
  • The particular competencies used will depend upon
    the target job but one will often find
    competencies such as relating to people
    resistance to stress planning and organising
    motivation adaptability and flexibility problem
    solving leadership communication decision
    making and initiative.

113
AC Vs DC
  • Assessment centres usually
  • have a pass/fail criteria
  • are geared towards filing a job vacancy
  • address an immediate organisational need
  • have fewer assessors and more participants
  • involve line managers as assessors
  • have less emphasis placed on self-assessment
  • focus on what the candidate can do now
  • are geared to meet the needs of the organisation
  • assign the role of judge to assessors
  • place emphasis on selection with little or no
    developmental feedback and follow up
  • give feedback at a later date
  • involve the organisation having control over the
    information obtained
  • have very little pre-centre briefing
  • tend to be used with external candidates
  • Development centres usually
  • do not have a pass/fail criteria
  • are geared towards developing the individual
  • address a longer term need
  • have a 11 ratio of assessor to participant
  • do not have line managers as assessors
  • have a greater emphasis placed on self-assessment
  • focus on potential
  • are geared to meet needs of the individual as
    well as the organisation
  • assign the role of facilitator to assessors
  • place emphasis on developmental feedback and
    follow up with little or no selection function
  • give feedback immediately
  • involve the individual having control over the
    information obtained
  • have a substantial pre-centre briefing
  • tend to be used with internal candidates

114
Types of Exercises
  • Group Discussions
  • In these, candidates are brought together as a
    committee or project team with one or a number of
    items to make a recommendation on. Candidates may
    be assigned specific roles to play in the group
    or it may be structured in such a way that all
    the candidates have the same basic information.
    With this type of exercise, and in common with
    other types of exercise, it is of great benefit
    to ensure that you understand and follow the
    instructions for the exercise.

115
Types of Exercises
  • In Tray
  • This type of exercise is normally undertaken by
    candidates individually. The materials comprise a
    bundle of correspondence and the candidate is
    placed in the role of somebody, generally, who
    assumed a new position or replaced their
    predecessor at short notice and have been asked
    to deal with their accumulated correspondence.
    Generally the only evidence that the assessors
    have to work with are the annotations which the
    candidates have made on the articles of mail. It
    is important when undertaking such an exercise to
    make sure that the items are not just dealt with,
    but that clearly mark on the items any thoughts
    that you have about them or any other actions
    that you would wish to put in train.

116
Interview Simulations / Role Plays
  • In these exercises candidates meet individually
    with a role player or resource person.
  • Their brief is either to gather information to
    form a view and make a decision, or
    alternatively, to engage in discussion with the
    resource person to come to a resolution on an
    aspect or issue of dispute.
  • Typically, candidates will be allowed 15 -30
    minutes to prepare for such a meeting and will be
    given a short, general brief on the objective for
    the meeting.
  • In undertaking such an exercise you should
    consider carefully how you want to spend the time
    in the meeting and plan accordingly. Although the
    assessment is made mainly on the conduct of the
    meeting itself, consideration will also be given
    to preparatory notes, thus it is useful for any
    meeting plan or objectives that you set yourself
    for the meeting to be clearly set out in your
    preparatory notes.

117
Case Studies / Analysis Exercises
  • In this type of exercise the candidate is
    presented with the task of making a decision
    about a particular business case. They are
    provided with a large amount of factual
    information which is generally ambiguous and, in
    some cases, contradictory.
  • Candidates generally work independently on such
    an exercise and their recommendation or decision
    is usually to be communicated in the form of a
    brief written report and/or a presentation made
    to the assessors. As with the other exercises it
    is important with this kind of exercise to ensure
    that your thought processes are clearly
    articulated and available for the scrutiny of the
    assessors. Of paramount importance, if the brief
    requires a decision to be made, ensure that a
    decision is made and articulated.

118
  • The above is meant as an illustrated list of the
    types of exercises that may be encountered in an
    assessment centre. Variations and permutations
    are almost infinite.
  • It is, however, worth remembering that there is a
    large body of academic research which suggests
    that the assessment centre is probably one of the
    most valid predictors of performance in a job
    and, if correctly structured, is probably one of
    the fairest and most objective means of gathering
    information upon which a selection decision can
    be based. From the candidate's perspective it is
    important to be natural and to be oneself when
    faced with an assessment centre, remembering
    always that you can only be assessed on what you
    have done and what the assessors can observe

119
Exercise categorisation
  • Level 1 Administrative - suitable for a wide
    range of roles including secretarial and
    clerical staff, call centre staff, frontline
    customer service roles
  • Level 2 Graduate - ideal for roles where there
    is no requirement for significant organisational
    experience
  • Level 3 First line manager - primarily for new
    or junior managers, or managers with little
    experience of people management
  • Level 4 Middle manager - for experienced
    managers, including familiarity with people
    management
  • Level 5 Executive - targeted at senior managers
    with significant experience

120
Design an Assessment Centre
  • Design of an assessment centre should reflect
  • the ethos of the organisation
  • the actual skills required to carry out the job
  • potential sources of recruits
  • the extent to which recruitment is devolved to
    line managers
  • the HR strategy.

121
Design Criteria
  • The essential design criteria should include
  • duration of the centre (one day might be
    insufficient for more senior posts)
  • location (reality or ideal surroundings and
    accessibility for candidates with disabilities)
  • number of candidates brought together (five may
    be too few for comfort under observation and more
    than eight gives problems in sharing the assessed
    time)
  • candidate background and comparability of past
    experience
  • number, mix, and experience of assessors.

122
Design Criteria
  • Essential and desired skills /competencies to be
    matched to the techniques and tasks which test
    them
  • Group exercises should be as real as possible
  • The tasks might need to encourage competitiveness
    /collaboration

123
Observers
  • There should be a number of senior
    observers/selectors to ensure greater objectivity
    through a range of views.
  • Selectors must be trained to observe, record,
    classify and rate behaviour and seek evidence
    accurately and objectively against the job
    description and person specification.
  • Selectors preferably should also have had some
    training on interviewing skills and in managing
    diversity, and have good listening skills.
  • Assessors might also be used to observe and
    comment on behaviour although they do not
    necessarlity take part in final selection
    decisions

124
Performance Management
125
Objective Setting
  • An objective is a simple statement of an end
    result to be achieved within a specified time
    frame.
  • It should be short, clear and specific.
  • It can also be in the form of an activity as it
    may not always be possible to quantify the end
    results.

126
Why Objective setting ?
  • Gives direction to job.
  • Helps focus on important job areas.
  • Assists review and change in job emphasis.
  • Provides a basis for appraisal, counselling and
    feedback.
  • Increases mutual job understanding with superior.

127
Objectives
  • Are significantly important areas of job.
  • When performed well, improves overall results.
  • Are maximum payoff job areas.
  • Represent the work which account for 80 of
    results.

128
Objectives
  • Targets are specific conditions to be
    achieved/indicates how much of what and by when
  • Activities action steps which lead to the end
    results / used when targets are not quantifiable
    / indicate what by when

129
Process of goal setting
  • What is the job ?
  • What are the end results expected ?
  • What policies / procedures / work methods are
    impeding performance ?
  • What changes are needed for better results ?
  • How can work assignments be regrouped/altered to
    improve schedule ?
  • What problems need to be overcome next year ?

130
Objectives v/s Targets
  • Focus on imp. Areas
  • Related to job description
  • Signposts
  • Direction of work
  • Optimum number 6
  • Measures imp. Results
  • Related to objectives
  • Milestones/Pathways
  • Specific condition
  • One or more for each objective

131
Criteria for objectives
  • Observable
  • Basis for appraisal
  • Jointly evolved
  • Extra effort
  • Clear/consistent with dept. objective
  • Time bound
  • Initiative
  • Verifiable
  • End result- emphasis on
  • Satisfying

132
Objectives should be
  • S - Specific
  • M - Measurable
  • A - Attainable
  • R - Relevant
  • T - Time-bound

133
Process
  • Establishing specific goals to support stated
    purpose.
  • Determining the importance of these goals.
  • Making plans for action.
  • Arriving at performance standards and measurement
    criteria.
  • Stating anticipated problems.

134
Process..
  • Weighing the resources required to carry out the
    planned action.
  • Providing for interaction of organization and
    individual goals.
  • Following up with actual performance measurement
    and evaluation.

135
HRs role in Performance Management
  • Delivering time-lines
  • Ensuring timely adherence
  • Auditing the objectives jointly with line
    managers
  • Ensuring objectives are in line with
    organisational goals
  • Requesting modification if required

136
Thank you
137
High Performance Organizations
  • High Performance Organizations
  • Multi-skilled team players
  • Dispersed
  • Open
  • Realistic job interviews
  • Continuous learning
  • Performance-based pay
  • Enriched jobs
  • Flat, flexible hierarchies
  • Self-contained businesses
  • Promote involvement
  • Innovation and cooperation
  • TraditionalOrganizations
  • Narrow expertise
  • Rugged individuals
  • Centralized
  • Closed
  • Standardized selection
  • Routine training
  • Job-based pay
  • Narrow, repetitive jobs
  • Tall rigid hierarchies
  • Functional departments
  • Promote compliance
  • Routine behaviors
  • Design
  • Components
  • People
  • Decision Systems
  • Human Resources
  • Structure
  • Values Culture
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