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Texas Governor Overview Paper Toothless Tiger?


Paper Toothless Tiger? Texas Qualifications US citizen 30 years of age. Average age is 47. (Clinton elected at 32). 31 states have minimum age of 18. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Texas Governor Overview Paper Toothless Tiger?

Texas Governor OverviewPaper Toothless Tiger?
  • Texas Qualifications
  • US citizen
  • 30 years of age. Average age is 47. (Clinton
    elected at 32). 31 states have minimum age of
  • Texas resident for 5 years

Best source of information
  • How to get most current comparative state
    governors information?
  • http//www.csg.org/policy/publications/bookofthest

Terms of Office
  • Originally elected 2 years with no limit
  • Only New Hampshire and Vermont retain 2 yr terms
  • Since 1974 in Texas, 4 year terms with no
  • 48 states use this model

  • State authorizes 150,000. Lowest paid among top
    Texas state bureaucrats.
  • What state bureaucrats paid more? Who paid 5.1
    million as of 2009? UT Mack Brown.
  • Mansion, limo, state trooper protection, and an
  • 2008 California gov earns 212,179/year for the
    most and Maine pays 70,000 the least.
  • http//www.nytimes.com/2012/02/26/us/politics/perr

  • Lt. Governor, President Pro Tem, Speaker,
    Attorney General.
  • Then Presiding Judge Court of Criminal Appeals.

  • By impeachment or election defeat. Jim Ferguson
    in Texas Republican Evan Mecham of Arizona
    (unreported 350,000 loan theft to fund car
    dealership). Only 7 governors lost office
    through impeachment in history. Only Oregon does
    not permit impeachment.
  • 18 states allow recall elections to remove the
    governor (not Texas).
  • Lt. Governor is acting governor when governor is
    out of the state.

Joseph Schlesinger Study
  • Among appointment, budgeting, tenure, and veto
  • Texas governor ranks LAST among the 50 state
  • The Thad Beyle study ranks the Texas governor as
    moderately weak just above only Alabama,
    Arizona, Georgia, North Carolina, Rhode Island
    Vermont. Others consider Texas governor in
    weakest bottom 1/3 of all governors.
  • Bottom line the Texas governor is WEAK.

Chief legislator
  • Governors power to initiate his/her legislative
  • Persuasion.
  • Governor send bills to legislature.
  • Call special sessions
  • Veto (all can except North Carolina governor)

Governors Action on Bill
  • When Legislature in session, Texas governor has
    10 days to act.
  • If signs or does not sign bill (no pocket veto),
    it is registered with Secretary of State as law.
  • Bill becomes law 90 days after the session ...
    unless it is an emergency or appropriation bill.

Veto Power
  • Veto is governors major bargaining power with a
  • North Dakota law Any governor who menaces a
    legislator with the threat of a veto is guilty of
    a crime!

Veto by Texas Governor...
  • If governor vetoes when Legislature in session,
    governor sends bill message to the House of
  • Texas Legislature must obtain 2/3s vote (100
    House/21 Senate) to over-ride in both houses.

Veto by Texas Governor...
  • 2001 Gov. Perry vetoed record 82 on 6/17 last
    day. Of 60, 45 were Democrat bills. Never
    warned Members he had a problem with bill caused
  • 1999 Gov. Bush vetoed 37
  • 1969 Gov. Preston Smith vetoed previous record 67.

Veto by Governors
  • 6 state legislatures need only a majority to
    over-ride. (Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Kentucky,
    Tennessee, West Virginia).
  • 5 require slightly higher with 3/5 majority.
    (Illinois, Maryland, Nebraska, Ohio, Rhode

Veto by Governors
  • 38 require highest 2/3 standard to over-ride,
    including Texas.
  • When Texas Legislature goes out of session, the
    Governor has 20 days to veto.
  • Over-ride proof since Legislature not in

Item Veto
  • Governor can item veto only appropriations bill.
  • UTA library budget 4,560,169

Item Veto
  • 42 states including Texas have item veto.
  • Weapon against opposition
  • Counterattack governor by packing a line.
  • Consider school meal program ( children of
    poverty get 2 free meal v subsidized .40 for
    those near poverty level) see http//www.burntoran
    ool-lunches-increasing-in-texas and
  • Republicans gave it to Clinton then went to court
    to take it back! Ruled unconstitutional!

Veto Reforms
  • Item reduction (11 states)
  • Executive agreement (15 states).
  • Allows suspension of 10 day rule to return bill
    veto message to the Legislature to encourage

Chief Administrator Role
  • How well can the governor direct supervise
    manage a states bureaucracy?
  • Powers restricted by law
  • Texas does not have a cabinet style of government
    that reports to the governor.

Chief Administrator Role
  • Some 240 Texas state agencies with roles such as
  • education, prisons, criminal justice, business
    regulation likes banks barbers, medical,
    highways, parks wildlife, oil, taxing
    borrowing, agriculture.
  • Without strong leadership, most are captive of
    interests they serve.

Chief Administrator Role
  • Most Texas state agencies supervised by
    bureaucratic boards commissions. Most
    part-time unpaid positions.
  • Board members commissioners serve 6 year
    staggered terms 1/3 appointed every 2 years.
  • Industry interest groups want one of own
    appointed to oversee self.
  • Nominated by governor when there is a vacancy
    confirmed by the Senate.

Chief Administrator Role
  • Plural executive system.
  • Texas agencies elected statewide.
  • Lt. Governor, attorney general, comptroller,
    agriculture commissioner, land commissioner, 15
    members of Board of Education 3 railroad
  • All Texas state judges are elected.

Governor Supervises Few
  • Governors budget criminal justice staff
    (grants) Secretary of State elections Federal
    State Office in DC National Guard part-time
    according to Federal law Military Base Closure
    Commission Film Commission Music Office
    Economic Development Commission for Women
    Workforce Council.

Why Fragmentation?
  • Civil War
  • Assassination of Lincoln
  • President Johnson Radical Republican Congress
  • Reconstruction
  • E.J. Davis Union Army in Texas
  • Presidential Election of 1876
  • Throw election to Hayes in exchange for GOP
    pledge to pull Federal troops out of South
    permit return of white supremacist rule.

Chief Administrator Role
  • Appointive powers limited. Texas governor weakest
    of all 50 governors! Last!
  • Senatorial courtesy power allows one to block
    governors nominee.
  • Need for Senate to approve nominees by 2/3 vote.
  • Story about Gov. Perry difficulties
  • http//blogs.chron.com/texaspolitics/archives/2011

Chief Administrator Role
  • Board member removal powers limited.
  • Can remove members of govs office few other
    minor administrators.
  • Texas governor can remove only his own appointees
    by 2/3 vote of Senate for cause only" involving
    clear charges in open hearings. Impossible to
    remove for policy differences. Govs seek to
    avoid unpleasant controversy that point out
  • Cannot issue orders to agencies or remove state
    employees for not obeying wishes.

Chief Administrator Role
  • Ripper bill" abolishes office or agency.
  • Clements bill failed attempt to abolish
    Agriculture Dept.
  • Another Clements bill took away chemical
    regulation from Agriculture Dept.
  • Created separate Agriculture Resources Protection
    Authority appointed chemical industry reps.
    Othal Brand.

Chief Administrator Role
  • Patronage decline
  • Was major power to reward party work.
  • Now 75 of all jobs covered by civil service.
  • Cannot fire for political reasons.
  • Civil service required when administering federal
    programs like welfare health care.

Chief Administrator Role
  • Unionization
  • 1/2 of gov't employees belong. AFSCME is largest.
  • Collective bargaining agreements restrict
    governor and his authority over safety, salaries,
    benefits, grievances, dismissals, layoffs.
  • American pilots want 8 hour duty day, instead of
    16. Safety issue. Also angry that management
    cuts their pay to help company but gives itself
    millions in bonuses.

Judicial Role
  • 30 day stay of execution
  • Pardons on recommendation of the parole board.
  • Full pardon
  • Conditional pardon
  • Commute death sentence to life.
  • Extradition

Military Power
  • Governor is Commander in Chief of state
    adjutant generals office.
  • Headed by adjutant 1 or 2 or 3 star Army or Air
    Force general.
  • 2/1/2007 Lieutenant General Charles G. Rodriguez
    is the Adjutant General for the State of Texas.
    Term ends 2/1/2009.
  • Texas National Guard (Texas Army Air National
    Guard). The militia! Civilian weekend a month
    warriors now changing.

Military Power
  • Voters rejected 11/99 amendment (HJR95) to give
    Bush power to appoint replace the adjutant at
    the governors pleasure.
  • Adjutant two year term ending 2/1 of odd years.
    Cannot remove without a trial or with consent of
    2/3 Senate.

Military Power
  • Created by Militia Act 1903 by Congress who
    regulates use training standards.
  • President is Commander in Chief, followed by
    Joint Chief of Staff.
  • State implements federal law. Governor allowed
    to use Guard during emergency disasters civil

Texas State Guard
  • The Texas State Guard is a Volunteer State
    Military Force which assists and augments Texas
    Civil Authorities in times of Texas State
    Emergencies and in On-Going Support of Local
    Communities. The Texas State Guard consists of 6
    Regiments, The Texas State Guard Air Wing, The
    Medical Reserve Corps, and the Naval Regiment.
    These volunteers, similar to not for profit
    organizations, receive no compensation for their
    time just the satisfaction from helping others
    in need.

Budget Role
  • Budget is the most important document. Policy
  • Budget-making process.
  • In Texas the Legislature is in control with LBB.
  • Governor submits his budget but is not respected.
    LBB used. Texas governor ranks LAST in budget
    powers among other 49 governors.

Budget Role
  • Governors want balanced budget, but at higher
    amount. Legislators approve-blame governor.
  • Agencies always want more threaten to shut down
    Washington Monument.

Budget Role
  • Inadequate bureaucratic oversight in Texas.
  • Governor is not the supervisor.
  • Legislature only in session every 2 years.
  • Texas prison system request for prisons but
    bought potato warehouse instead.

Budget Role
  • Legislative ear-marking revenue limits governors
  • Gasoline taxes used only for highway
  • Good Roads Association lobbies to keep it that
  • http//www.texaswatchdog.org/2011/02/texas-taxpaye

Budget Role
  • Governor has uncontrollable budget problems.
  • Campaign on increased service lower taxes.
  • But impossible once in office because of reality
    uncontrollable expenses
  • Like surprise education prison funding mandates.

Party Leader
  • Governor office carries prestige
  • Use governors political resources (deny
  • Governor has coattails if liked.
  • Can hurt candidates if do not support governor

Ceremonial Leader
  • Ribbon cuttings
  • Voters emotional ties to state governor not
    same as nation President of the US.

Chief negotiator
  • Negotiates with others in system at national,
    state local government levels, as well as with
  • Make sure state gets fair share.

Opinion Leader
  • Comments make news
  • Frequent media attention
  • Governor will be heard

Crisis Leader
  • Performance in state disasters, like
  • Floods
  • Tornadoes
  • Earthquakes
  • Hurricanes
  • Civil unrest
  • Competent reaction brings popularity. The
    opposite brings defeat.

Governors Campaigns
  • Competition for job is strong in both parties.
  • Economy not as much a factor in state elections
    like national elections.
  • Can have significant governor coattails.
  • Qualities needed positive personal qualities,
    popular issues, political organization, campaign
    funds, campaign skills.

Governors Campaigns
  • Re-election usually 75 successful depend on
  • Intra-party splits
  • Raising taxes. 20 are defeated who advocate
  • Scandals
  • Administrative incompetence, race bigotry,
    environmental issues.

Governors Campaigns
  • 17 governors have become President!
  • Professional governor campaigns
  • Need themes like with Bob Graham - "working "
  • Should spend 3-43 per vote. In 2002 Sanchez
    (D) spent 67.2 million Perry (R) spent 29.9
    million. NY governor race cost 147 million.
  • Cannot mount serious campaign without own money
    or others' money!
  • Heavier spending wins 2 out of 3 times. Personal

Governor Reforms
  • 4 year terms/no limits on terms.
  • Eliminate board members commissioners as heads
    of executive agencies.
  • Consolidate all state agencies into larger
    fewer departments reporting directly to the
    governor (Cabinet).
  • Convert statewide elected executives into those
    appointed by the Governor confirmed by Senate.

Governor Reforms
  • Centralize the budget-making proposal process
    in governors office. Budget decisions remain
    with legislature, signed or vetoed by governor.
  • Opposition to reform will come from political
    parties interest groups. Why?
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