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Reading Strategies by Carol Nichols/Metropolitan State College of Denver,


Reading Strategies by Carol Nichols/Metropolitan State College of Denver, Background and Cueing Systems, Part I CONTEXT Context in reading printed ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reading Strategies by Carol Nichols/Metropolitan State College of Denver,

Reading Strategies by Carol Nichols/Metropolitan
State College of Denver,
  • Background and Cueing Systems, Part I

  • Context in reading printed text is the
    surrounding words and the readers background
    experiences which fix the meaning of the word in
  • Example The meaning of the word run is
    determined by the words that surround it (the
    context). The meaning is fixed by the other
    words. As the other words (the context) change,
    the meaning of run changes. Spot is in the dog
    RUN. She has a RUN in her nylons. Will he RUN
    for office? RUN to the store for me.

  • CONTEXT One of the major props readers use to
    make predictions.
  • The use of syntax and semantics is based on the
    readers ability to use context.
  • i.e. The readers ability to predict what
    grammatical structure (syntax) is likely to come
    next in the text and his ability to predict what
    is likely to happen (what makes sense to happen
    next) are based on his ability to use context

  • Using syntax is using surrounding words and your
    own language background to predict what word
    would be grammatically acceptable. (Predicting
    what word would sound right using surrounding
  • EXAMPLE He saw a _____ in the tree. Using
    syntactic background and context, it can be
    predicted that a NOUN would be grammatically
    acceptable in this sentence. A noun would sound

Use of Syntactic Context Clues
  • Using syntactic context clues, we know that a
    noun would be grammatically acceptable (would
    sound right) in the example sentence.
  • Any noun predicted would be grammatically
    acceptable, but not all nouns would make sense.
    To predict a noun that makes sense the reader
    needs to use SEMANTIC CONTEXT CLUES.

  • Using surrounding words and the experiences of
    the reader, predictions can be made as to what
    word has the right meaning, or makes sense in
    the sentence.
  • Example He saw a _____ in the tree. Using
    syntax we predicted that a noun would sound
    right. Using semantics we can decide on
    specific nouns that makes sense.

  • When the reader uses semantic context clues to
    predict a word, he is using surrounding words and
    his own background experiences to predict a word
    that makes sense or has the right meaning.

Syntactic and semantic context clues are used
  • A word can be syntactically acceptable but
    semantically unacceptable. Example He saw a
    car in the tree. Car is a noun so it is
    syntactically acceptable. However, car doesnt
    make sense, so it is semantically unacceptable.
    Nouns such as desk, car, and horse would
    all be syntactically acceptable but semantically

Syntactic and semantic context are CUEING SYSTEMS.
  • The reader is using surrounding words to CUE
    him as to what a word is. The reader is using
    these two system to get hints as to what word
    he should predict.
  • Therefore, some texts will refer to these systems
    in the following way syntactic cueing system
    and semantic cueing system.

  • A third cueing system is called GRAPHOPHONICS.
  • To use this cueing system the reader must know
    letter/sound relationships. The reader must know
    what sound the printed letters represent.
    EXAMPLE The reader must know that the letter
    b can represent the sound buh.

Using all three cueing systems
  • In the sample sentence, He saw a ___ in the
    tree., the reader could predict bird, nest,
    or kite. All are nouns (syntax) and all make
    sense (semantics). The reader must now use
    graphophonics to determine which word is the
    correct word. The reader can use the first
    letter of the word to see if the first sound of
    the print word is the same as the first sound of
    the word he is predicting.

The three cueing systems used by readers are
  • Syntactic cueing system
  • Semantic cueing system
  • Graphophonic cueing system

Review before going on to Part II.
  • What elements determine the meaning of a word?
  • What is syntax?
  • What is semantics?
  • What is graphophonics?
  • Why are they called cueing systems?
  • Can a miscue be syntactically acceptable and
    semantically unacceptable? Explain.

Reading Strategies, Part II
  • Strategies
  • Sampling
  • Predicting
  • Confirming
  • Self Correcting

  • As good readers read, they are using a variety of
    strategies or plans to get meaning from the
    printed text. They are getting information about
    the meaning of the print by using the the cueing
  • The ways the cueing systems are actually used are
    called STRATEGIES. The major strategies (in
    teachers language) are the following sampling,
    predicting, confirming, and self-correcting.

  • The reader searches for, finds, and uses some
    significant printed features of the text. These
    features could be some letters or some instantly
    recognized words.

Sampling continued
  • Many times the beginning letter (or letters) of
    the word is/are sampled. The reader looks at the
    beginning letter and puts a sound to the letter
    (graphophonics). Using this letter sound plus
    syntactic and semantic context clues can enable a
    reader to predict the word in print.

  • Based on the sound of the letter(s) sampled
    (graphophonics), on syntactic and semantic
    context clues, and on background experience, the
    reader guesses or predicts what will come next in
    the print.

  • To confirm, the reader must be aware of how
    correct the prediction was. Did the word
    predicted sound right and make sense? Did it
    start with a letter sound that matches the sound
    of the printed letter at the beginning of the
  • Further sampling will let the reader know if the
    prediction resulted in meaning or not.

Self Correcting
  • If the reader found that his prediction did not
    result in establishing meaning, further searching
    and sampling is needed.
  • If the word predicted did not result in the
    construction of meaning, the reader must be aware
    that this happened.

The wording of the strategies
  • In this part of Reading Strategies you learned
    the names of the strategies. The wording used
    was teacher-language.
  • A young student would not benefit too much from a
    teacher saying, When you are reading, be sure to
    sample. The strategies need to be reworded so
    they are in the form a child would understand.
  • They also need to be worded in a way that tells
    the student specifically what needs to be done to
    use the strategy. This will be covered in Part

Review before going on to Part III.
  • In your own words, define each of the following
  • Sampling
  • Predicting
  • Confirming
  • Self correcting
  • Why do the strategies need to be worded in kid

Reading Strategies, Part III
  • Miscues
  • Fix-up knowledge
  • Rewording strategies to make them specific
    directives as to
  • HOW to predict an unknown word
  • HOW to fix-up a miscue

  • When a reader uses one or more of the cueing
    systems incorrectly or neglects to use a cueing
    system, a MISCUE (error) can result.

Making Miscues
  • All readers, even proficient readers such as
    classroom teachers, make miscues. However, the
    mature reader will self-correct when an
    unacceptable miscue is made.
  • Proficient readers tend to make miscues which are
    syntactically and semantically acceptable.

Miscues made by proficient readers
  • An example of this can be shown with the
    following example. A proficient reader read a
    sentence that said, The pupils went out to
    recess. The reader read the sentence, The
    students went out to recess. There was a miscue
    on the word pupils but the miscue was
    syntactically and semantically acceptable.

Fix-up knowledge
  • When miscues are semantically unacceptable,
    meaning is disrupted and the reader must know
    what to do to fix up predictions which were not
  • The reader must have the STRATEGIES necessary to
    fix up his reading so that meaning can be
  • All readers make miscues,
  • even advanced, mature

Strategies in kid language
  • The teacher must teach strategies which the
    student can use to fix-up miscues. The
    strategies need to be worded so the student will
    understand exactly what procedure can be followed
    in using the strategy.

Use of Kid Language continued
  • For example instead of telling the young child to
    sample the beginning of the word, the teacher
    could say, Look at the letter at the beginning
    of the word. Get your mouth ready to make the
    sound of that letter. This tells the student
    exactly what can be done to try to predict the

Less proficient readers and miscues
  • Less proficient readers are not always aware of
    the results of their own reading. They do not
    appear to self monitor as much as more proficient
  • Some less proficient readers are not able to fix
    up miscues in order to establish meaning because
    they are not aware of or able to use the fix-up
  • Less proficient readers will make more
    syntactically and semantically unacceptable
    miscues than proficient readers.

Responsibilities of the Teacher
  • Assess for the ability to use the cueing systems
    (syntactic, semantic, and graphophonic). Miscue
    analysis and running records can be used.
  • Assess for the ability to use strategies.
  • Strengthen weak areas.

Review before going on to Part IV.
  • What is a miscue? What causes it to happen?
  • Do proficient readers make miscues? Explain.
  • Why do you think less proficient readers make
    more syntactically and semantically unacceptable
  • When wording a strategy for a student to follow,
    what must you do with the wording of the

Reading Strategies, Part IV
  • Teaching the strategies
  • Posters using picture icons
  • Modeling by the teacher
  • Questioning by the teacher
  • Reminding students to use specific, appropriate
    strategies during guided reading (teaching

What are the reading strategies readers can use
to fix up miscues? These are worded in kid
  • Teach the student that if they come to a word
    they dont know, they can try the following
  • 1. Look at the picture.
  • 2. Go back to the beginning of the sentence and
  • 3. Skip over the word and read to the end of the

Fix-up strategies
  • Look at the letters at the beginning of the word.
    Get your mouth ready to make that sound.
  • Break the word into parts and see if you know any
    of the parts.
  • Ask yourself, Does the word you predicted sound
  • Ask yourself, Does the word you predicted make

Fix-up strategies
  • Look at the letters at the end of the word.
  • Look the word up in a dictionary.
  • Ask a friend.

Teaching Strategies
  • Determine strategies needed by the student(s).
  • Prepare the students by describing and showing
    situations in which the strategy can be used.
  • Model the use of the strategy. Show how the
    strategy is used by thinking out loud as you
    apply it.

Teaching the Use of a Strategy
  • Teach a prompt the students can associate with
    the strategy. This could be a picture icon with
    a phrase. Always use the same prompt for the
  • Display the prompts on a wall poster and/or on
    individual bookmarks, etc.
  • Some information adapted from How Social and
    Emotional Learning is Infused into Academics . .
    . by Maurice J. Elias, Rutgers University. CEIC
    Review, June 2001.

Sample of icon used to associate with a strategy
  • Leap over the word and read to the end of the
    sentence. Then go back and reread.
  • (The use of the frog picture icon will be
    helpful in reminding students about the use of
    the strategy.)

Look at the samples of reading strategy posters
designed by other RDG 4250 students.
(No Transcript)
Help the students learn to use the strategies.
  • With the young students, start with look at the
    picture, Does it sound right?, and Does it
    make sense? Dont try to do too much all at
  • Remind students to use specific strategies before
    and during guided reading. Well call this a
    teaching point and well do more with this
  • Continue to model the use of the strategy.

Use questions to help them learn to use the
techniques described above.
  • Did that sound right?
  • Can you reread that?
  • Can you say it that way?
  • What is another word that might fit here?
  • What word would sound right here?

Questioning continued
  • Did that make sense?
  • Look at the picture. Does it help you to know
    what the word is?
  • What happened in the story when _____?
  • What do you think it meant by ______?

Questioning continued
  • Does the word you said start (end with, etc.) the
    letter you see at the beginning (end) of this
  • Do you know another word that might start (end)
    with this letter and that would make more sense?
  • Can you get your mouth ready to say that sound?

Questioning continued
  • There is a difficult (or tricky) part here. Can
    you find it?
  • Are you right? Could that be _____?
  • Take a closer look at _______. Do you think you
    could predict a word that would make more sense?

Continue to assess students for effective use of
the strategy.
  • Use on-going assessment to make sure the students
    are using the strategies effectively.

Review of Part IV
  • Name the strategies using kid-language.
  • What is the purpose of using a picture icon with
    each strategy?
  • How can teachers use questions to help students
    learn to use the strategies