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Weather and Climate Chapter 17 and sections of Chapter

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Weather and Climate Chapter 17 and sections of Chapter 9 Atmosphere Composition Mixture of gases- 78% Nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases. The biggest component of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Weather and Climate Chapter 17 and sections of Chapter


1
Weather and Climate
  • Chapter 17 and sections of Chapter 9

2
Atmosphere Composition
  • Mixture of gases- 78 Nitrogen, 21 oxygen, 1
    other gases.
  • The biggest component of the other gases is
    carbon dioxide-.3.
  • Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by
    photosynthesis and respiration.

3
Atmosphere Formation
  • The early atmosphere had mostly hydrogen and
    helium. NO OXYGEN!
  • Volcanoes blew those gases from the atmosphere
    and replaced with different gases which included
    carbon dioxide.
  • Photosynthesis began to convert carbon dioxide
    into oxygen.

4
Atmosphere Structure
  • The atmosphere is in 4 layers troposphere,
    stratosphere, mesosphere, and exosphere
  • In the troposphere, the temperature decreases
    with altitude and all weather occurs here.
  • In the stratosphere, temperature increases with
    altitude and the ozone layer is in this layer.

5
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6
atmosphere
7
Heating of the Atmosphere
  • The atmosphere is heated three ways radiation,
    conduction, and convection
  • Radiation- heating using electromagnetic waves.
    This is how the sun heats the atmosphere.

8
Water in the Atmosphere
  • Water is present in all three states of matter
    solid (ice), liquid (rain), and gas (vapor).
  • Water is transferred around the globe by the
    water cycle.
  • The water is controlled by the sun and gravity.

9
Precipitation
Condensation
Evaporation
10
Evaporation
  • The process where water is changed into a gas.
  • This process is a cooling process where the
    temperature will drop.
  • This puts water into the atmosphere.
  • Transpiration is how plants put water into the
    atmosphere.

11
Condensation
  • This process converts water vapor into a liquid.
  • This is a heating process. It gives off heat to
    the atmosphere.
  • This process makes clouds.

12
Precipitation
  • The joining of the condensed water molecules in
    the clouds to form drops.
  • When the drops get large enough, it rains,
    sleets, snows, hails, or a combination of these.

13
Cloud formation
  • There are 3 main types of clouds
  • Cirrus- high clouds- wispy and feathery looking.
    Composed of ice
  • Cumulus- puffy clouds- usually form when warm air
    is forced upward.
  • Stratus- layered- form where warm and cool air
    meet.

14
Weather
  • Weather patterns result from global patterns of
    wind and pressure.
  • Global winds are caused by the heating and
    cooling of air.
  • The most important to the US are the westerlies
    (winds from the west) and the trade winds (winds
    from the east).

15
  • Westerlies bring weather from the Pacific side to
    the Atlantic side.
  • Trade winds move hurricane systems from east to
    west.
  • As part of these winds, high speed jet streams
    control much of the storm movement.

16
High and Low Pressure
  • Earths heating controls the pressure.
  • The areas of low pressure have a rainy climate,
    like the equator.
  • Areas of high pressure have dry climates like
    deserts.

17
Air Masses and Fronts
  • There are large masses of air above the land and
    the water.
  • North American Air Masses
  • These masses meet along front lines.
  • Each type of front has different weather patterns
    associated with it.

18
Types of Fronts
  • Cold- cold air pushes warm air up violently-
    Causes severe weather.

19
  • Warm front- warm air advances and gently moves
    over cold air- causes rain showers

20
  • Stationary- neither warm nor cold push past each
    other. Causes heavy rains.

21
  • Occluded- Where 2 cold air masses meet with warm
    air above. Causes rain.

22
Tornadoes
23
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24
Climate
  • Climate means the long-term average of weather
    conditionswind, temperature, precipitation,
    moisture, and other aspects of weather.

25
Causes of Climate
  • Latitude- distance from the equator helps
    determine temperature and amount of light
  • Temperature- average temp determines the types of
    plants that can survive
  • Distance from ocean- the closer to the water the
    more constant the climate. Affected by global
    winds

26
  • Precipitation- determines types of plants.
    Highest amounts at equator.
  • Mountains- most rain on side of the mountain that
    faces the wind. Air rises, cools and rains on
    that side.

27
Types of climates
  • Three major types cold, semi-arid (dry), and arid

28
Climate Changes
  • Cycles of glaciations, called ice ages, represent
    long-term climatic change
  • Last ice age-18,000-22,000 years ago
  • Changes in Earths orbit are the most important
    factors, producing changes that determine the
    rhythmic cycles of glaciation.

29
Human Influences
  • Humans may be speeding up the process by
    releasing pollution that changes the climate
    faster than the cycle.
  • The excess carbon is from burning fossil fuels
    and removing vegetation.
  • Other gases like methane and nitrogen oxides are
    also released by humans.

30
Affects of human activities
  • Global warming- proposed theory that humans are
    increasing the natural rate of temperature
    change. Main cause carbon dioxide.
  • Ozone thinning- pollutants that destroyed ozone.
    These pollutants are now banned and the ozone
    layer is slowly recovering.

31
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