Section II. 5 Characteristics of Plants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Section II. 5 Characteristics of Plants PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3b5abc-ZmE4O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Section II. 5 Characteristics of Plants

Description:

Section II. 5 Characteristics of Plants II. 5 Characteristics of Plants ( See Page 12 in your textbook:) 1. Multicellular Autotrophic Cell walls of cellulose ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:411
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 64
Provided by: schallesb
Learn more at: http://www.schallesbiology.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Section II. 5 Characteristics of Plants


1
Section II. 5 Characteristics of Plants
2
II. 5 Characteristics of Plants
  • ( See Page 12 in your textbook)
  • 1. Multicellular
  • Autotrophic
  • Cell walls of cellulose
  • Reproduction w/ Alternation of generations
  • Protected embryos
  • Each of these characteristics is not itself
    unique to plants but together distinguish plants
    from other organisms.

3
1. Multicellular
  • Plant kingdom members are multicellular-
    unicellular algae - grouped with protists.
  • Plants have specialized tissues, organs
    structures
  • Obviously, not all plants look the same. They
    have different flowers, stems, and even root
    structures.

4
2. Autotrophic
  • Makes its own food
  • Process
  • photosynthesis
  • Light is actually energy, electromagnetic energy.
  • Photosynthesis actually uses only certain colors
    to make photosynthesis happen. Plants mostly
    absorb red and blue wavelengths.
  • When you see a color, it is actually a color
    that the object does NOT absorb. (This is why
    leaves are green)

5
More about Photosynthesis
  • Happens in the cell organelle chloroplast.
  • Pigment chlorophyll captures the light from the
    Sun.
  • Process of photosynthesis is divided into two
    main parts.
  • 1. Light dependent reaction. This reaction
    happens when the light energy is captured and
    pushed into a chemical called ATP.
  • 2. Calvin Cycle Then the ATP is used to make
    glucose (Also called the light independent
    reaction)

6
3. Cellulose in Cell Walls
  • Plant cells have 3 organelles not found in animal
    other cells
  • Central vacuole
  • Chloroplasts
  • Cell wall of cellulose

http//www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/plants/c
ell/anatomy.GIF
7
4. Reproduction w/ Alternation of generations
  • All plants have a life cycle known as alternation
    of generations.
  • In alternation of generations, a haploid
    gametophyte produces gametes. Gametes unite and
    give rise to a diploid sporophyte.

8
Quick Genetics Lesson/Review
  • Haploid Means a cell having 1 copy of
    chromosomes.
  • Diploid means a cell having 2 copies of a
    chromosome.
  • Chromosome The genetic information (DNA
    molecule) in a eukaryotic cell nucleus

9
Chromosomes
  • Organisms have 2 copies of chromosomes (DNA
    molecules with genetic information)
  • 1 copy from each parent.
  • The Gamete has only one copy of the chromosomes.
  • Zygote- (the fertilized egg)- produced from
    fusion of 2 gametes

10
Reproductive cells
  • Gamete a haploid reproductive cell
  • like egg sperm in animals
  • spores in sore forming plants
  • pollen ovule in seed plants
  • Spore a haploid reproductive cell that can
    develop into an organism with out combining with
    another cell
  • Pollen a haploid reproductive cell that is the
    male in seed plants
  • Ovule The female reproductive cell in seed
    plants- may or may not be haploid.

11
Cell Division Reproduction
  • Mitosis-In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell
    division that forms 2 new nuclei, each with the
    same of chromosomes as the parent cell. (a
    clone )
  • Meiosis- In eukaryotic cell, a process of nuclear
    division in which the of chromosomes is reduced
    to ½ of the original cell. This forms gametes
    (the reproductive sex cells.)

12
Explaining Alternation of Generations
  • For sexually reproducing multicellular organisms
    such as plants and animals-
  • Diploid cells divide by meiosis to create haploid
    cells.
  • Haploid cells then fuse to recreate the diploid
    number and a new organism.

13
Plants are different than animals in sexual
reproduction since they have 2 generations
involved.
  • Gametophyte- produces gametes
  • Sporophyte- produces spores
  • And just to make it even more interesting- the
    gametophyte sporophytes are different depending
    on the kind of plant

14
Quick explanation of the generations
  • In nonvascular plants (moss)- the sporophyte
    grows on the gametophyte, which are male female
    plants.
  • In Ferns (seedless vascular plants) - the
    generations are 2 separate plant forms
  • In seed plants- the gametophyte grows on the
    sporophytes

15
Alternating Life Cycles
16
More explanation Well look more closely at the
generations in ch 20-23
  • Mosses- the egg sperm produced by the
    gametophytes (male female plants) fuse to
    produce a small sporophyte that grows right on
    the female plant.
  • Ferns- the gametophyte is a separate small plant,
    the sporophyte is the frond plant.
  • 2 kinds Seed plants- there are naked seeds (pine
    cones) fruit enclosed seeds (angiosperms)

17
In flowering seed plants - angiosperms
  • 2 fertilization events take place
  • one sperm fertilizes the egg to form the diploid
    zygote of the new individual,
  • the other sperm fertilizes the polar nuclei to
    form the triploid endosperm, a nutritive tissue (
    the FRUIT).
  • Together with maternal sporophyte tissue, these
    make up the seed.

18
5. Protected Embryo
  • All plants have a protected multicellular embryo
    within the female parent.
  • Evolved as a an adaptation to life on land-
    preventing the embryo from drying out.
  • (Algae DO NOT have a protected embryo like plants)

19
Developed structures to keep gametes moist
Reproducing by seeds spores
  • Spore- a reproductive cell (a gamete) that is
    surrounded by a hard outer wall. Needs at least
    a small amount of water to survive.
  • Seed an embryo surrounded by a protective coat.
    Can reproduce in a dry environment.
  • Some seeds contain an
  • Endosperm- a tissue in some seeds that provides
    nourishment.

20
Spores
  • Ferns are non-flowering plants with large leaves
    that reproduce by spore formation. 
  • To date there are 10,400 known species of true
    ferns.
  • NEED WATER TO REPRODUCE

www.nybg.org/bsci/herb/ferns.html
21
Reproduction without water
  • Spores require water for fertilization.
  • Seed development is considered an evolutionary
    improvement
  • Plants with seeds
  • have a greater reproductive success
  • embryo is protected nourished inside the hard
    coat.
  • Seeds can remain inactive when conditions are
    unacceptable for growth (hot, cold, drought)

22
Seeds
A bean is the seed of a bean plant. When the seed
germinates, or starts to grow, small parts inside
the seed grow into the root and stem. Most of the
seed is used for food by the young plant. When
the plant grows green leaves it begins to make
its own food by photosynthesis.
23
More about seeds
  • A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a
    covering called the seed coat, usually with some
    stored food.
  • It is the product of the ripened ovule of which
    occurs after fertilization and some growth within
    the mother plant.
  • 2 kinds of plants make seeds
  • gymnosperms (meaning naked seed- are cone
    bearing plants like pine, fir, ginko)
  • angiosperms (flowering plants)

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seed
24
More differences between Plants Animals
25
Plant reproduction growth
  • Unlike animals
  • Almost all Plants can reproduce sexually or
    asexually whereas most animals reproduce only
    sexually.
  • Animals have determinate growth- they reach full
    size stop but plants grow throughout their
    lives which is indeterminate growth

26
PART III- Plant Diversity After brief notes- you
will do a packet on each chapter 20-23
27
III. Plant Diversity
  • There are 4 basic kinds of plants
  • Nonvascular (mosses without true stems, roots or
    leaves)
  • 2. Seedless vascular (basically ferns- make
    spores, not seeds)
  • 3. Naked seeds (cones- gymnosperms)
  • 4. Fruit enclosed seeds (angiosperms)

28
Evolutionary Relationship Between Plants and
Green Algae
29
12 Divisions or Phyla of Plants
  • 3 phyla of nonvascular plants
  • do not have true vascular tissue
  • no roots, stems, or leaves.
  • 9 phyla of vascular plants
  • have vascular tissue
  • have true roots, stems, and leaves.

30
Nonvascular plants- chapter 20
31
Non vascular plants
  • The three phyla of nonvascular plants are
    collectively called Bryophytes. (These plants do
    not have true roots, stems, or leaves are very
    small and are usually found in moist areas.)
  • Phylum Bryophyta mosses
  • Phylum Hepatophyta - liverworts.
  • Phylum Anthocerophyta-hornworts

32
Types of non vascular plants
  • Moss
  • Liverworts

  • Hornworts

http//www.perspective.com/nature/plantae/bryophyt
es.html
33
What is a Vascular Plant?
  • Plants with specialized tissues to transport
    water dissolved substances like sugar to parts
    of the plant.
  • Xylem- tube like tissue that carries water
    minerals from roots to stems leaves
  • Phloem- carries organic compounds like
    carbohydrates (sugars) from leaves to other plant
    parts.
  • Vascular tissue also helps support plants.

34
There are 9 Phyla of Vascular Plants
  • Some adaptive advantages over nonvascular plants
  • specialized conducting tissues (xylem phloem)
  • the ability to grow large and live in many
    environments
  • strong stems that allow them to grow tall and
    receive more sunlight.

35
Seedless Vascular Plants chapter 21
36
There are 4 Seedless vascular plants (make spores)
  • Phylum Psilophyta, whisk ferns
  • Phylum Lycophyta, club mosses
  • Phylum Sphenophyta, horse tails
  • Phylum Pteridophyta. ferns

37
Seedless Vascular Plants
club mosses
  • whisk ferns
  • ferns

horse tails
http//faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.
Gregory/files/
38
Seed Bearing Vascular Plants
  • There are two main groups of seed-bearing
    vascular plants, gymnosperms and angiosperms.
  • Gymnosperms are characterized by naked seeds and
    no flowers.
  • Angiosperms have flowers and seeds enclosed by a
    fruit.

39
Gymnosperms- chapter 22
40
4 Phyla of Gymnosperms
  • Phylum Cycadophyta (cycas)
  • Phylum Ginkgophyta (ginko)
  • Phylum Coniferophyta (cone- bearing plants)
  • Phylum Gnetophyta

41
  • Cycas revoluta 
  • ginkgo

  • pine


  • gnetecaea


www.botany.hawaii.edu
botit.botany.wisc.edu/.../Coniferophyta.html
universe-review.ca/I10-68-ginkgo.jpg
42
Angiosperms - Chapter 23
43
Angiosperms (makes fruit flowers)
  • 1 Phylum - Anthophyta
  • Is the largest phylum of plants, includes over
    240,000 species of flowering plants.
  • Have a flower and fruit.
  • Angiosperms have been successful for many
    reasons, including the production of fruit that
    protects seeds, quick germination, efficient
    vascular system.

44
Angiosperms-parts
  • Characteristics
  • Vascular tissues
  • Flowers, fruit
  • Divided into
  • Monocots
  • Dicots.

http//www.botany.uwc.ac.za/sci_ed/grade10/anatomy
/
45
  • DICOTS
  • Embryo with 2 cotyledons
  • Flower parts in multiples of four or five
  • Major leaf veins reticulated
  • Stem vascular bundles in a ring
  • Roots develop from radicle
  • Secondary growth often present
  • MONOCOTS
  • Embryo with single cotyledon
  • Flower parts in multiples of three
  • Major leaf veins parallel
  • Stem vascular bundles scattered
  • Roots are adventitious
  • Secondary growth absent

46
Moncot Dicot species
http//hawaii.hawaii.edu/laurab/generalbotany/130s
yllabus.htm
47
Flowers
48
Parts of a flower
  • Pistil
  • (female parts)
  • Stigma
  • Style
  • ovary
  • Stamen
  • (male parts)
  • Anther
  • Filament

49
Not All Flowers Smell As Sweet As A Rose
  • Some Flowers Smell Like A Rotting Carcass to
    Attract Insects
  • purplish-red and foul-smelling stench of dragon
    arum (Dracunculus vulgaris) attracts flies to the
    base of its erect, flower-bearing spadix.
  • Although it is colorful, this is probably NOT the
    flower to give to that special someone in a
    bouquet

http//waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0602.htmincarcera
te
50
The World's Largest And Stinkiest Arum
  • Corpse flower" (Amorphophallus titanum).
  • Native tropical rain forests of Sumatra,
    Indonesia, flowered at the New York Botanical
    Garden in 1937.
  • Grew over 8 feet tall emerged from a huge
    vase-shaped, pleated spathe over 4 feet tall and
    12 feet wide.
  • people have been known to pass out from taking a
    whiff.

51
Carnivorous Plants
52
Carnivorous Plants All are under the phylum
Angiosperm
  • Plants make their own food but a small number of
    plants are parasitic
  • They feed on harm other plants or organisms,
    such as insects.
  • This may be an adaptation for plants that live in
    harsh environments, or where competition is great
    for nutrients minerals -like in poor soil
    conditions.

53
Match the parasitic plants
  • Venus fly trap Strangler figs
  • Dodder plant Sundews

54
Dionaea muscipula, also known as the Venus Flytrap
  • Probably the most well known of the carnivorous
    plants.
  • Insects are lured into the mouth-like leaves by
    nectar.
  • Once an insect enters the trap it touches tiny
    hairs on the leaves.
  • This sends impulses through the plant triggering
    the leaves to close.
  • Glands located in the leaves release enzymes that
    digest the prey and the nutrients are absorbed by
    the leaves.

http//www.botany.org/Carnivorous_Plants/
55
How a Venus' flytrap EATS
  • Traps formed by hinged, 2-lobed leaf blades
    fringed with stiff hairs.
  • When the leaf blade folds closed, it traps an
    insect within a jail of interlocking hairs.
  • Three bristle-like hairs near
  • the middle of the upper side of
  • the leaf blade are sensitive to
  • touch, cause blade to snap shut.
  • Touching one hair will not
  • trigger the closing mechanism.
  • Only when one hair is touched
  • twice or two hairs are touched
  • in succession will the leaf blade
  • fold closed.

stuffhttp//waynesword.palomar.edu/carnivor.htm
56
More on unusual, parasitic plants
  • Dodder plant- fast growing stems -also called
    witches hair
  • Strangler figs- plant takes over a host tree,
    stealing all of the light, water nutrients
  • Pitcher plants- jug like leaves, insects
    attracted to nectar, slip in die
  • Sundews- stick hairs with droplets at ends that
    trap insects, then hairs wrap dissolve prey

Good links to go to http//waynesword.palomar.edu
/carnivor.htm http//waynesword.palomar.edu/plnov9
9.htm
57
Dodder Plants
  • Parasitizes various wild
  • and cultivated plants.
  • Troublesome for alfalfa,
  • clover, onion growers
  • because dodder seed is difficult to remove
    from the desired seed crop and can be spread with
    infested seed.
  • Its water, minerals and carbohydrates are
    absorbed from the host through haustoria that
    penetrate the host's tissue.
  • Has some chlorophyll in the buds, fruits and
    stems, but the amount of food manufactured in
    this tissue is of little significance to the
    survival of the plant

http//www.coopext.colostate.edu/TRA/dodder.html
58
Strangler Fig or Banyan trees
  • "strangling" growth
  • in tropical forest species
  • adaptation to compete for light
  • Epiphytes (an organism that grows upon or
    attached to a living plant)
  • their seeds, often bird-dispersed, germinate on
    top of other trees.
  • The seedlings grow their roots downward, vines
    upwards envelope the host tree.
  • Original support tree sometimes dies, leaving a
    "columnar tree", central core empty, of the
    Strangler Fig.

59
Pitcher plants Darlingtonia californica
(California Pitcher plant or Cobra Lily)
Darlingtonia's translucent leaves confuse insects
trying to escape, Then it digests them.YUM
60
Nepenthes pitcher plants
The trap contains a syrupy fluid that the plant
produces, and is used to drown the prey.
61
Sundews
  • Tentacles topped with sticky secretions
  • 1. a sticky sweet mucilage to attract ensnare
    insects
  • 2. enzymes to digest prey
  • They absorb the resulting nutrient soup

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageDrosera_anglica
_ne2.jpg
62
Do packets on chapters 20, 21, 22, 23
63
Additional References
  • Many pictures some text from www.wikipedia.org
  • http//www.life.uiuc.edu/govindjee/page2.html
  • http//www.botany.com/index.16.htm
  • http//photoscience.la.asu.edu/Photosyn/study.html
About PowerShow.com