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Dairy Cattle Breeding and Selection Reproductive Anatomy

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Dairy Cattle Breeding and Selection Reproductive Anatomy Female Reproductive Tract I. Anatomy of the female system. Ovarian Follicle Development Anatomy of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dairy Cattle Breeding and Selection Reproductive Anatomy


1
Dairy Cattle Breeding and Selection
  • Reproductive Anatomy
  • Female Reproductive Tract

2
I. Anatomy of the female system.
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Ovarian Follicle Development
6
Anatomy of the Ovary
7
A. Ovary
  • 1. The female has two ovaries.
  • 2. The ovaries are responsible for producing and
    releasing eggs.
  • 3. The ovaries produce four distinct hormones
    that are involved in the reproductive process.
  • 4. Each ovary is approximately 1 to 1 ½ long
    and approximately 1 in diameter.
  • 5. The ovaries are located in the from the vulva
    approximately 12 18.

8
  • 6. They are protected by the pelvic girdle.
  • 7. The entire female reproductive tract is held
    and suspended below the vertebra by the Broad
    Ligament.
  • 8. Graafian Follicles form on the ovary from
    which eggs are released.
  • 9. Corpus Luteum (Yellow Body) form in the
    place of the ruptured Graafian Follicle.

9
Structures of an Ovary
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Fallopian Tubes/Oviduct
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B. Oviducts (Fallopian Tubes)
  • 1. Divided into three distinct parts
  • a. Indundibulum (Fimbria)
  • 1) The funnel shaped thin tissue surrounding the
    ovary and attached to the ampulla.
  • 2) It is lined with ciliated cells.
  • 3) Catches the egg when released from the egg.
  • 4) Sometimes fertilization does not occur
    because the egg misses the infundibulum.

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  • b. Ampulla
  • 1) Is the middle section of the Fallopian Tube.
  • 2) Is approximately 6 8 long
  • 3) Is approximately 3mm to 5mm in diameter.
  • 4) Is lined with ciliated cells which aid in the
    movement of the egg.
  • 5) Serves to transport the egg.
  • c. Isthmus
  • 1) Is the final section of the Fallopian Tube.
  • 2) Is approximately 4 6 long.
  • 3) Is approximately 0.5 mm to 1 mm in diameter.
  • 4) The isthmus joins the ampulla at the
    ampullary-isthmic junction which is the site of
    fertilization.
  • 5) Serves to transport spermatozoa and/or the
    unfertilized egg/embryo.
  • 6) The isthmus joins the uterus at the
    uterotubal junction.

14
Uterus
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C. Uterus
  • 1. The uterus extend from the uterotubal
    junction to the cervix.
  • 2. Is divided into two parts.
  • a. Uterine Horns
  • 1) Extend from the uterotubal junction to the
    uterine body.
  • 2) Is approximately 15 long.
  • 3) Contains approximately 70 120 caruncles or
    buttons in the lining.
  • 4) Where the fetus grows and develops.
  • b. Uterine Body
  • 1) 1 ½ to 2 long in cattle.
  • 2) Is located between the Uterine Horns and the
    Cervix.
  • 3) This is the site of semen deposition in the
    cow when Artificial Insemination is used.

16
  • 3. The cow has a bicornuate uterus
    distinguished by a small uterine body and two
    distinct uterine horns.

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D. Cervix
  • 1. Technically is part of the uterus.
  • 2. It is a thick-walled and inelastic tube that
    joins that uterus to the vagina.
  • 3. It is highly muscular with many fold to keep
    out bacteria and foreign material.
  • 4. Approximately 3 in length and 1 in
    diameter.
  • 5. Is the site of semen deposition in some
    species, ie. Pig, horse

19
Cross section of the Cervix
20
E. Vagina
  • 1. Is tabular in shape, thin-walled, and quite
    elastic.
  • 2. Is the organ of copulation.
  • 3. Is approximately 12 16 in length.
  • 4. Is the site of semen deposition in cattle and
    sheep.
  • 5. Contains numerous longitudinal folds of
    tissue.
  • 6. Urethral Opening is where urine empties
    into the vagina from the ureters coming from the
    bladder.
  • 7. Is located between the cervix and the vulva.

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F. Vulva
  • 1. Is the external portion of the reproductive
    tract.
  • 2. Serves as the entrance to the reproductive
    tract.
  • 3. During heat in most species the vulva will
    swell and turn red to some extent.

23
G. Clitoris
  • 1. Is the sexual stimulating organ of the
    female.
  • 2. Homologous to the penis in the male.
  • 3. Located about 1 2 inside the vagina.
  • 4. Composed of limited erectile tissue somewhat
    like the tissue of the males penis.

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THE END
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