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We’re All Language and Content Teachers: Principles and Practices in Integrating Language and Content Instruction

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Title: We’re All Language and Content Teachers: Principles and Practices in Integrating Language and Content Instruction


1
Were All Language and Content TeachersPrinciple
s and Practices in Integrating Language and
Content Instruction
  • Dr. JoAnn (Jodi) Crandall
  • University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC)
  • crandall_at_umbc.edu

2
Whos Responsible for English Language Learners
(ELLs)?
  • I cant teach science or mathematics or social
    studies Im an English teacher.
  • Send them to me after theyve learned English
    Im not an English teacher.

3
The Dilemma
  • Students cannot develop academic knowledge and
    skills without access to the language in which
    that knowledge is embedded, discussed,
    constructed, or evaluated.
  • Nor can they acquire academic language skills in
    a context devoid of academic content.
  • (Crandall 1994256)

4
The AnswerLanguage and Content Teachers
Collaboration Cooperation
  • Content Teachers Role
  • content related to language skills
  • curriculum materials for content learning
  • methods of teaching assessing content learning
  • Language Teachers Role
  • language related to academic content
  • curriculum materials for language learning
  • methods of teaching assessing L learning
  • Together An Integrated, Content-Based Approach

5
Rationale for Integrated Instruction
  • Language is acquired most effectively in
    meaningful contexts
  • Content provides that meaningful base
  • Integrated instruction helps bring together
    linguistic, cognitive, social development
  • Integrated instruction focuses on needed school
    genres/discourse
  • (Adapted from Genesse, F. 1995)

6
Understanding the ELL
  • Who?
  • What problems?
  • What strengths?

7
Understanding the ELL
  • Language acquisition issues
  • Issues of prior education and literacy
  • Cross-cultural issues
  • Other issues
  • poverty, war, family

8
What Makes Content Areas Difficult for ELLs?
  • Your experiences?

9
What Makes Content Areas (Texts and Discussions)
Difficult for ELLs?
  • Complex concepts
  • Unfamiliar (academic) language
  • Unfamiliar discourse structure
  • Lack of/different background knowledge
  • Unclear directions
  • Other

10
Two Types of Language Proficiency
  • Social Language (BICS)
  • (Basic, Interpersonal Communicative Skills)
  • Everyday (primarily oral) communication
  • Informal, contextualized, interactive, clues
    outside of language, cognitively easy
  • Academic Language (CALP)
  • (Cognitive, Academic Language Proficiency)
  • Restricted (primarily written) communication
  • formal, decontextualized, little interaction,
    few cues, cognitively complex
  • (Adapted from J. Cummins, 1981)

11
Levels of Language Proficiency(and appropriate
questions to ask)
  • Level 1 Pre Production
  • minimal comprehension
  • no speech
  • listen, point, act out, draw.
  • clap, show me
  • Level 2 Early Production
  • Limited comprehension
  • One/two word responses
  • name, list, either-or,
  • yes-no, some Wh-H Qs
  • Level 3 Speech Emergence
  • increased comprehension
  • speak in phrases/short
  • sentences with errors
  • tell, describe, role play, Wh-Qs
  • Level 4 Intermediate Fluency
  • Good comprehension
  • Converse socially
  • Begin to develop academic L
  • analyze, support, evaluate
  • What do you think?
  • What would happen if.?

12
What Can We Do to Adapt Instruction for ELLs?
  • What has worked for you?

13
Jim Cummins Model
  • Cognitively undemanding
  • 1 3
  • Context- Context-
  • Embedded Reduced
  • 2 4
  • Cognitively demanding

14
Less-Demanding More Demanding
  • Developing simple vocabulary
  • Following demonstrated
  • directions
  • Repeating
  • Answering simple Qs
  • Simple reading writing
  • Engaging in routine conversations
  • Writing answers to simple Qs
  • Developing academic vocabulary
  • Participating in academic
  • discussions
  • Writing simple science
  • reports
  • Understanding academic presentations w/out
  • visuals/demonstrations
  • Oral presentations
  • Taking standardized tests

15
What Can We Do to Adapt Instruction for
ELLs?Three Guidelines
  • Increase sources of information (context)
  • Decrease complexity
  • (of concept, text or task)
  • Increase interaction

16
Increase Sources of InformationReduce Reliance
on Academic Text
  • Use pictures, charts, graphs, maps
  • Use demonstrations, gestures
  • Involve students in discovery experiential
    learning
  • Embed in meaningful context thematic teaching
  • Provide opportunities to learn from others
  • Use multiple media opportunities to learn

17
Decrease Complexity of Concept, Text, or Task
  • Activate background knowledge
  • Focus on vocabulary
  • Chunk information
  • Provide graphic organizers, outlines
  • Paraphrase, repeat, summarize
  • Use comprehension checks clarification
    questions
  • Consciously teach learning strategies
  • Use variety of texts
  • Use variety of assessments
  • Adapt texts

18
Increase Opportunities for Interaction
  • Use cooperative activities
  • Jigsaw
  • Round Robin/Round Table
  • Numbered Heads Together
  • Encourage peer- , cross-age, cross-proficiency
    tutoring
  • Increase interactive writing
  • Journals, response logs
  • Try content literature circles
  • Encourage project work

19
Adapting Texts for ELLs
  • Reduce text (Less is more!)
  • Select most important information
  • Use graphic organizers
  • Assign different sections to students
  • Simplify structure
  • Put topic sentences first
  • Reduce complex sentences
  • Make relationships clear
  • Build redundancy
  • Repeat key ideas, words, phrases

20
Adapting Texts for ELLs
  • Simplify vocabulary
  • Avoid non-essential vocabulary
  • Pre-teach, define difficult words
  • Avoid synonyms
  • Provide visual support
  • Use graphic organizers, outlines
  • Relate to students experiences

21
Developing Thematic Units to Integrate L C
Instruction
  • IDENTIFY THEME OR TOPIC
  • IDENTIFY APPROPRIATE TEXTS TO USE OR ADAPT
  • IDENTIFY LANGUAGE OBJECTIVES
  • Vocabulary
  • Grammar
  • Functions
  • IDENTIFY ACADEMIC CONCEPT OBJECTIVES
  • IDENTIFY CRITICAL THINKING/STUDY SKILLS/STRATEGY
    OBJECTIVES
  • DEVELOP ACTIVITIES
  • SEQUENCE ACTIVITIES INTO A UNIT

22
Sample Thematic Unit Plan
  • Topic Food and Nutrition
  • Student Profile Beginning or Intermediate/Element
    ary Grade Students
  • Language Skills
  • Listening Listen to a story (A Very Hungry
    Caterpillar)
  • Speaking Talk about foods (good for you/not
    so good)
  • Retell story
  • Write dialogue for caterpillar and act out
    story Sing caterpillar song
  • Reading Read language experience story
  • Read and sequence sentences from story (strip
    story)
  • Writing Fill out calendar/graph of
    caterpillars foods
  • Fill out own calendar of daily foods
  • Make a caterpillar book and label
  • Content Understand the value of different foods
  • Study skills/Strategies Sequence information
  • Make predictions and confirm/disconfirm them
  • Language Objectives
  • Grammar Like/dont like
  • On days of the week
  • Past tense

23
The Importance of Vocabulary
  • Needs to be consciously taught and practiced
  • Is responsible for much of comprehension and
    motivation to read
  • Should be taught in chunks when possible
  • Major resource Academic Word List

24
Academic Word Listhttp//language.massey.ac.nz/s
taff/awl/headwords.shtml
  • Based on 3,500,000 word academic corpus
  • Consists of 570 headwords with related words
    for total of 3,000 words
  • Most frequent academic words
  • Occurred in Arts, Commerce, Law, Science
  • Occurred over 100 times in corpus
  • Occurred at least 10 times in each area
  • Excluded are the 2000 most frequent words from
    Wests General Service List proper nouns, Latin
    forms
  • http//www.jbauman.com/aboutgsl.html
  • (Developed by Adrien Coxhead colleagues
    in Wellington, NZ)

25
Teaching Vocabulary 25 on each
  • Learning from input (L,R)
  • Most common 2,000 words (about 80)
  • Stored as one unit
  • Focused language learning
  • 100,000 most infrequent words
  • Teach patterns roots affixes
  • Learning from output (S,W)
  • Use words repetition
  • Fluency activities (L,S,R,W)
  • Use known words grammar
  • (Paul Nation)

26
Some Vocabulary Activities
  • Word walls
  • Matching
  • Word analysis
  • Webs
  • Word games
  • Personal dictionaries
  • Cloze/fill in blank
  • Act out/draw/circle/point to items that match
    definition
  • Intensive and extensive reading

27
The Importance of Writing
  • Writing is
  • a form of output
  • a means of building fluency
  • a way of developing accuracy
  • (in grammar, vocabulary, etc.)
  • a critical skill for academic success
  • a source of input

28
Writing and ReadingComplementary Practices
  • We learn to read by reading, and
  • We learn to write by writing.
  • But
  • We also learn to read by writing, and
  • We learn to write by reading.

29
Some Guiding Principles
  • Writing
  • is a way to demonstrate proficiency
  • helps us discover what we do or do not know
  • is a process (not everything needs to be graded)
  • is more than a paragraph or essay
  • conventions differ cross-culturally
  • can be collaborative

30
Collaborative Writing
  • Writing does NOT need to be a solitary act.
  • Any stage in the writing process can be
    collaborative (pre-writing, drafting, reviewing,
    revising, editing, publishing)
  • Collaboration
  • Provides opportunity for meaningful communication
  • Promotes meta-cognition and meta-discussion of
    writing (and language)

31
Writing to Build Fluency
  • Low-risk way to draw upon implicit knowledge
  • Journals or Logs
  • Pen or Key Pals
  • Free-writing or Quickwrites
  • Informal Writing emails, blogs, discussion
    boards

32
Fluency or Accuracy Not Both
  • Important to focus on EITHER
  • Fluency OR Accuracy
  • Fluency focus on meaning, use of implicit
    learning, risk-taking
  • Accuracy focus on form, use of explicit
    (monitored) learning, care
  • Focus on Fluency AND Accuracy
  • only after practice with both.

33
Some Last Thoughts
  • Focus on key concepts language
  • Modify your own language
  • Provide multiple opportunities to acquire both
    language and concepts
  • Let students work together
  • Provide time to think, rehearse
  • Validate students prior knowledge
  • Encourage hands-on learning
  • Ask questions at students level of English

34
Some More Last ThoughtsThe Changing School
Population
  • 1 of 3 children is ethnic or racial minority
  • 1 of 5 speaks a L other than English at home
  • 1 of 10 was born outside the U.S.
  • 1 of 5 has a parent who was born outside the U.S.
  • ELLs are fastest-growing population in our schools

35
Further Reading
  • The following are available at
  • http//userpages.umbc.edu/7Ecrandall/index.htm
  • Crandall, J. A. (ed.) (1987). ESL through
    content-area instruction Mathematics, science,
    social studies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice
    Hall Regents.
  • Crandall, J. A. (1994). Content-centered language
    learning. ERIC Digest ED 367142. Washington, DC
    Center for Applied Linguistics.
  • Crandall, J. A. (1998). Collaborate and
    cooperate Teacher education for integrating
    language and content instruction. English
    Teaching Forum, 36(1), 2-9.
  • Crandall, J. A. (1998). The expanding world of
    the elementary ESL teacher. ESL Magazine, 1(4),
  • Crandall, J. A., Jaramillo, A., Olsen, L.,
    Peyton, J. K. (2002). Using cognitive strategies
    to develop English language and literacy.
    Washington, DC Center for Applied Linguistics.

http//userpages.umbc.edu/7Ecrandall/index.htm
36
Additional References
  • Crandall, J. A. (1999). Cooperative language
    learning and affective factors. In J. Arnold
    (Ed.), Affective factors in language learning.
    Cambridge, MA Cambridge University Press.
  • Crandall, J.A. Kaufman, D. (eds.) (2003).
    Content-based instruction in higher education
    settings. Alexandria, VA TESOL.
  •  Kaufman, D. Crandall, J. A. (eds.) (2005).
    Content-based instruction in elementary and
    secondary school settings. Alexandria, VA TESOL.
  • Crandall, J. A., Nelson, J., and Stein, H.
    (2006). Providing professional development for
    mainstream and novice or experienced ESL and
    bilingual teachers. In Field, R., Hamayan, E.
    (eds.) Educating English language learners A
    handbook for administrators. Philadelphia
    Caslon, Inc.
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