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Chapter 10 Development of Language and Communication Skills

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Development of Language and Communication Skills FIVE COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE Phonology knowledge of language s sound system (phonetics) Morphology rules ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 10 Development of Language and Communication Skills


1
Chapter 10 Development of Language and
Communication Skills
2
FIVE COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE
  • Phonology knowledge of languages sound system
    (phonetics)
  • Morphology rules specifying how words are
    formed from sounds
  • Semantics meanings expressed in words
  • Free morphemes stand alone words
  • Bound morphemes cannot stand alone, change
    meaning of free morphemes when added

3
FIVE COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE
  • Syntax rules specifying how words are combined
    to produce sentences
  • Pragmatics principles governing how language is
    used in different social situations
  • Also requires interpretation of nonverbal signals

4
THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • The Learning (Empiricist) Perspective
  • Imitation, reinforcement and correction are
    responsible for learning language
  • Evaluation of Learning Perspective
  • Imitation and reinforcement are important
  • Syntax (grammatical correctness) not reinforced

5
THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • The Nativist Perspective
  • Humans are biologically programmed to acquire
    language
  • Language acquisition device activated by verbal
    input (Chomsky)
  • Universal grammar common set of rules
  • Language-Making Capacity (Slobin)

6
  • Figure 10.1 A model of language acquisition
    proposed by nativists.

7
THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • Support for the Nativist Perspective
  • Presence of linguistic universals
  • Language is species specific
  • Brain Specialization and Language
  • Brocas area speech production
  • Wernickes area speech comprehension
  • Sensitive-Period Hypothesis language most
    easily acquired - birth to puberty

8
  • Figure 10.2 As shown here, there is a clear
    relationship between the age at which immigrants
    arrived in the United States and their eventual
    adult performance in English grammar. Those who
    arrived early in childhood end up performing like
    native speakers of English, whereas those who
    arrived as teenagers or adults perform much more
    poorly.

9
THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • Problems with the Nativist Approach
  • Other species show auditory discrimination early
    in life
  • Doesnt explain language development
  • Overlooked the role of the environment

10
THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • The Interactionist Perspective
  • Biological and Cognitive Contributors
  • Biologically prepared to acquire language
  • Gradually maturing nervous system, develop
    similar ideas at same age
  • Biological maturation affects cognitive
    development, affecting language

11
  • Figure 10.3 Grammatical complexity increases as a
    function of the size of childrens productive
    vocabulary.

12
THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • Environmental Supports
  • Language is a means of communicating
  • Lessons from Joint Activities
  • Conversations require taking turns
  • Lessons from Child-Directed Speech
  • Short, simple sentences (motherese)
  • Becomes more complex with language development

13
THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • Environmental Supports, continued
  • Lessons from Negative Evidence
  • Respond to ungrammatical speech
  • Expansion corrected and enriched version
  • Recast new grammatical forms
  • Importance of Conversation
  • Must be involved in using language, exposure to
    speech is not sufficient

14
  • Figure 10.4 An overview of the interactionist
    perspective on language development.

15
BEFORE LANGUAGE THE PRELINGUSITC PERIOD
  • Early Reactions to Speech
  • 3 days old, prefer mothers voice
  • Can distinguish phonemes adults cannot
  • The Importance of Intonational Cues
  • Sensitive to cues from birth
  • 7 months sensitive to phrase units

16
BEFORE LANGUAGE THE PRELINGUSITC PERIOD
  • Producing Sounds Prelinguistic Vocalizations
  • 2 months cooing (vowel sounds)
  • 4-6 months babbling (vowel consonant)
  • 10-12 months vocables reserving sounds for
    particular situations

17
BEFORE LANGUAGE THE PRELINGUSITC PERIOD
  • What Do Prelinguistic Infants Know about Language
    and Communication?
  • 7-8 months, vocal turn taking
  • Gestures and Nonverbal Communication
  • 8-10 months
  • Declarative directing attention
  • Imperative alter others behavior

18
BEFORE LANGUAGE THE PRELINGUSITC PERIOD
  • Do Preverbal Infants Understand the Meaning of
    Words?
  • 12-13 months yes
  • Receptive language (understanding) develops
    earlier than productive language (expression)

19
ONE WORD AT A TIME THE HOLOPHRASE PERIOD
  • Holophrase one word sentences
  • Early Semantics Building a Vocabulary
  • Vocabulary grows one word at a time
  • Naming explosion 18-24 months
  • Talk most about manipulable objects
  • Multimodel motherese exaggerated sentences by
    an adult accompanied by an action explaining the
    words

20
  • Table 10.1 Types of Words Used by Children with
    Productive Vocabularies of 50 Words. SOURCE
    Adapted from Nelson, 1973.

21
ONE WORD AT A TIME THE HOLOPHRASE PERIOD
  • Individual and Cultural Variations
  • Referential style word refer to people or
    objects (Western cultures)
  • Expressive style personal/social words (Eastern
    cultures)
  • Birth order influences language style

22
ONE WORD AT A TIME THE HOLOPHRASE PERIOD
  • Attaching Meaning to Words
  • Fast-mapping quickly acquiring a word after
    hearing it applied a few times
  • Good at 13-15 months, better for understanding,
    difficult retrieving words from memory

23
ONE WORD AT A TIME THE HOLOPHRASE PERIOD
  • Common Errors in Word Use
  • Overextension overgeneralization
  • Underextension using word for small range of
    objects
  • Strategies for Inferring Word Meanings
  • Use of social and contextual cues
  • Processing constraints
  • Object scope Mutual exclusivity lexical
    constraint

24
  • Table 10.2 Some Processing Strategies, or
    Constraints, That Guide Young Childrens
    Inferences about the Meaning of New Words.

25
ONE WORD AT A TIME THE HOLOPHRASE PERIOD
  • Syntactical Clues to Word Meaning
  • Syntactical bootstrapping learning meaning from
    sentence structure
  • Noun object
  • Adjective characteristic of object
  • Causation action word

26
THE TELEGRAHPIC PERIOD FROM HOLOPHRASES TO
SIMPLE SENTENCES
  • Telegraphic speech 18-24 months
  • Simple sentences, containing only critical words
    (no grammatical markers)
  • More common in languages where word order is more
    important than grammatical markers
  • A Semantic Analysis of Telegraphic Speech

27
  • Table 10.3 Similarities in Childrens Spontaneous
    Two-Word Sentences in Four Languages. SOURCE
    Adapted from Slobin, 1979.

28
THE TELEGRAHPIC PERIOD FROM HOLOPHRASES TO
SIMPLE SENTENCES
  • A Semantic Analysis of Telegraphic Speech
  • Follows some grammatical rules
  • Context is also vital for understanding meaning
  • The Pragmatics of Early Speech
  • 2 year olds good at vocal turn-taking
  • Prefer to talk about unshared information
  • Monitor responses to clarify meaning
  • Understanding need to be polite

29
LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD
  • Preschool period (2 ½-5) sentences become complex
    and adultlike
  • Grammatical Development
  • Development of Grammatical Morphemes
  • Grammatical morphemes modifiers give more
    precise meaning to sentences
  • s for plurality ed for past tense
  • ing for present progressive

30
  • Table 10.4 Samples of One Boys Speech at Three
    Ages.

31
  • Table 10.5 Order of Acquisition of English
    Grammatical Morphemes.

32
  • Figure 10.5 A linguistic puzzle used to determine
    young childrens understanding of the rule for
    forming plurals in English.

33
LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD
  • Grammatical Morphemes - continued
  • Acquired in a specific order
  • Overregularization overextend new grammatical
    morphemes
  • Relatively rare

34
LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD
  • Mastering Transformational Rules
  • Transformation grammar rules for creating
    variations of declarative sentences
  • Asking questions
  • Yes/no rising intonation
  • Wh- questions (who, what, where, when, why)
  • Moving auxiliary verb

35
LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD
  • Producing Negative Sentences
  • Negative before sentence
  • Move negative inside sentence
  • Combine negative with auxiliary verb
  • Producing Complex Sentences
  • Age 3 - clauses, conjunctions first, embedded
    sentences next
  • 5-6 good grammar

36
LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD
  • Semantic Development
  • 2-5 understand and express relational contrasts
  • Big/little tall/short in/on here/there
  • Frequently misinterpret passives

37
LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD
  • Development of Pragmatics and Communication
    Skills
  • 3 year olds illocutionary intent real meaning
    may be different than literal meaning of words
  • 3-5 must tailor messages to communicate
    effectively

38
LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD
  • Referential Communication
  • Ability to detect ambiguities in others speech
    and ask for clarification
  • Preschool fail to detect linguistic ambiguities
  • Generally successfully guess
  • Assume own uninformative sentences are clear
  • Better in natural environment than lab

39
LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING MIDDLE CHILDHOOD AND
ADOLESCENCE
  • Later Syntactical Development
  • Middle childhood syntactical refinement
  • Subtle rules, complex structures
  • Semantic and Metalinguistic Awareness
  • Rapid vocabulary growth
  • Morphological knowledge meaning of morphemes to
    determine new words
  • Add abstract words
  • 9 to 11 recognize and make inferences

40
LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD
  • Metalinguistic awareness
  • Thinking about language and comment on properties
  • Grammatical awareness
  • Phonological awareness linked to reading
    achievement

41
LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD
  • Further Development of Communication Skills
  • Dramatic improvement in referential communication
    skills by 6 or 7
  • Less egocentric, more role-taking
  • 9 - 10 years old more clarification for
    ambiguous information

42
  • Table 10.6 Typical Idiosyncratic Descriptions
    Offered by Preschool Children When Talking about
    Unfamiliar Graphic Designs in the Krauss and
    Glucksberg Communication Game.

43
LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD
  • What Role Do Siblings Play in the Growth of
    Communication Skills?
  • Promotes effective communication
  • Siblings less likely to adjust speech, but then
    more likely to monitor and fix ambiguous messages
  • Less likely to interpret ambiguous message from
    younger sibling forcing them to adjust

44
  • Table 10.7 Important Milestones in Language
    Development.

45
Bilingualism Challenges and Consequences of
Learning Two Languages
  • Exposure to 2 languages prior to age 3,
    proficient in both
  • Preschool children, often learn second language
    to proficiency in 1 year
  • Cognitive advantages
  • Score higher on IQ tests, metalinguistic
    awareness, better selective attention

46
Bilingualism Challenges and Consequences of
Learning Two Languages
  • English-only instruction
  • Causes LEP children to struggle academically
  • Do not acquire sufficient level of skill in
    English

47
Bilingualism Challenges and Consequences of
Learning Two Languages
  • Two-way bilingual education
  • Half day in English, half in second language
  • Beneficial for both students with limited English
    proficiency and students fluent in English
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