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India and China

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Title: India and China


1
Chapter 4
  • India and China

2
Section 1
  • Hinduism and Buddhism

3
The Beliefs of Hinduism
  • It has no single founder and no single sacred
    text
  • Due to that, it has become very complex with
    countless Gods and Goddesses
  • However all Hindus share certain basic beliefs

4
The Beliefs of Hinduism (cont)
  • Many Gods- or One?
  • The universe is part of the unchanging, all
    powerful spiritual force called Brahman
  • Most important Gods are
  • Brahma Creator
  • Vishnu Preserver
  • Shiva Destroyer
  • Each represents parts of Brahman
  • Sacred Texts
  • Hindu teachings recorded in Vedas and Upanishads
  • Specifically the Bhagavad-Gita

5
The Beliefs of Hinduism (cont)
  • The Goal of Life
  • Everyone has an essential self, or Atman
  • Ultimately desire Moksha
  • Union with Brahman
  • Achieved by discarding selfish desires
  • Believe in reincarnation
  • Rebirth of the soul in another form
  • Allows people to work towards moksha

6
The Beliefs of Hinduism (cont)
  • Karma and Dharma
  • Must obey the law of Karma
  • All the actions a persons life that affect his
    or her fate in the next life
  • Live virtuously and earn higher level of
    existence
  • Live selfishly and earn suffering
  • They stress Dharma
  • The religious and moral duties of an individual
  • Obey Dharma, a person acquires merit for the next
    life

7
The Beliefs of Hinduism (cont)
  • Also believe in Ahimsa
  • Nonviolence
  • Opposition to the Brahmins
  • Emphasized meditation, self-denial, and an
    extreme form of ahimsa

8
Gautama Buddha The Enlightened One
  • Foothill of Himalayas, Siddhartha Gautama founded
    Buddhism
  • Early Life
  • Signs predicted that Gautama would become a
    wandering holy man
  • Gautama was in the high caste system
  • The Search
  • When he discovered misery, he left home to seek
    the cure to misery
  • Sought Hindu wisdom, but found no answer
  • He sat and meditated for 48 days, until he
    understood the cure
  • He arose and became Buddha, Enlightened One

9
Spread of Buddhism
1
  • Followers accompanied the Buddha as he
    preached across Northern India.
  • Some Buddhists set up monasteries and convents
    that grew into centers of learning.
  • Missionaries and traders spread Buddhism across
    India to many parts of Asia.

10
Gautama Buddha The Enlightened One (cont)
  • Four Noble Truths
  • All life is full of suffering, pain and sorrow
  • The Cause of suffering is the desire for things
    that are really illusions, such as riches, power,
    and long life
  • The only cure for suffering is to overcome desire
  • The way to overcome desire is to follow the
    Eightfold Path
  • The Eightfold Path being right views, right
    aspirations, Right speech, right conduct, right
    livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and
    right contemplation.
  • Final Goal is Nirvana
  • Union with the universe and release from the
    cycle of rebirth

11
Gautama Buddha The Enlightened One (cont)
  • Buddhism and Hinduism Compared
  • Both stress nonviolence, believed in Karma,
    Dharma, Moksha, and a cycle of rebirth
  • Buddha rejects priests, formal rituals and many
    gods of Hinduism

12
Spread of Buddhism
  • Work out your own salvation with diligence
    Buddha
  • Sacred Text
  • Tripitaka
  • Three Baskets of Wisdom
  • Overcome anger by not growing angry. Overcome
    evil with good. Overcome the liar by truth

13
Spread of Buddhism (cont)
  • Two Sects
  • Split into two major sects
  • Smaller groups
  • Theravada
  • Strict Buddha followers that believed only monks
    and nuns could reach nirvana
  • Mahayana
  • Easier for ordinary people to reach nirvana
  • Saw Buddha and others Gods as compassionate and
    more personal
  • Described many heavens and hells
  • Decline in India
  • Hinduism ultimately absorbed some Buddhist ideas
  • Buddhism generally driven out of India

14
Section 2
  • Powerful Empires of India

15
The Maurya Empire
  • Rival Rajahs fought over control of Ganges
    Valley
  • Chandragupta
  • Chandragupta Maurya forged the first great Indian
    Empire
  • After conquering the Ganges Valley, he conquered
    north India
  • He had a well organized bureaucracy
  • taxes, managed state owned factories and
    shipyards
  • Effective government, but harsh
  • crack down on dissent
  • any differing or opposing ideas

16
The Maurya Empire (cont)
  • Asoka
  • Most honored Maurya emperor
  • Conquered much of the Deccan Plateau
  • Converted to Buddhism
  • rejected violence, and resolved to rule by moral
    example
  • Sent missionaries to Sri Lanka
  • People sent on a religious mission
  • Helped spread Buddhism to Asia
  • preached tolerance
  • Built temples, roads, hospitals, rest houses for
    travelers

17
The Maurya Empire (cont)
  • Division and Disunity
  • After Asokas death Maurya power declined by 185
    B.C.
  • Ancient times, as today, people are divided
    culturally in the south and the north
  • Often the north was conquered by foreigners

18
Kingdoms of the Deccan
  • People of the Deccan were Dravidians with
    different languages and traditions
  • For example, women had high status and economic
    power
  • Religiously tolerant
  • Trade was very important
  • Improved harbors to support overseas trade
  • Especially to the Roman Empire

19
Golden Age of the Guptas
  • Arose out of the north of India
  • Gupta emperors had a strong central government
    that promoted peace and prosperity
  • Golden age between 320-550 A.D.
  • period of great cultural achievements
  • Peace and Prosperity
  • Generally a confederate style government
  • locals having most power
  • Trade and Farming very bountiful
  • Exported to East Africa, Middle East and
    Southeast Asia

20
Golden Age of the Guptas (cont)
  • Advances in Learning
  • Students educated in religious schools
  • including math, medicine, physics, languages,
    literatures, and other subjects
  • Created numerals
  • including zero, decimal system of numbers based
    on 10
  • Architecture
  • Hindus built stone temples
  • Buddhist built stupas
  • large dome-shaped shrines that housed the sacred
    remains of the Buddha or other holy people

21
Golden Age of the Guptas (cont)
  • Magnificent Carvings
  • Both temples and stupas, were covered in
    magnificent carvings of gods and goddesses
  • including Shiva, who is a four-armed God
  • Paintings at Ajanta
  • Murals painted recalling Buddhist stories and
    legends
  • wall paintings
  • Literature
  • Greatest Gupta poet and playwright was Kalidasa

22
Looking Ahead
  • Eventually Gupta India declines under the
    pressure of weak rulers, civil war, and foreign
    invaders.
  • One group of invaders is the White Huns from
    Central Asia

23
Section 3
  • Pillars of Indian Life

24
The Complex Caste System
  • It is better to do ones own duty badly than to
    do anothers duty well. Krishna from the
    Bhagavad-Gita
  • Many Castes
  • As new groups of invaders were absorbed into
    society, new caste systems were created

25
The Complex Caste System (cont)
  • Complex Rules
  • Closely linked to Hindu beliefs
  • Brahmins were pure and therefore closer to Moksha
    than lower class individuals
  • Rules and dictations, regulated what, where, when
    individuals in the each caste system could do
  • Lowest outcastes were called Untouchables
  • impure jobs such as digging graves, cleaning
    streets, or turning animal hides into leather
  • Upper classes avoided contact with untouchables

26
The Complex Caste System (cont)
  • Effects
  • Caste system ensured a stable social order
  • Karma determined their caste
  • By doing their current duties, the could be
    re-birthed into a better caste system
  • Caste levels depended on each other, as only
    certain jobs were done in each caste

27
Family Life
  • Structure
  • Ideal Family was a joint family
  • parents, children, grandchildren, uncles, and
    their offspring shared a common dwelling
  • Patriarchal society
  • father or oldest male headed the household
  • prosperity belonged to the whole family

28
Family Life (cont)
  • Children and Parents
  • Learned early their caste rules and duties
  • Son learned the ritual duties of the males
  • Daughters to serve and obey husband
  • Parents duty was arranging good marriages based
    on caste and family interests
  • brides father offered dowry
  • payment to the bridegroom
  • financed the costly wedding festivities
  • Daughter would leave family for husbands family

29
Family Life (cont)
  • Womens Lives
  • Generally had freedom to wonder freely
  • However through the years, the women began to be
    restricted
  • Primary duty to marry, have kids and raise them
  • However, few rights otherwise
  • High Caste widows were not allowed to remarry

30
Village Life
  • Villages were filled with each level of the caste
    system
  • Doing the duties necessary for the village to
    survive
  • Feudal system in terms of farms
  • Generally self-sufficient
  • However there was periodic communication between
    villages

31
Section 4
  • Philosophy and Religion in China

32
The Wisdom of Confucius
  • Lead the people by virtue and they will have a
    sense of shame and moreover will become good.
  • Confucius is the western version of the name Kong
    Fuzi, or Master Kong
  • Born in 551 B.C. to a noble but poor family
  • Became a teacher
  • Much like Gautama Buddha in India and Socrates in
    Greece, he did not formally write down his
    sayings
  • However his students collected them into the
    Analects
  • He cared very little for religion and Salvation
  • He developed a philosophy concerned with worldly
    goals, specifically social order and a good
    government
  • System of ideas

33
The Wisdom of Confucius (cont)
  • Five Relationships
  • Harmony resulted when people accepted their
    positions in life
  • father to son
  • elder brother to younger brother
  • husband to wife
  • ruler to subject
  • friend to friend
  • Superiors should care for their inferiors
  • Correct Behavior would bring order and stability
  • Filial piety
  • respect for parents, above all other duties

34
The Wisdom of Confucius (cont)
  • Government
  • Ruler must provide a good government
  • specifically by good example
  • Spread of Confucianism
  • His ideas greatly influenced Chinese rulers,
    especially filial piety
  • Spread to Korea, Japan and Vietnam, as they were
    taken over by the Chinese Civilizations

35
The Harsh Ideas of Legalism
  • Philosopher Hanfeizi stressed that rulers impose
    strict rules to control human greed, the greatest
    evil
  • Became known as legalism
  • Influences Chinese ideas that people are required
    to work on government projects and punish those
    who shirk their duties

36
Daoism The Unspoken Way
  • Founder of Daoism was Laozi, or Old Master
  • Wrote the book The Way of Virtue
  • Sought to live in harmony with nature
  • Seeking They Way
  • Focus on Dao or The Way of the universe
  • Stress the virtue of yielding
  • water the example most often used

37
Daoism The Unspoken Way (cont)
  • Government
  • Viewed government as unnatural, there the cause
    of many problems
  • Best government governs the least
  • A Blend of Ideas
  • Evolved into a religion involving many gods,
    goddesses, and magical practices
  • Eventually Confucianism and Daoism were combined
    by many
  • Confucianism showed them how to behave
  • Daoism influenced their view of the natural world

38
Buddhism in China
  • By 100 A.D. Buddhist missionaries had spread
    Mahayana Buddhism from India into China
  • Became very popular, despite conflict with
    cultural view of family
  • Offered escape from suffering
  • Offered hope of eternal happiness and presented
    Buddha as a compassionate, merciful God
  • Through prayer, good works and devotion, anyone
    could hope to gain salvation

39
Buddhism in China (cont)
  • By 400 A.D. Buddhism a prominent religion, while
    absorbing some ideas form Confucianism and Daoism
  • Chinese Buddhist monks stressed filial piety and
    honored Confucius

40
Section 5
  • Strong Rulers Unite China

41
Shi Huangdi
  • Zeng rose to power and proclaimed himself Shi
    Huangdi or First Emperor
  • Using rewards for merit and punishments for
    failure, he built the strong authoritarian
    government of the Qin Dynasty
  • Became known as the Classical Age
  • Patterns that are evident throughout Chinese
    history

42
Shi Huangdi (cont)
  • Unity Imposed
  • Emperor abolished feudalism in China
  • replaced it with military districts and appointed
    loyal officials to administer them
  • Then sent spies to report back to emperor about
    the officials actions
  • High taxes paid to support armies and building
    projects
  • Standardized weights and measures
  • created common coinage
  • extended roads and canals
  • had scholars create uniformity in Chinese writing

43
Shi Huangdi (cont)
  • Crackdown on Dissent
  • He jailed, tortured, and killed many who opposed
    his rule
  • destroyed all the works of literature and
    philosophy
  • The Great Wall
  • Shi Huangdis most remarkable achievement
  • Built it to unite many walls already in place
  • over the centuries the wall was extended
  • Became a very important symbol to the Chinese
  • protecting their civilized world from the nomadic
    bands from the north

44
Shi Huangdi (cont)
  • Collapse
  • Anger over heavy taxes, forced labor, and cruel
    policies, Chin went into revolts
  • As Qin Power collapsed Liu Bang arose, creating
    the Han Dynasty
  • Bang Claimed the Mandate of Heaven

45
The Han Dynasty
  • Bang took the title of Gao Zu
  • Lowered taxes and eased harsh Legalist policies
  • Appointed Confucian scholars as advisers
  • Lasted for nearly 400 years

46
The Han Dynasty (cont)
  • Emperor Wudi
  • Wudi was the most famous Han emperor
  • Chose officials from Confucian wisdom and virtue
  • Improved canals and roads
  • Built granaries in order to help stabilize grain
    prices
  • Imposed government monopoly on iron and salt
  • complete control of a product or business by one
    person or group
  • Gave government a source of income other than
    taxes
  • Followed a policy of Expansionism
  • increasing the amount of territory under Chinese
    rule
  • Took over Manchuria, Korea, Northern Vietnam,
    Tibet and Central Asia

47
The Han Dynasty (cont)
  • Silk Road to the West
  • Wudi opened the trade route that ended up
    becoming called the Silk Road
  • Goods traded from Rome to China, and parts in
    between
  • Stretched for nearly 4,000 miles
  • Scholar-Officials
  • Confucianism was the official belief of the
    governmental system

48
The Han Dynasty (cont)
  • Civil Service Examination
  • Positions gained by merit as opposed to family
    background
  • setup exams to determine someones capabilities
  • Women were closed out of governmental jobs
  • Dynasties rose and fell, but Confucian influence
    survived
  • Collapse of the Han Empire
  • Court intrigues undermined emperors who could no
    long control powerful warlords
  • local military rulers
  • Weak Emperors, rebellious peasants, and ambitious
    warlords ended the Han Dynasty

49
Achievements of the Han Golden Age
  • Science
  • Wrote texts on chemistry, zoology, botany and
    other subjects
  • Observed stars and planets
  • invented better timekeeping devices
  • including a seismograph
  • Medicine
  • Acupuncture
  • doctor inserts needles under the skin at specific
    points to relieve pain or treat various illnesses
  • Technology
  • Made paper out of wood pulp
  • still used to make paper today
  • Shipbuilding
  • invented rudder to steer
  • The Arts
  • Temples and Palaces

50
Looking Ahead
  • The series of governments started during the Han
    Dynasty, lasted up until 1912
  • Every new dynasty sought to recapture the glory
    of the Han Dynasty
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