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The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS): development and utility of an existing system for collecting data and monitoring child abuse in the US

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Title: The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS): development and utility of an existing system for collecting data and monitoring child abuse in the US


1
The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System
(NCANDS) development and utility of an existing
system for collecting data and monitoring child
abuse in the US
  • John D. Fluke
  • Vice President Research
  • Walter R. McDonald Associates, Inc.

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD
ABUSE Child abuse which kind of data for
monitoring? Florence, Istituto degli Innocenti,
18 January 2007
2
Overview
  • Brief History of National US Child Maltreatment
    Data Collection
  • NCANDS Scope and Methods
  • NCANDS Data
  • Policy and Trends (examples)
  • Example Recurrence
  • General Discussion of NCANDS and
  • The Value of NCANDS Like Systems

3
National Child Maltreatment Data Brief History
and Context
  • Early Studies in the US
  • Incidents Extracted from Media Reports (1950s
    1970s)
  • National Reporting Study on Child Abuse and
    Neglect
  • 1976 1988
  • Other Studies of Incidence
  • Strauss and Gelles
  • Finkelhor
  • Prevent Child Abuse America
  • Major US National Data Collection Activities
  • National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System
    (NCANDS)
  • 1988 -
  • Other National Data Collection Programs
  • National Incidence Study (NIS)
  • Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting
    System (AFCARS)
  • National Study of Child and Adolescent Well Being
    (NSCAW)

4
Scope, Goals and Purposes of the NCANDS Data
Collection Program
  • Meets US legal requirements to collect child
    maltreatment data
  • Provides data that are critical to policymakers
    and administrators of CPS programs
  • Data are used to support a range of US
    initiatives, notably
  • ASFA Outcome Measures
  • Child and Family Services Review Process
  • Office of Management and Budget Program
    Assessment Rating Tool (PART)
  • Contribute to the understanding of child
    maltreatment and the impact of intervention policy

5
NCANDS Data Collection and Analysis Methods
  • Sample
  • Universe uses no systematic sampling approach.
  • Data are administrative and derived from state
    Child Protective Service Agencies.
  • Representation
  • Represents only cases known to one particular
    service sector (child welfare).
  • Includes data from all US states (case level data
    from 46 of 52 States in 2005).
  • Data Collection
  • Aggregate Data are survey.
  • Case level from State information systems.

6
NCANDS Data Collection and Analysis Methods
  • Mapping and Validation of Data
  • Data are mapped to national categories
  • Data are validated for coding, internal
    consistency, and analytical accuracy and
    comprehensiveness
  • Measures of Maltreatment
  • Six major categories (Physical, neglect, medical
    neglect, sexual, emotional, other).
  • Longitudinal
  • Aggregate data since 1990 case level data since
    1993.
  • Encrypted unique child and perpetrator
    identifiers.
  • Time Period
  • Data are collected annually.

7
Investigation and Victimization Rates, 1990-2004
8
(No Transcript)
9
Figure 3-3 Victimization Rates by Maltreatment
Type, 2000-2004
10
Policy and Trends (Example) Child and Family
Service Review (CFSR) Maltreatment Recurrence
  • In August 2001, the US Childrens Bureau set the
    first national standard for recurrence
  • A State meets the national standard if of all
    children who were victims of substantiated or
    indicated child abuse and/or neglect during the
    first 6 months of the period under review, 6.1
    percent or fewer children had another
    substantiated or indicated report within 6
    months.

11
Child and Family Service Review (CFSR)
Maltreatment Recurrence (continued)
  • As of June 2006 the Standard has been revised
  • Of all children who were victims of a
    substantiated or indicated maltreatment
    allegation during the first 6 months of FY 2004,
    what percent were not victims of another
    substantiated or indicated maltreatment
    allegation within the 6-months following that
    maltreatment incident?
  • National Standard Based on 45 States 94.6 or
    higher

12
Survival Analysis Plot for 2002 CM Data
Recurrence During a 12 Month Period, Over 75
Recurred Within 6 Months (n 210,641 26 States)
13
Policy and Trends (Example) How is Data
Translated Into Policy and Programs?
  • Specific States not meeting standard must
    implement a 3 year Program Improvement Plan (PIP)
    approved by the US government
  • Plans address a range of programmatic and
    intervention strategies, for example
  • Multiple maltreatment and chronic neglect
  • Alternative response systems
  • Safety and risk assessment systems
  • Additional research and evaluation
  • States not in compliance may be subject to
    penalties
  • After each three year cycle the US standards are
    reviewed and revised.

14
Policy and Trends (Example 1) Policy Related
Research Questions
  • 1. What are the trends in recurrence rates over
    time?
  • 2. In the presence of other factors that are
    associated with recurrence, what is the basis for
    a possible trend in recurrence rates over time?

15
Children Who Experience Recurrence Within 6
Months (12 States)
16
Research Questions
and Answers
  • 1. What are the trends in recurrence rates over
    time?

We see a decline in recurrence rates over time.
17
Research Questions
and Answers
  • What factors predict the likelihood of recurrence?

Child Age, Disability, Maltreatment Type,
Perpetrator Relationship, Report Source,
Services, Prior Victimization
Does the trend in reduced recurrence operate on
its own?
No, the trend doesnt exist on its own and
operates best when it interacts with other
factors such as maltreatment, report source, and
the provision of foster care placement.
Conclusion The decline in recurrence among the
States is not just a function of time but is
associated with reductions in risk factors over
time. The possibility that State Program
Improvement Plans may have been successful in
mitigating some risk factors thereby reducing
recurrence cannot be dismissed.
18
How do the NCANDS Data Support National and State
Level Policy and Intervention?
  • Some of examples of data supporting policy
  • Problem Recognition
  • Re-entry (rereporting, recurrence, recidivism,
    etc.)
  • Racial Disproportionality and Disparity
  • Neglect
  • Standard Setting
  • Child and Family Services Review Standard Setting
  • Information System Guidelines (SACWIS)
  • Monitoring
  • Child and Family Services Review
  • Alternative Response Implementation

19
General Discussion of NCANDS
  • Facilitators of Case Level Data Collection in the
    US
  • US Legislation
  • Related Programs State Automated Child Welfare
  • Information Systems (SACWIS)
  • Child and Family Service Review Process (CFSR)
  • System has evolved
  • Almost all States are Now Providing Case Level
    Data (46 in 2005)
  • Data are timely and available annually
  • Range of applications has expanded dramatically

20
NCANDS Characteristics/Features
  • Action (regulations, policy, programs)
  • Data collection program is authorized by US
    Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
  • Supports US HHS Childrens Bureau Child and
    Family Services Review Process (CSFR)
  • Support Childrens Bureau OMB Program Assessment
    Rating Tool (PART) measures
  • Evaluation
  • Contract is competitively bid by the US HHS
    Childrens Bureau
  • Feedback loop
  • Project convenes a State Advisory Group each year
  • Data program is reviewed for revision every three
    year

21
NCANDS Characteristics/Features
  • Training
  • Ongoing training and technical assistance for
    States
  • Quality Assessment
  • Evolving set of procedures for data mapping
    (definitions), data consistency analysis, data
    review.
  • Increased use of information system platforms to
    insure data integrity
  • Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) process with
    States
  • Analysis
  • Annual report
  • Descriptive analysis
  • Compliance reports
  • Policy studies
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Dissemination
  • Annual reports (most recent Child Maltreatment
    2004)
  • http//www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/
  • The National Data Archive on Child Abuse and
    Neglect (NDACAN) at Cornell University
  • http//www.ndacan.cornell.edu/
  • Special Reports, Presentations, Publications

22
Discussion continued
  • How is the existence of multiple definitions
    handled within the US?
  • Categories are general, capturing a universal
    view of the measurement objective
  • Specific definitions at the State level are
    mapped to NCANDS Categories
  • Differences are acknowledged in describing the
    data
  • States are encouraged to improve their data and
    address issues of consistency over time
  • How are different needs for various audiences
    such as policy, finance, performance outcomes,
    and research dealt with?
  • A range of analytic products are developed for
    various audiences ranging from the general public
    to researchers
  • Data are disseminated for secondary analysis
  • Specific analysis and analytic infrastructure is
    developed to meet various US reporting
    requirements

23
The Value of NCANDS Like Systems
  • Current and timely
  • Who is served
  • How many
  • Characteristics
  • Continuity
  • Ability to monitor trends
  • Outcomes and performance
  • Research
  • Longitudinal data
  • Special populations
  • Infrequent events
  • Decision making
  • Sampling frames
  • Assess Resource
  • Staffing
  • Cost

24
Disclaimer
The views expressed in written conference
materials or publications and by speakers, do
not necessarily reflect the official policies of
the Department of Health and Human Services, nor
does mention of trade names, commercial
practices, or organizations imply endorsement by
the U.S. Government.
Contact
John D. Fluke Ph. D. Vice President of
Research Walter R. McDonald Associates,
Inc. 5445 DTC Parkway Penthouse Four Greenwood
Village, CO 80111 USA (303) 488-3437 jfluke_at_wrma.
com
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