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Palestrante Principal: Dr. Paulo Fernando Ribeiro

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Palestrante Principal: Dr. Paulo Fernando Ribeiro pribeiro_at_calvin.edu http://engr.calvin.edu/PRibeiro_WEBPAGE/ Co-Chairman of the Power Quality Steering Committee of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Palestrante Principal: Dr. Paulo Fernando Ribeiro


1
Palestrante Principal Dr. Paulo Fernando Ribeiro
pribeiro_at_calvin.edu http//engr.calvin.edu/PRibe
iro_WEBPAGE/ Co-Chairman of the Power Quality
Steering Committee of the IEEE (EUA) Professor do
Calvin College (EUA)
2
Programa 16 de Junho (Segunda-feira) 0900
0940 Inscrições no local 0940 0955
Sessão de Abertura 1000 1215 -
Harmônicos - Breve Introdução - Modelagem - Font
es e Aspectos Probabilísticos - Instrumentação - Í
ndices Harmônicos - Normas / Recomendações 1230
- 1400 - Almoço
3
Programa 16 de Junho (Segunda-feira) 1230 -
1400 - Almoço 1410 - 1550 - Harmônicos - Contra
tos e Seguros - Aspectos Econômicos /
Custos 1600 - 1625 - Coffee Break 1630 - 1730
Debates Mesa Redonda
4
Programa 17 de Junho (Terça-feira) 0830 -
1010 Distúrbios na Tensão - Breve
Introdução - Definições (Sags, Swells, Flutuações
de Tensão, etc) - Instrumentação 1015 - 1040 -
Coffee Break 1045 - 1215 - Distúrbios na
Tensão - Índices - Normas / Recomendações 1220 -
1400 - Almoço
5
Programa 17 de Junho (Terça-feira) 1410 -
1550 - Distúrbios na Tensão - Aspectos
Econômicos / Custos 1600 - 1625 - Coffee
Break 1630 - 1730 - Debates Mesa Redonda
6
Programa 18 de Junho (Quarta-feira) 0830 -
1010 Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia
Elétrica - Consumidores na Transmissão /
Distribuição - Interface Transmissão /
Distribuição 1015 - 1040 - Coffee Break 1045 -
1240 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia
Elétrica - Programas de Qualidade de
Energia - Aspectos Econômicos /
Custos - Contratos / Seguros de Qualidade -1250
- 1410 Almoço
7
Programa 18 de Junho (Quarta-feira) 1415 -
1520 Debates Mesa Redonda 1520 - 1530
Sessão de Encerramento 1530 - 1545 Declaração
à Impressa
8
What We Will Learn Objective PQ
State-of-the-Art Integrated Perspective Review
Basics Concepts and Facts (from an Integrated
Perspective) New Topics and Ideas Impact of New
Technologies Impact of New De-Regulated
Environment Cost and Contractual
Issues Contextualize Brazilian
Reality Approach Workshop, Open Forum,
Discussion, Discussion, etc. Acknowledgement
Mark McGranaghan, IEEE, ONS, EPRI, Internet
9
Vision "Where there is no vision, the people
perish" Proverbs 2918 Philosophy No aspect
of reality should be viewed in isolation Strategy
Initiative
10
What is the Cost of Power Quality? What is the
Value of Power Quality (Future)? How are
Customers Addressing Power Quality Needs and
Risks? What Needs to Be done?
11
Power Quality Reality Power Quality is a
serious issue that touches almost all
industrial, commercial and residential customers
in some way.
12
Power Quality - Challenges Flexible Reliable
Comprehensive Cost Effective (Micro and Macro)
13
Power Quality Technical Facts - Differentiating
Steady- State Issues. Transient - Protection
Issues Electrical Noise - Issues Wiring
Guidelines - Issues
14
Power Quality Approach - Integrated All sectors
need to understand the overall picture so that
these decisions can be made in an intelligent
way. Power Quality Solutions should take into
consideration Importance of Power Quality
Changing Nature of Customer Loads Program
Objectives (Service, Load Growth, Profit)
Customer Interface Education and Training
Monitoring and Site Surveys
15
Power Quality Approach - Integrated All sectors
need to understand the overall picture so that
these decisions can be made in an intelligent
way. Power Quality Solutions should take into
consideration Solutions to Power Quality
Problems Organizational Analysis Customer
Service Functions Marketing Functions
Engineering Functions Legal/Regulatory
Considerations Market Research - Market Size -
Market Structure
16
Power Quality Approach - Integrated All sectors
need to understand the overall picture so that
these decisions can be made in an intelligent
way. Power Quality Solutions should take into
consideration Customer Characteristics
Competitive Position Marketing Strategies
Developing a Business Plan Need for the PQ
Program Program Objectives
17
Power Quality Integrating Principles What is
power quality? Expectations, Specifications,
Minimum Requirements Why are we concerned about
power quality? Consequences of power quality
problems The cost of power quality problems The
benefits of power quality design What are the
sensitive loads. What is the life-cycle to power
quality issue costs and benefits First cost vs.
problem costs Whose costs? Designs that set
correct expectations throughout the life cycle
18
Power Quality Integrating Principles 1.
Understand the problem 2. Find the real cause
before you find the best solution 3. The
solution must be always cost effective 4. Be
open and work closely with the customer 5. Be
Pro-Active, Not Reactive 6. Do not go after
magic solutions 7. Educate utility and
customers 8. Offer alternative PQ Services 9.
Be aware of legal issues 10. Satisfy the
customers - They are always right
19
What You Will Learn Integrated Picture
PQ Concern
20
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Disturbance / Quality? Definitions Any
power problem manifested in voltage, current, or
frequency deviations that results in the failure
or misoperation of customer equipment."
Of all power quality problems, approximately 60
are internally generated within the home or
business. Twenty percent(20) are the result of
neighboring customers.Fifteen percent(15) are
the result of natural phenomenon such as
lightning, tree limbs, and animal contacts. And
five(5) are normal utility operations such as
the operation of a circuit breaker.
IEEE PES Working Group P1433 Power Quality
Definitions
21
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Disturbance / Quality? Definitions Any
power problem manifested in voltage, current, or
frequency deviations that results in the failure
or misoperation of customer equipment."
P1433 3.2.50 Power Disturbance Any deviation from
the nominal value (or from some selected
thresholds based on load tolerance) of the input
ac power characteristics. When monitoring
electric power, with many devices, thresholds are
established to define what constitutes a power
disturbance. Often, these thresholds are
determined by the type of problem that is
occurring. For example, if a certain piece of
equipment is failing, device specific thresholds
will be used (i.e. voltage limitations and noise
limitations from the manufacturer) to establish
the definition of a power disturbance.
22
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Disturbance / Quality? Definitions Any
power problem manifested in voltage, current, or
frequency deviations that results in the failure
or misoperation of customer equipment."
P1433 3.2.51 Power Quality The concept of
powering and grounding sensitive equipment in a
manner that is suitable to the operation of that
equipment. NOTEWithin the industry, alternate
definitions or interpretations of power quality
have been used, reflecting different points of
view. Therefore, this definition might not be
exclusive, pending development of a broader
consensus.
23
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Disturbance / Quality? Definitions Any
power problem manifested in voltage, current, or
frequency deviations that results in the failure
or misoperation of customer equipment."
P1433 3.2.51 Power Quality A point of view of an
equipment designer or manufacturer might be that
power quality is a perfect sinusoidal wave, with
no variations in the voltage, and no noise
present on the grounding system. A point of view
of an electrical utility engineer might be that
power quality is simply voltage availability or
outage minutes. Finally, a point of view of an
end-user, is that power quality or quality
power is simply the power that works for
whatever equipment the end-user is applying.
While each hypothetical point of view has a clear
difference, it is clear that none is properly
focused.
24
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Disturbance / Quality? Definitions Any
power problem manifested in voltage, current, or
frequency deviations that results in the failure
or misoperation of customer equipment."
P1433 3.2.51 Power Quality An environment where
the equipment designer or manufacturer clearly
states the equipment needs, and the electrical
utility engineer indicates the system delivery
characteristics, and the end-user then predicts
and understands the equipment operational
disturbances that will likely be encountered on a
yearly basis is a better scenario. This allows a
cost justification to be performed by the
end-user to either improve equipment operation by
installing additional components or improve the
electrical supply system through installation of
additional, or alteration of existing components.
25
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Disturbance / Quality? Definitions Any
power problem manifested in voltage, current, or
frequency deviations that results in the failure
or misoperation of customer equipment.
26
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Disturbance / Quality? Definitions Any
power problem manifested in voltage, current, or
frequency deviations that results in the failure
or misoperation of customer equipment.
  • Test Equipment Out of Spec
  • Overheating Transformers
  • Nuisance Tripping
  • Data Corruption
  • Equipment/Hardware Failure
  • Your Problem ...

Problem Definition
27
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura PQ Check List
  • What sensitive electronic equipment is
    experiencing problems? (type, location, etc.)
  • Nature of the problems? (data loss, lockups,
    component damage, flickering lights, etc.)
  • When do the problems occur? (time of day, day of
    week, particular system operation, etc.)
  • How long have problems occurred? (since
    installation, just recently, seasonally, etc.)
  • Coincident problems occurring at the same time?
    (lights flicker, motors slow down, etc.)
  • Possible problem sources at site? (arc welders,
    air conditioning, copy machines, etc.)
  • Existing protection for equipment? (surge
    suppressor, isolation transformer, etc.)
  • Has protection equipment helped the problems?
    (getting better, no change, getting worse, etc.)
  • Has the wiring and grounding of the building been
    checked? (missing connections, improper
    connections, poor quality connections - high
    impedance, etc.)
  • Has the quality of the supplied AC voltage been
    checked? (use True RMS meters)

28
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Approach
Problem Definition Why is PQ
important? Philosophy Responsibilities What
needs to be done? By whom? Flexibility to
allow for different system characteristics Da
ta Collection (format, etc.) Management Duration
, Management, etc. Tracking System
Performance Where, When, How? Indices
(definitions, conditions) Technical Monitoring
(functional specs, etc) Standards
29
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura PQ Check List
30
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura PQ Check List
31
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Quality? Definitions IEEE Power
Quality Standards IEEE SCC-22 Power Quality
Standards Coordinating Committee IEEE
1159Monitoring Electric Power Quality IEEE
1159.1 Guide For Recorder and Data Acquisition
Requirements IEEE 1159.2 Power Quality Event
Characterization IEEE 1159.3 Data File Format
for Power Quality Data Interchange IEEE
P1564Voltage Sag Indices IEEE 1346Power System
Compatibility with Process Equipment IEEE P1100
Power and Grounding Electronic Equipment (Emerald
Book) IEEE 1433 Power Quality Definitions IEEE
P1453 Voltage flicker IEEE 519 Harmonic
Control in Electrical Power Systems
32
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Quality? Definitions IEEE Power
Quality Standards IEEE Harmonics Working Group
Single-phase Harmonics Task Force IEEE P519A
Guide for Applying Harmonic Limits on Power
Systems Interharmonics Task Force Harmonics
Modeling and Simulation Task Force Probabilistic
Aspects of Harmonics Task Force Surge Protective
Devices Committee Seventeen sub-committee links
can be found at the "Sub-committee pages" link...
IEEE P446 Emergency and standby power IEEE
P1409 Distribution Custom Power IEEE P1547
Distributed Resources and Electric Power Systems
Interconnection
33
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Quality? Definitions IEC Power Quality
Standards 61000-1-X - Definitions and methodology
61000-2-X - Environment (e.g. 61000-2-4 is
compatibility levels in industrial plants)
61000-3-X - Limits (e.g. 61000-3-4 is limits on
harmonics emissions) 61000-4-X - Tests and
measurements (e.g. 61000-4-30 is power quality
measurements) 61000-5-X - Installation and
mitigation 61000-6-X - Generic immunity
emissions standards IEC SC77A Low frequency EMC
Phenomena -- essentially equivalent of "power
quality" in American terminology TC 77/WG 1
Terminology (part of the parent Technical
Committee) SC 77A/WG 1 Harmonics and other
low-frequency disturbances SC 77A/WG 6 Low
frequency immunity tests
34
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Quality? Definitions IEC Power
Quality Standards SC 77A/WG 2 Voltage
fluctuations and other low-frequency disturbances
SC 77A/WG 8 Electromagnetic interference
related to the network frequency SC 77A/WG 9
Power Quality measurement methods SC 77A/PT
61000-3-1 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) -
Part 3-1 Limits - Overview of emission standards
and guides. Technical Report
35
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Quality? Definitions Other PQ
Standards UIE International Union for
Electricity Applications CENELEC European
Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
UNIPEDE International Union of Producers and
Distributors of Electrical Energy ANSI American
National Standards Institute ANSI C62 Guides
and standards on surge protection ANSI C84.1
Voltage ratings for equipment and power systems
ANSI C57.110 Transformer derating for supplying
non-linear loads CIGRE International Council on
Large Electric Systems CIRED International
Conference on Electricity Distribution CBEMA /
ITIC curve
36
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Quality? Definitions (Other
Sources) IEC 1000-2-1 - Electromagnetic
Compatibility (EMC) - Part 2 Environment,
"Description of the Environment --
Electromagnetic Environment for Low Frequency
Conducted Disturbances and Signaling in Public
Power Supply Systems," Section 1, 1990. IEC
50(161)(1990) - International Electrotechnical
Vocabulary, Chapter 161 Electromagnetic
Compatibility. IEEE STD 100-1992, IEEE Standard
Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms
(ANSI). IEEE Standard 1100-1992, Recommended
Practice for Powering and Grounding Sensitive
Electronic Equipment. (Emerald Book). IEEE STD
1159-1995, IEEE Recommended Practice for
Monitoring Electric Power Quality. IEEE STD
1250-1995, IEEE Guide for Service to Equipment
Sensitive to Momentary Voltage Disturbances. IEEE
STD 1346-1998, IEEE Recommended Practice for
Evaluating Electric Power System Compatibility
With Electronic Process Equipment. IEEE STD
519-1992, IEEE Recommended Practices and
Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical
Power Systems.
37
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Quality? Definitions (Other
Sources) IEEE STD 142-1991, IEEE Recommended
Practice for Grounding of Industrial and
Commercial Power Systems. (Green Book) IEEE STD
446-1995, IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency
and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and
Commercial Applications. (Orange Book). IEEE STD
141-1993, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric
Power Distribution for Industrial Plants. (Red
Book). IEEE C62.22-1991, IEEE Guide for the
Application of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters for
Alternating-Current Systems. IEC Publications are
available from IEC Sales Department, Case Postale
131, 3 rue de Varembe, CH 1211, Geneve 20,
Switzerland/Suisse. IEC publications are also
available in the United States from the Sales
Department, American National Standards
Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor, New
York, NY 10036. Telephone (212)
642-4900. IEEE publications are available from
the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers, Service Center, 445 Hoes Lane, Post
Office Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, USA.
Telephone (212) 705-7900.
38
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Quality? Definitions (Other
Sources) ANSI publications are available from
the Sales Department, American National Standards
Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor, New
York, NY 10036, USA. Telephone (212)
642-4900. Federal Information Processing
Standards (FIPS) documents are available from the
National Technical Information Services (NITS),
United States Department of Commerce, 5285 Port
Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Telephone
(703) 487-4650. UIE publications are available
from the Union Internationale de Electrothermie,
Tour Atlantiquee F - 92 0A0 Paris Ladefense Cedex
06 France. Telephone 011 331 41 26 56 48, Fax
011 331 41 26 56 49. Basic Measuring Instruments
publications are available from BMI -- Order
Administration, 3250 Jay Street, Santa Clara, CA
95054. Telephone 1-800-876-5355. Dranetz
Technologies publications are available from
Dranetz Technologies Incorporated, 1000 New
Durham Road, Edison, NJ 08818. Telephone
(908) 287-3580.
39
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Quality?
                                                
                   ltgt
40
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Quality?
41
Summary of the important PQ phenomena
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura What is Power
/ Voltage Quality?
42
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Why are we
concerned with PQ? Cost
Categories Lost production Scrap Restart costs
Labor Repair and replacement costs Process
inefficiency
A - Electric parameters B - Economic Parameters C
- Structure of the Sector
43
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Why are we
concerned with PQ? Costs
Cost Intangible Costs Increased Business
Risk Lost Business Opportunity
44
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Why are we
concerned with PQ? Costs Cost
45
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Why are we
concerned with PQ? Costs Cost
46
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Why are we
concerned with PQ? Costs Cost
47
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Why are we
concerned with PQ? Costs Cost
48
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Why are we
concerned with PQ? Costs Cost
49
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura How does the
deregulated environment affects PQ? Reduced
Investment (Operation, Maintenance,
etc) Responsibilities Power Electronics
Penetration (T, D, and User-End) Distributed
Generation (DG) Trends, Interconnection
Issues Regulating Control / Coordination Issues
Randomly Varying Sources (PV, Wind) What is
New in PQ? TD Technologies, Instrumentation,
Modeling, etc., Initiatives
50
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Deregulation
and Regulation
Power quality will have to be regulated. As
deregulation takes over the industry, the
temptation to let the level of service and
investment in the system deteriorate is obvious.
Regulators will want to prevent this be requiring
some basic level of quality and reliability.
Indices are being developed and standardized to
facilitate the characterizing of power quality
levels on the system. EPRI completed a 2 year
monitoring project to provide benchmark indices
describing power quality levels on distribution
systems in the United States. The Europeans have
already started the process with the Euronorms
(EN50160) that define levels of power quality
that can be expected in a number of important
categories (harmonics, flicker, regulation,
unbalance, disturbances). Utilities will have to
report power quality performance statistics and
make sure that the performance does not
significantly deteriorate over time. The
regulations governing power quality will be part
of the overall regulations for operating the
distribution part of the electricity supply
business (often called the lines company). This
will require more system monitoring and
analytical tools to predict performance as part
of the system design process. The regulations
will only address a base level of power quality
and will be evaluated on a system-wide basis.
51
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Deregulation
What will the Power Quality Program Look
Like? Power quality programs of the future will
have a number of very important functions. They
will coordinate system monitoring and analyses to
benchmark system performance, evaluate problem
conditions, and prioritize system investments to
improve performance. They will coordinate with
system planning and design groups to include the
evaluation of power quality impacts in the system
design process. They will provide a full range
of services for customers both within and outside
their traditional service territories. These will
include in-plant monitoring services with on-line
analysis of performance and recommendations for
system improvements. They will install and
maintain equipment to improve performance and
energy efficiency. They will analyze specific
problems and develop solutions and then follow
through with actual implementation management.
52
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Deregulation
What will the Power Quality Program Look Like?
They will develop alliances with equipment
manufacturers and other service providers in
order to offer system solutions to customers and
take advantage of quantity discounts. They will
develop expertise in these products and services
so that there is an added value to the
customer. The power quality services will be
integrated with much larger service packages that
will include a full information system for the
customer (power quality, energy use, billing
information, equipment performance, etc.), energy
management functions, and equipment maintenance
contracts. Deregulation will not mean the end
of power quality evaluations as an important
function within the electric utility industry. On
the contrary, power quality is only increasing in
importance as competition becomes the standard
and utilities look for new ways to service their
customer base.
53
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura New TD
Technologies
54
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura TD
Technologies
Power System Value Chain
Environmental
Maintainability
Availability Safety
Efficiency Reliability Performance
Price Power Quality
Value Dimensions
Energy
Communication
Generation
Power
OUTPUTS
Delivery
INPUTS
Conversion
Processing
Light / Motion
SMES Batteries
FACTS SMES PQ Parks
UPS
Appliances
Power Electronics Systems and Components
User
Utility
55
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Different
Levels of Action
56
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura
Development of PQ Standards and Specifications
57
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Evaluation
Procedure
58
0940 0955 Sessão de Abertura Challenges Dis
tribution and Power Quality Strategic - EPRI
Roadmap - Difficult Challenges Improved
Transmission Capacity, Grid Control, and
Stability Maintain and Strengthen Portfolio of
Generation Options Accelerated Development of
Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies Achieving
Low/Zero Emissions of Key Pollutants Improved
Power Quality and Reliability for Precision
Electricity Users Increasing Robustness,
Resilience, and Security of Energy
Infrastructure Creation of the Infrastructure for
a Digital Society Advances in Enabling Technology
Platforms Exploiting the Strategic Value of
Storage Technologies High Efficiency End Uses of
Energy Maintaining and Improving Water
Availability and Quality Global
Electrification Development of Electricity-Based
Transportation Systems
59
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Tensão x Corrente, Harmônicos x Transitórios
  • Modelagem
  • Geração Distribuída
  • Fontes e Aspectos Probabilísticos
  • Instrumentação
  • Índices Harmônicos
  • -Normas / Recomendações

60
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Tensão x Corrente
  • Ohm's, Watt's, and Kirkoff's laws, and Impedance
  • Voltage - System Approach
  • Current Equipment Approach
  • Limits (V or I ?)
  • Harmônicos x Transitórios
  • Harmonics (multiple of the fundamental)
  • Transients (natural resoance frequencies,
    short-duration)

61
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Nonlinear loads, such as power electronic
    equipment, produce non-sinusoidal current
    waveforms when energized with a sinusoidal
    voltage. They inject currents at harmonic
    (integer multiple of the fundamental frequency)
    frequencies into the system. Harmonic currents,
    and the voltage distortion they create as they
    flow through the system impedance, can reduce
    equipment operating reliability and service life
    (0-100th harmonic).

62
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Modelagem (Sources)
  • Current injection model.
  • Frequency- or time-domain Norton equivalent
    circuit model.
  • Harmonic coupling matrix model.
  • Time- or frequency-domain device model used with
    frequency-domain network model.
  • Time-domain model.

63
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Modelagem (System and Loads)

Sensitivity Analysis
64
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Modelagem (System and Loads)

65
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Modelagem (System and Loads)

66
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Modelagem (Solution)
  • Harmonic Power Flow Solutions
  • In this analysis, the harmonic sources are also
    represented as current sources. However, their
    magnitudes and phases are updated using an
    iterative scheme based on detailed
    (voltage-dependent) harmonic source models.
    Inter-phase coupling of the harmonic-sources can
    be modeled with good accuracy. The harmonic
    iteration scheme solves the network one frequency
    at a time. The calculated nodal voltages are then
    used to update the current source model. In
    theory, simultaneous solutions of all harmonic
    orders like those used in the HARMFLO program can
    also be developed for the multiphase analysis,
    but the algorithm would be extremely complex.

67
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Modelagem (Solution)
  • Harmonic Power Flow Solutions
  • In this analysis, the harmonic sources are also
    represented as current sources. However, their
    magnitudes and phases are updated using an
    iterative scheme based on detailed
    (voltage-dependent) harmonic source models.
    Inter-phase coupling of the harmonic-sources can
    be modeled with good accuracy. The harmonic
    iteration scheme solves the network one frequency
    at a time. The calculated nodal voltages are then
    used to update the current source model. In
    theory, simultaneous solutions of all harmonic
    orders like those used in the HARMFLO program can
    also be developed for the multiphase analysis,
    but the algorithm would be extremely complex.

68
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos
  • Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics

An Inevitable Reality
The causes of variations are the continuous
changes in system configurations, linear load
demands and operating modes of non linear loads
69
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics

The variations generally have a random character
and the only way one can describe the behavior of
such characteristics is in statistical terms
Aspects to be Considered
70
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Time-Varying Nature
    of Harmonics

Harmonic phases angles are randomly varying
71
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Time-Varying Nature
    of Harmonics
  • Marginal probability density function

72
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Time-Varying Nature
    of Harmonics
  • Time ranges involved (hours, day, etc.)
  • Time interval between readings and the window
    width
  • Application to estimate the thermal effects of
  • harmonics
  • Multimodal patterns

The time factor is completely lost and the same
pdf can correspond to different time varying
harmonics, with consequent different thermal
responses of electrical components
73
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Time-Varying Nature
    of Harmonics

Conditional probability density functions
Example pdf of the 5th Harmonic Voltage given
that its amplitude is greater than or equal to 6
  • to reduce the volume of data to be analyzed
  • to represent extreme events
  • to introduce intriguing new statistical measures

74
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Time-Varying Nature
    of Harmonics

Statistical Measures
  • average value m
  • standard deviation s
  • 95 probability value PC95
  • 99 probability value PC99
  • maximum value MAX

The IEC 1000-3-6 and EN 50160 refer to PC95 and
MAX
75
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Time-Varying Nature
    of Harmonics

Harmonic pdfs with the same PC95 and MAX can
cause different effects
76
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Time-Varying Nature
    of Harmonics

Summation Laws
Two semi-empirical approaches have been proposed
in literature in order to allow easy and fast
evaluation in practical applications such as
standards
ah summation exponent dependent on harmonic
order
77
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Time-Varying Nature
    of Harmonics

Summation Laws
The laws should be continuously verified to take
into account
  • new electronic components
  • the presence of unbalanced conditions
  • the influence of the network supplying
  • the harmonic sources

78
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Time-Varying Nature
    of Harmonics

Harmonic Impedances
Usually, the network harmonic impedances are
assigned with reference to deterministic values
and without taking into account the correlation
with disturbing currents
  • The network harmonic impedance has statistical
    behavior due to
  • network component uncertainties
  • load variability (including power factor
    correction capacitors)
  • supply system variability

79
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Time-Varying Nature
    of Harmonics

Time-Dependent Limits
Up to now the studies on harmonic effects mainly
(but not only) refer to static distortions
Studies are needed on harmonic effects when
time-varying distortion is applied
80
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Proposition For IEEE
    519
  • IEEE 519-1992 introduced the concept of
    probability distribution plots to characterise
    variations in harmonic levels.
  • A reasonable method of using these types of plots
    to evaluate harmonic levels would be to compare
    the steady state harmonic limits with the
    measured harmonic level that is not exceeded 95
    of the time (the 95 probability point). This is
    consistent with the evaluation of compatibility
    levels in IEC standards.
  • In order to further develop this topic the IEEE
    Probabilistic Aspect of Harmonics Task Force is
    preparing a proposal for the Std. 519 in which
    the time-varying nature of harmonics voltages are
    considered in the establishment of the limits.
  • Any limits on the short duration harmonic levels
    should be based on the possible impacts of these
    harmonic levels. Effects such as metering error
    and equipment ageing are the accumulated result
    of harmonic levels over time. Other effects
    include the sensitive electronics to short burst
    of high harmonic levels or certain types of
    waveform distortions.

81
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Proposition For IEEE
    519

Recommendations are being prepared, with
suggested procedures and values to be discussed
by the members of the Std. 519 Revision Task
Force. These recommendations will be consistent
with the 519 Application Guide. Probability
distributions and short-term disturbance limits
shall be established. The continuous limits
could be taken as, for example, the 95
probability limit. The values will be
established based on the impact of short-term
harmonics on different equipment.
82
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos - Proposition For IEEE
    519

83
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos

Histogram and cumulative distribution of THD
levels for a week long measurement.
138kV bus voltage THD as a function of time
84
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Aspectos Probabilísticos

Drawing of cumulative distribution (Ttotal) and
the maximum duration and maximum duration of
individual burst (Tmaximum) for a harmonic
measurement. The curve also includes a
conceptual limit for short term harmonic levels.
85
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoração and Instrumentação
  • Monitoring and Analysis to Evaluate Compliance
  • Monitoring to characterize system performance
  • Monitoring to characterize specific problems
  • Monitoring as part of an enhanced power quality
    service

86
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoração and Instrumentação
  • Monitoring Program Components
  • Power quality and/or energy demand monitors
  • Data storage
  • Download computers
  • Web or company Intranet server

Some viewgraphs used with permission of Mark
McGranaham and
87
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoração and Instrumentação
  • Why monitor power systems?
  • Benchmark system performance levels (understand
    power quality that can be expected, Allows option
    for expanded power quality services)
  • Reliability reporting (reliability defined based
    on customer impacts)
  • Prioritize system investments
  • Information service for customers
  • Identify and solve problems
  • Improve system operations and reliability

88
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoração and Instrumentação

89
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Important components for a system
  • Open architecture
  • Systems should allow integration of different
    technologies within utility and customer networks
  • Power Quality Data Interchange Format (PQDIF)
  • IEEE Standard 1159.3
  • Web-based access to the information
  • Intelligent applications
  • Automated reporting functions

90
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Documenting performance for continuous PQ
    variations
  • Voltage regulation
  • Unbalance
  • Flicker
  • Harmonics

91
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • The concept of compatibility levels

92
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoring to improve operations reliability
  • Fault location
  • Capacitor bank performance assessment
  • Voltage regulator performance assessment
  • DG performance assessment
  • Cable fault identifier
  • Arrester failure identifier
  • Transformer loading assessment

This is where the real financial return for
system monitoring comes in
93
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoring to improve operations reliability
  • Example Identifying harmonic problems
  • Power factor correction equipment can result in
    resonances that magnify harmonic levels. The
    monitoring system can identify and alarm based on
    these conditions before they cause equipment
    failures.

94
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoring to improve operations reliability

Prioritizing new applications Faults Fault
location Fault type Causes of faults Trends of
fault locations indicating problems Incipient
faults for cable and arrester failures Protective
Device Operations Timing Coordination problems
(fuses, reclosers, sectionalizers,
etc.) Misoperation identification Breakers Pole
span Timing Duties and maintenance requirement
95
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoring to improve operations reliability

Capacitor operations Capacitor location Identifica
tion of blown fuses or unbalanced
operation Severity of transients Breaker
restrikes Operation of transient control
technology (e.g. synchronous closing) Magnificatio
n concerns, Impacts on customers Transformer
evaluation Loading issues Harmonic
impacts Regulator performance and maintenance
requirements
96
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoring to improve operations reliability

Distributed generation applications Energy
monitoring Operation of protection systems and
coordination with power system protection Harmonic
impacts Impacts on voltage regulators Power
factor issues System performance assessment and
control Power factor control Harmonic resonance
identification and control Feeder loading Voltage
regulation
97
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoring to improve operations reliability

Web interface to the substation -monitoring system
Managing Data (1000s miles away) http//engr.calvi
n.edu/PRibeiro_WEBPAGE/
98
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoração and Instrumentação

99
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoração and Instrumentação

100
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoração and Instrumentação System
    Configuration

101
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoração and Instrumentação Data Analysis

102
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoração and Instrumentação Analytical
    Methods

103
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Monitoração and Instrumentação
  • Performance benchmarking is very important but
    difficult to justify economically
  • Power system monitoring can have benefits in
    improving operational reliability and efficiency
    these benefits can easily justify the
    monitoring system
  • Reduces time to locate and repair faults
  • Identification of equipment problems (possibly
    avoiding outages and improving reliability)
  • More efficient scheduling
  • Dont cut too many corners build the system so
    that it can take advantage of new technologies
    and applications (detailed waveform recording,
    communication systems, open architecture, etc.)
  • Should be Internet-based for interfacing, ease of
    use, and ongoing support

104
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Índices Harmônicos

105
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Índices Harmônicos

106
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Índices Harmônicos

Current Instantaneous Current Current
Spectrum Peak Current RMS Current Harmonic RMS
Current Total Harmonic Dist (THD) Total Demand
Dist (TDD) Even Harmonic Distortion Odd Harmonic
Distortion Crest Factor Form Factor Arithmetic
Sum Time Weighted Product
Power Harmonic Power Spectrum Real Power Reactive
Power Apparent Power Power Factor Displacement
Factor
Voltage Instantaneous Voltage Voltage
Spectrum Peak Voltage RMS Voltage Harmonic RMS
Voltage Total Harmonic Dist. (THD) Even Harmonic
Distortion Odd Harmonic Distortion Crest
Factor Form Factor Voltage Arithmetic
Sum Telephone Influence Factor
107
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos
  • The Blood Pressure Analogy Compatibility vs
    Absolute Measure

Relative Trespass Level (RTL)
Uk - measured or calculated harmonic
voltage Uref - harmonic voltage limit (standard
or particular equipment) k - harmonic order
108
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos
  • The Blood Pressure Analogy Compatibility vs
    Absolute Measure

Harmonic Distortion Diagnostic Index
Exponent 2 or 4 ? k 50 or less ?
109
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos
  • Compatibility vs Absolute Measure

Harmonic Distortion Diagnostic Index Applying
Fuzzy Logic Comparisons Alternative Approach
110
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos Compatibili
    ty vs Absolute Measure

111
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos Compatibili
    ty vs Absolute Measure

Example 1
112
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos Compatibili
    ty vs Absolute Measure

Example 1
Vthd5
113
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos Compatibili
    ty vs Absolute Measure

Example 2
114
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos Compatibili
    ty vs Absolute Measure

Example 2
Vthd5
115
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos Compatibili
    ty vs Absolute Measure

Example 3
116
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos Compatibili
    ty vs Absolute Measure

Example 3
Vthd5
117
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos Compatibili
    ty vs Absolute Measure

Example 4
118
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos Compatibili
    ty vs Absolute Measure

Patterns and Diagnostics
Diagnosing Problems Possible No Yes Possible
If HDD gt 0 If THDD 0
If HDD 0 If THDD 0
If HDD gt 0 If THDD gt 0
If HDD 0 If THDD gt 0
119
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Índices Harmônicos Compatibili
    ty vs Absolute Measure
  • Indices may provide additional insight on
    diagnosing harmonic problems
  • HDD provides information on individual harmonic
    distortion compatibility
  • THDD provides information on total harmonic
    distortion compatibility
  • Reference values can be adjusted to individual
    equipment or standard
  • When the equipment is more sensitive to waveform
    distortion use HDD
  • When the equipment is more sensitive to heating
    effects use THDD
  • Additional rules could be incorporated to expand
    the concept and applications to other power
    quality parameters and more realistic diagnostic
    evaluations.

120
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Normas / Recomendações (IEEE 519)

121
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Normas / Recomendações (IEEE 519)

Current Distortion Limits (in of IL) for
General Distribution Systems (120-69,000 V)
Current Distortion Limits (in of IL) for
General Sub-Transmission Systems (69,001-161,000
V)
122
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Normas / Recomendações (IEEE 519)

Current Distortion Limits (in of IL) for
General Transmission Systems (gt161,000 V)
Voltage Distortion Limits (in of V1)
123
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Normas / Recomendações (IEEE 519)

GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR APPLYING HARMONIC LIMITS
Step 1 Choose the point of common coupling, Step
2 Characterize the harmonic-producing
loads, Step 3 Assess power factor correction
needs, Step 4 Calculate expected harmonics at
the PCC, Step 5 Design and implement solutions
(if needed), and Step 6 Verify performance with
measurements.
124
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Normas / Recomendações (IEEE 519)

2.5 gt Wi gt0.5
125
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Normas / Recomendações (IEEE 519)

1. Modeling of network components such as
overhead lines, cables, transformers, etc. (The
analyst has some flexibility in selecting the
level of detail needed sensitivity studies
should be considered to determine which degrees
of detail can be avoided in any particular
study.) 2. Modeling of various nonlinear loads
including predefined models and the capability
for user-defined models based on measured or
typical data. (It is left to the analyst to
determine what degree of sophistication is
required, especially if time-domain simulation
techniques are to be used.) 3. Modeling of power
factor correction capacitors should be built in
to any software being considered. (The
representation of the equivalent capacitance is
the most important requirement other details are
somewhat insignificant for limit compliance
evaluations.) 4. Modeling of utility system
equivalents should be straightforward. (In an
advanced study, the analyst should consider the
capability to represent the frequency dependence
of network equivalents.)
126
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução
  • Índices Harmônicos

127
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Normas / Recomendações
  • IEEE P1547.1 Standard for Conformance Tests
    Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting
    Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems
  • Scope This standard specifies the type,
    production, and commissioning tests that shall be
    performed to demonstrate that the interconnection
    functions and equipment of a distributed resource
    (DR) conform to IEEE Standard P1547.
  • Purpose
  • Interconnection equipment that connects
    distributed resources (DR) to an electric power
    system (EPS) must meet the requirements specified
    in IEEE Standard P1547. These test procedures
    must provide both repeatable results, independent
    of test location, and flexibility to accommodate
    a variety of DR technologies
  • Standards currently under development are
  • P1547 - Draft Standard for Interconnecting
    Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems
  • P1547.1 - Draft Standard for Conformance Test
    Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting
    Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems
  • P1547.2 - Draft Application Guide for IEEE P1547
    Draft Standard for Interconnecting Distributed
    Resources with Electric Power Systems
  • P1547.3 - Draft Guide for Monitoring, Information
    Exchange and Control of DR Interconnected with
    EPS

128
  • 1000 1215 Harmônicos
  • Breve Introdução - Normas / Recomendações

129
1230 - 1400 Almoço
130
1410 - 1550 - Harmônicos Contratos e
Seguros Harmonic Distortion. IEEE 519-1992
describes the responsibility between the customer
and the distribution system supplier in
controlling harmonic distortion levels. The
distribution company is responsible for the
voltage distortion and the customer is
responsible for harmonic currents being created
by nonlinear loads within the facility. Involvemen
t of Multiple Entities Transmission Provider
Local Distributor Independent Power
Producers Retail Marketers, Energy Companies End
User
131
1410 - 1550 - Harmônicos Contratos e Seguros
132
1600 - 1625 - Coffee Break
133
1630 - 1730 Debates Mesa Redonda Questions
for Discussion and Deliberation What is
Really Power Quality? Evaluate Definitions How
Should Harmonics Be Treated (Rigid / Flexible
Approach)? How should the probabilistic nature
be incorporated? What about costs? How does
the deregulated environment affects PQ? Topics
for future research and development. Other
Questions and Issues?
134
1630 - 1730 Debates Mesa Redonda Quiz
Example What was causing this event?
135
1630 - 1730 Debates Mesa Redonda Quiz
More clues from the current waveform
136
1630 - 1730 Debates Mesa Redonda Quiz
Problem -- found before failure!
Transformer tap changing mechanism Need for
Intelligent Diagnostic System
137
17 de junho (Terça-feira) 0830 - 1010
Distúrbios na Tensão - Breve Introdução - Definiçõ
es (Sags, Swells, Flutuações de Tensão,
etc) - Instrumentação 1015 - 1040 - Coffee
Break 1045 - 1215 - Distúrbios na
Tensão - Índices - Normas / Recomendações 1220 -
1400 - Almoço
138
  • 0830 - 1010 Distúrbios na Tensão
  • -Breve Introdução
  • Definições (Sags, Swells, Flutuações de Tensão,
    etc)
  • Instrumentação
  • Voltage sags are typically characterized by the
    minimum rms voltage and the duration of the sag.

139
  • 0830 - 1010 Distúrbios na Tensão
  • -Breve Introdução
  • Definições (Sags, Swells, Flutuações de Tensão,
    etc)
  • Instrumentação
  • Benchmarking voltage sag performance
  • Basis for evaluating ongoing system performance
  • Basis for evaluating economics of power quality
    improvement options
  • Basis for implementing PQ-based contracts
  • Basis for attracting customers that are concerned
    about PQ levels
  • Can be basis for standards

140
  • 0830 - 1010 Distúrbios na Tensão
  • -Breve Introdução
  • Definições (Sags, Swells, Flutuações de Tensão,
    etc)

Example of the breakdown of voltage sag
performance at an end user location illustrating
the relative causes of voltage sags between the
transmission system and the distribution system.
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