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HUMAN NATURE AND HUMAN MOTIVATION - Desire and Temptation

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HUMAN NATURE AND HUMAN MOTIVATION - Desire and Temptation Frederick Toates Department of Life Sciences, Open University F.Toates_at_Open.ac.uk B.F. SKINNER Positive ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HUMAN NATURE AND HUMAN MOTIVATION - Desire and Temptation


1
HUMAN NATURE AND HUMAN MOTIVATION- Desire and
Temptation
  • Frederick Toates
  • Department of Life Sciences,
  • Open University
  • F.Toates_at_Open.ac.uk

2

http//www.goshen.edu/mqr/Dirk_Willems.html
3
http//www.answers.com/topic/lenny-skutnik
4
Absolute determinism (e.g. B.F. Skinner)
Absolute Autonomy (e.g. Humanistic)
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B.F. SKINNER
  • Positive reinforcement (immediacy of reward)
  • Avoidance of punishment
  • Ten Commandments
  • Asymmetry in attitudes
  • Walden Two
  • Beyond Freedom and Dignity

8
JOHN BARGH
  • Cognitive approach
  • Unconscious goal setting
  • Mirroring
  • Subliminal priming
  • The elderly
  • Prejudice
  • Scrabble hooligan professor

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KENT BERRIDGE
Pre -1991 Wanting Liking Dopamine Both Post
-1991 Wanting Liking Dopamine Wanting
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A schematic illustration of a major existing
model of the psychological processes that
constitute incentive motivation (A. top) and our
alternative model, which proposes a separate
process of incentive salience and accounts for
the consequences of drug-induced sensitization.
(B. bottom). Panel A the Toates/Bindra model
of incentive motivation on which our model is
based (adapted from Toates 339).
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Figure 18.10 Situation (a) before and (b) after
sensitization. States of positive affect
(hedonism) increase incentive salience.
However, with experience, wanting/craving
increases but liking/pleasure sometimes
decreases Source Toates, F. (2007) Biological
Psychology. 2nd edition Pearson Education Limited
17
IMPLICATIONS OF WANTING AND LIKING
Daniel Nettle (p152) Our minds are equipped
with a dopamine-drunk wanting system that draws
us to compete for a promotion or a higher salary
a larger house or more material goods an
attractive partner. Page 167 We evolved in an
environment where status was highly correlated
with reproductive success, and material resources
were always scarce. 2nd order wants many
people want such things as cigarettes but want
not to want them Nicotine intense wanting but
not intense liking
18
EARLY EVOLUTION AND NOW
Nesse (2005, p. 26) writes an excessively
direct pursuit of happiness is likely to lead to
frustration and paradoxically, unhappiness,
because happiness is not a reachable goal, but a
state that emerges when an individual is making
good progress towards his or her individual life
goals.
19
Epicurus
  • misunderstanding of the word
  • not unbridled pleasure
  • Unhappiness comes either through fear or through
    vain and unbridled desire..
  • Epicurus, Fragments Remains Assigned to Certain
    Books, no.74.
  • Nothing satisfies the man who is not satisfied
    with a little.
  • As above no.69

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Diogenes
  • (who lived in a tub) - on pleasure
  • .hatches no single plot but all kinds of plots,
    and aims to undo men through sight, sound, smell,
    taste, and touch, with food too, and drink and
    carnal lust, tempting the waking and the sleeping
    alike

22
  • I also gathered for myself silver and gold and
    the treasure of kings and of the provinces I got
    singers, both men and women, and delights of the
    flesh, and many concubines. So I became great and
    surpassed all who were before me in Jerusalem
    also my wisdom remained with me. Whatever my eyes
    desired I did not keep from them.
  • (ECCLESIASTES 2 4-10).

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  • .. and again, all was vanity and chasing after
    wind, and there was nothing to be gained under
    the sun.
  • (ECCLESIASTES 211).

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  • Whatever possessions and objects of desires the
    lower self may obtain, it hangs on to them,
    refusing to let them go out of greed for more
  • Rumi (Sufism)
  • The lower self soon wearies of things. If, by
    chance, the lower self should succeed in
    attaining what it wants, it will still not be
    satisfied.
  • Kashani (Sufism)

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CHANGES IN WEIGHT
  • Development
  • Chemicals
  • Brain damage
  • Learning/Experience
  • Emotion/Stress

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A sample of recent citations, showing range of
topic Hitchcott, P.K. et al. (2007) Prefrontal
cortical dopamine. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 2920-
(Yale University) Cisek, P. (2007) Action
selection. Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society (B), 362, 1585- (University of
Montreal) Nippak, P. et al. (2007) Diet and
ageing. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 87,
610- (University of Toronto) Silveira-Moriyama,
L. et al. (2006) Parkinsons disease. Movement
Disorders, 21, 2214- (University College,
London) Van der Kam, E.L. et al. (2006) Effects
of cocaine. Behavioural Pharmacology, 17, 331
(University of Nijmegen) Berthier, M.L. et al.
(2006) Picks disease. Aphasiology 20, 462-
(University of Malaga) Spratling, M.W. (2006)
Perceptual learning. Visual Cognition, 13, 129-
(Kings College, London)
29
Alcaro, A. et al. (2007) Mesolimbic dopamine.
Brain Research Reviews, 56, 283- (European Centre
of Brain Research, Rome). Greiveldinger, L. et
al. (2007) Emotion in sheep. Physiology and
Behaviour, 92, 675- (INRA, Clermont
Ferrand) Pascucci, T. (2007) Dopamine response
to stress. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 2796- (University
of Rome) Van Honk, J. et al. (2007) Testosterone
and cognition. Psychological Science, 18, 683-
(University of Utrecht) Franken, I. (2003) Drug
craving. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology, 27,
563- (Erasmus University, Rotterdam) Kapur, S.
(2003) Psychosis schizophrenia. American
Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 13- (University of
Toronto) Karoly, P. (2006) Goals and
self-regulation. Clinical Psychology, 13, 366-
(Arizona State University). Meehan, C.L. et al.
(2007) Animal welfare. Applied Animal Behaviour
Science, 102, 248 (University of California,
Davis).
30
Development
31
Chemicals
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Brain damage
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Emotion/Stress
36
AGGRESSION
Road rage time for reflection knows
behaviour was wrong and knows what right
behaviour is Reflexes got the better of me
Bob Marley, I shot the sheriff
37
Learning/Experience
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YELLOW BLUE GREEN RED ORANGE RED GREEN BLUE
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YELLOW BLUE GREEN RED ORANGE RED GREEN BLUE
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Temptation
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  • For what the flesh desires is opposed to
    the Spirit, and what the Spirit desires is
    opposed to the flesh for these are opposed to
    each other, to prevent you from doing what you
    want.
  • St. Paul, Galatians 5 171

44
  • But I see another law in my members, warring
    against the law of my mind, and bringing me into
    captivity to the law of sin which is in my
    members.
  • St. Paul ROMANS 723

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  • Grant me chastity and continence,
  • but not yet
  • St. Augustine (Confessions)

47
Addictions
48
TELEVISION AS ADDICTION
  • TV meets the criteria of an addiction
  • (Kubey and Csikszentmihalyi, 2002)
  • Spending a great deal of time with the activity
  • Spending more time than intended
  • Wishing to give up or at least invest less time
  • in it
  • Sacrificing important social interactions for it
  • Withdrawal symptoms when deprived of it

49
OCD and ADDICTIONS
  • Approach versus Avoid
  • Conflict of levels

50
WORD COMPLETION S _ _ P
51
A recent experiment
Guilt
Pride
Word completion Reward Altruism
52
Acknowledgements For the start in life at the
University of Sussex David Booth Keith
Oatley Stuart Sutherland Washington State
University Jaak Panksepp University of
Michigan Kent Berridge Wageningen University
Piet Wiepkema
53
Open University academics Caroline Pond Mike
Stewart Phil Potts Steve Swithenby Richard
Stevens Open University - for organizational and
IT skills Demarisse Stanley Patricia McVity For
insight, help and understanding Olga
Coschug-Toates For an inspirational role The
Open University Psychology Society Lilli
Hvingtoft-Foster
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