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FIBER 101 George Wicker Senior Accounts Manager www.KnowYourNetwork.com

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The system used a soliton laser and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) that allowed the light wave to maintain its shape and density. In 1998, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FIBER 101 George Wicker Senior Accounts Manager www.KnowYourNetwork.com


1
FIBER 101 George Wicker Senior Accounts
Manager www.KnowYourNetwork.com
2
Agenda
  • Brief History and Into of Fiber
  • Broadcast Applications
  • Basic Components
  • Current Technologies
  • Emerging Technologies
  • Management in Facilities
  • Questions and Wrap-Up

3
Introduction
  • Fiber optics has a certain mystique that worries
    many people in the broadcast world.
  • Part of this no doubt stems from years of
    dealing with the local RBOC when trying to get a
    fiber signal from one point to another in a city.
  • Fiber is actually quite simple, and the intent
    of this presentation is to introduce you to the
    use of fiber optics in the broadcast environment.
  • No doubt that the use of fiber technology will
    continue to grow as bandwidths and distances
    increase.

4
HISTORY
  • In 1870 John Tyndall showed a beam of light would
    follow a specific path by refraction
  • In 1880 William Wheeling received a patent doing
    same thing with mirrored pipe
  • Also in 1880 Alexander Graham Bell developed a
    optical voice device he called a photo phone
    using light to transmit a human voice 200 meters
  • 1950s saw development of the fiberscope

5
PROBLEMS
  • Poor glass
  • Poor cladding
  • Poor light source

6
1957 Lasers first used as light source
  • Light has an information-carrying capacity 10,000
    times that of the highest radio frequencies being
    used.
  • In 1970, Drs. Robert Maurer, Donald Keck, and
    Peter Schultz of Corning succeeded in developing
    a glass fiber that exhibited attenuation at less
    than 20 dB/km, the threshold for making fiber
    optics a viable technology. It was the purest
    glass ever made. 

7
History of Fiber
  • The U.S. military was early adopter.
  • In the early 1970s, the U.S. Navy fiber optic
    telephone link aboard the U.S.S. Little Rock.
  • 1976 - Air Force followed suit by developing its
    Airborne Light Optical Fiber Technology (ALOFT)
  • In 1977, both ATT and GTE installed fiber optic
    telephone systems in Chicago and Boston
    respectively.
  • In 1980, broadcasters of the Winter Olympics, in
    Lake Placid, New York, requested a fiber optic
    video transmission system for backup video feeds.
    The fiber optic feed, because of its quality and
    reliability, soon became the primary video feed,
    making the 1980 Winter Olympics the first fiber
    optic television transmission. Later, at the 1994
    Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway, fiber
    optics transmitted the first ever digital video
    signal, an application that continues to evolve
    today.

8
History Intro
  • In 1990
  • Bell Labs transmitted a 2.5 Gb/s signal over
    7,500 km without regeneration. The system used a
    soliton laser and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier
    (EDFA) that allowed the light wave to maintain
    its shape and density.
  • In 1998, they went one better
  • transmitted 100 simultaneous optical signals
  • each at a data rate of 10 gigabits (giga
    billion per second)
  • distance of nearly 250 miles (400 km).

9
ADVANTAGES of FIBER
  • Immune to EMI/RFI interference because it is
    optical
  • Immunity to crosstalk (between fibers)
  • Far greater bandwidth than coax or UTP
  • Far lower attenuation than coax or UTP
  • Higher density and capacity. A single fiber can
    replace multiple copper conductors.
  • Weight. A typical single-fiber cable weighs
    about 9x less than a comparable coaxial cable.

10
Basic Components
11
Fiber Basics CABLE
  • Fiber Optics can best be described as a means for
    guiding lightwaves of energy or signals through a
    fiber which is made of layers of silica (glass)
    or plastic.
  • The size of the actual fiber in a fiber cable is
    measured in microns (millionth of a meter).
  • Fiber cable nomenclature follows the European
    cable convention where you have 2 numbers
    inner/outer A typical size of a single mode fiber
    cable is 8.5/125 microns. Multimode cables are
    typically 62.5/125 or 50/125 microns.
  • A human hair is approximately 15 to 60 microns.

12
What is Optical Fiber?
  • A transparent waveguide (usually doped silica
    glass) designed to transmit light.

13
Types of Fiber Cable
  • Two basic types of Cable
  • Single mode transmits a single ray of light,
    which carries modulated signals
  • applications requiring high bandwidth / over a
    long distance such as SDI HD video -
    studio-to-transmitter links, SD and HD video,
    cameras and runs between facilities in a campus,
    and CATV
  • Multimode transmits multiple light rays with
    different reflection angles within a larger fiber
    core.
  • Multimode is better suited for in-building runs
    for audio, compressed video, and data to and from
    edit suites.
  • Multimode fiber transmission equipment is
    typically less expensive than single mode fiber
    equipment.

14
Fiber Construction
  • Mode

Mode Path
Single-mode
Multi-mode
The path that a ray of light can follow when
traveling down a fiber
15
Fiber Construction
Fiber optic construction single-mode fiber
16
Fiber Construction
Fiber optic construction multi-mode fiber
17
Copper vs. Fiber
  • One Blown Fiber can carry as much as 476 copper
    coax. cables
  • Blown Fiber 57.4 lbs per 100 feet
  • Copper (Beldon 1694) 4.1 lbs per 100 feet
  • 4.1 lbs. x 476 1951.6 lbs
  • Consider infrastructure cost to support weight
    and installation cost
  • See example of size difference

18

Attenuation
  • As with Copper, the most critical issue is
    attenuation or loss of light.
  • Attenuation denotes the signal loss from one
    point to another. Caused by absorption, fiber
    imperfections, scattering, connector loss and
    bending loss. Attenuation is the most
    important factor that influences the cost of the
    fiber optic system as it determines the type of
    transmitter (LED Vs. Laser) the sensitivity of
    the receiver, and the type and number of
    connections between ends.

19
Causes of Attenuation
  • The fiber manufacturing process.
  • Chemical impurities and the structure of the
    glass causes inherent attenuation.
  • Micro bending of the fiber
  • Macro bending of the fiber
  • Interconnection Loss (Connector or Splice)
  • Field terminations from 0.5 to 0.25 dB
  • Factory connections from 0.2 dB
  • Fusion Splice .01 dB

Macrobend
Microbend
20
Light
Sources
  • LED (Light Emitting Diode) Device used to
    transmit light on to a fiber in response to an
    electrical signal. These devices are cheap,
    simple and durable. LEDs are used with
    Multimode fiber.
  • Laser Device that produces light with a narrow
    range of wavelengths. Lasers are more expensive
    than LEDs and are used to transmit in single
    mode fibers. Cost is coming down!

21
LED
LED Light Emitting Diode.
  • Has a wide spectral width
  • Low power output
  • Low Cost
  • Good for short distances
  • High Reliability

22
LASER
LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated
Emissions of Radiation.
  • Has a narrow spectral width
  • High power output
  • Higher cost
  • Good for long distances
  • Lower reliability

23
LED
vs. LASER
24
Common Connector Styles
  • Existing Industry Standards 2.5mm ferrule
  • ST, FC, SC and etc.
  • Emerging Industry Standards 1.25mm
  • LC, E-2000, LX.5, F-3000, MU and etc.
  • Composite ferrules solutions (Multi-Fiber)
  • MT-RJ, MPO and etc.
  • Legacy Ferrules
  • D4
  • SMA
  • Biconic
  • FDDI/ESCON
  • TFOCA

25

CONNECTORS
  • Multiple Vendors and Fiber Types
  • SC
  • LC
  • E2000
  • F3000
  • LX.5
  • Etc

26
Two Common Types of Connectors
  • The UPC type or ultra physical contact
    connectorThe most common type of endface
    geometry. The UPC has RL characteristics that are
    acceptable for intraplant serial digital video or
    data transmissions, and can be terminated in the
    field with proper training and equipment.
  • The APC type or angled physical contact
    connector is a high-performance design best
    suited for high bandwidth applications and long
    haul links. The angled endface deflects back
    reflections into the cladding rather than to the
    transmit device. APCs offer the lowest return
    loss characteristics of connectors currently
    available, but cannot be terminated in the field
    easily.

Blue Ultra (Flat) Polish Green Angled
Polish (Single mode only)
27

Shutter
  • Two major functions
  • Direct Contamination Control
  • Laser Safety

28

Contamination
29
LASER
Safety
30

Benefits
  • Defense against containments
  • LASER SAFETY
  • SC SHUTTERED ADAPTOR and DUST PROTECTOR

31
VAMs
  • Value Added Module

32
10 Gigabit Ethernet cabling
Powerful 10 Gig/s
  • 10G is a powerful and cost effective way for
    transferring any kind of data between computers,
    servers,
  • Sharp increase in bandwidth requirements
  • Convergence of different services Triple Play
    (Data, MPEG file, VoIP, IP-TV,)
  • 10 Gigabit / s are good for
  • download 50 Videos (a 1h) in lt 1s !!
  • Download typical Video-shop in less than 3
    minutes
  • 129.025 audio signals simultaneously
  • Ability to build SAN (Server Area Network)

33
10 Gigabit Ethernet Cabling 10 Gig Fiber/Coax
Ethernet Variants (ratified)
  • 10G Ethernet can also be Fiber solution
  • 10GBASE-SR over multimode
  • 10GBASE-LX4 over multimode
  • 10GBASE-LR over singlemode
  • 10GBASE-CX42004
  • Limited to 15m (data centre)
  • Four Twinax cable in one plug
  • Complex and therefore costly technology

34

Multimode Optical Fiber
300m (984ft)
LX-4 utilizes a Wide Wave Division Multiplexing
WWDM scheme
35
10 G Ethernet versus Fiber
  • Ethernet is a CSMA/CD packet oriented data
    transfer network. 10G is based on Ethernet
    protocol. Even at very high speed it is still not
    (and never will be!) a real time synchronized
    network (non deterministic time to transfer a
    data). This may disqualify it in some
    applications. Ethernet can be used either on
    copper (UTP, S-FTP,) or fiber (OM3, OS1)
  • On the other side, through Mediaconverters, fiber
    can be used to carry any audio/video signal at
    high speed and in real time and over long
    distance (radio broadcasting). A RF signal of 862
    MHz bw can carry more than 50 video channels in
    real time.

36

Wave Division
Multiplexing
  • Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is the
    technology of sending several signals through one
    fiber with different wavelengths (colors) of
    light.
  • Wavelength Division Multiplexing or
    De-Multiplexing involves separating or combining
    each lightwave in a single fiber into another
    100 usable signal.
  • There is both passive and active WDM Technology.
    ADC VAMs use passive technology.
  • The term WDM is commonly used in two ways, one
    for the technology of wavelength division
    multiplexing and one for the legacy 1310nm and
    1550nm channels.
  • CWDM includes channels 1271nm to 1611nm. 18
    channels available total. (4 8 channel are most
    commonly deployed).
  • DWDM includes channels 1525nm to 1610nm. Up to
    128 channels with various spacing requirements.

37
WDM, CWDM DWDM Technology
38
CWDM
Application
39
Emerging Technologies
  • Applications

40

Ultra HDTV
41

Ultra HDTV
42

NHK Paper
43
Definition according to ITU-T
G.657
  • So what defines a Bend-Insensitive single mode
    fiber?
  • The industry now has an accepted definition for
    such a fiber ITU-T G.657. Within this new fiber
    standard there are two distinct levels of fiber
    performance defined
  • Class A Roughly 10 times better performance
    than traditional single mode fiber, with full
    backwards compatibility to traditional fiber
    (meaning such fiber is compliant to G.652.D,
    commonly referred to as the low water peak
    single mode fiber specification).
  • Class B Roughly 100 times better performance
    than traditional single mode fiber, about 10
    times better performance than Class A, but
    backwards compatibility to older fiber types not
    required. These fibers may also contain very low
    mode field diameter fibers.

44
Power
Meter Test
2 turns
Standard SMF
Reduced Bend Radius
45
Fiber Management
46
15 to 20 Year
Investment Good Connectivity Products are
Important
  • Provides the backbone of the entire physical
    plant
  • Digital systems have higher bandwidth
    requirements
  • Poor product choices often lead to failures and
    bit errors
  • Wrong productArchitecture very difficult and
    expensive to replace once installed
  • Why is Fiber Management necessary product
    reliability increasing?
  • Provides flexibility to the system
  • Changes in system configuration
  • Easier to add new equipment
  • Quick temporary set-ups
  • Fast and accurate Test Access Troubleshooting
  • All Front Access to Equipment
  • Prevents damage to system components wiring
  • Insurance Against Router/Port Electronics
    Failures

47

Cable Mgt. The GOOD,The BAD and The UGLY
Bad
Good
Ugly
48
Fiber
Cable
Management
  • CABLE TROUGHING
  • - Provides a protected pathway for fiber to
    traverse spans between rooms and equipment
    racks.
  • -Good troughing systems must keep fiber separate
    from coax cable, protect it from out-of-tolerance
    bends and promote neat, easily accessible runs.
  • VERTICAL CABLE PROTECTION
  • -Fiber hanging unprotected from the back of
    equipment is easy to snag accidentally with hand
    or foot, which can cause damage to the connector
    of fiber itself.
  • -The weight of the the hanging fiber can cause
    bends outside the acceptable limit and
    consequential damage to the fiber.
  • - Proper vertical cable management in panels or
    equipment bays provides adequate support, cable
    protection and a transition from the vertical run
    to the back of the equipment.

49
Cable Management Bend Radius Control, Fiber
Routing, Physical Protection
  • Too many 90º bends
  • All fibers exit at the same point
  • Where are the fiber routing paths

50
Slack Storage
  • Slack Storage
  • Broadcast engineers planning an upgrade or system
    change-over to fiber optic cable should include
    storage of slack patch cords in their plans.
  • Besides the benefit of protecting the excess
    cable from wandering hands and feet, it makes the
    facility look more organized and professional.

51
Splice vs. Connector
Splice
  • Long or unknown distance
  • Route between floor (Plenum cable)
  • Route between buildings (OSP cable)
  • Multifiber cables routed together

Fiber Fed Equipment
Fiber Fed Equipment
Termination Panel
Termination Panel
Splice Tray
Splice Tray
Field/Factory Terminated Connectors
Termination Panel
Equip
Equip
  • Short runs (lt25 m (lt82 ft))
  • Known length
  • Single fiber routing

Equip
52
Interconnect vs. Cross-Connect
A
C
B
  • Interconnect Application
  • Equipment A is connected to Equipment C through a
    patch panel (B).
  • Best for few network changes and reconfigurations

53
Interconnect vs. Cross-Connect
  • Cross-Connect Application
  • Equipment A is connected to patch panel B
  • Equipment D is connected to patch panel C
  • To connect A to D, a patch cord is added between
    B and C.
  • All network changes are made at the patch panels
    the equipment connections remain fixed
  • Changes can be made faster and easier
  • Changes are limited to patch panel area

54
Key Fiber Cable Management Concepts
  • Bend Radius
  • At turns in fiber runs, maintain a 1.5-inch bend
    radius.
  • Tighter bends may cause micro-bending of
    individual fibers that allow light to escape the
    signal path, resulting in signal attenuation.
  • More severe bends can break fiber strands
    completely.

55
Key Fiber Cable Management Concepts (cont)
  • Density
  • When selecting products for a fiber network,
    remember future maintenance. The more densely
    connectors are packed onto a panel, the more
    difficult it will be for even the most dexterous
    technicians to maintain.
  • Inevitably cables will be moved, so the ability
    to trace and re-route them is critical to working
    efficiently.
  • Future Proofing
  • When planning rack configurations with a given
    number of terminations to accommodate a
    relatively low number of fibers for todays
    requirements, dont forget the future.
  • A fiber path that easily supports 12 fibers today
    may be inadequate to support the 200 fibers
    needed in a few years. Planning up front for the
    future can save the expense of ripping out
    outgrown capacity down the road.

56
Put
It All Together
  • Terminal Room

57

Putting It All Together
Plug Go datacenter cabling
Twisted pair and optical fiber patch panels
10 Gbps connectivity
High-density patch cord management
58
Questions www.KnowYourNetwork.com
Thank you
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