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Michigan Department Corrections MRT February 2006

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Michigan Department Corrections MRT February 2006 Cognitive Programs & What Works Research Update Kenneth D. Robinson, Ed.D. CORRECTIONAL COUNSELING INC. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Michigan Department Corrections MRT February 2006


1
Michigan Department CorrectionsMRT February 2006
  • Cognitive Programs What Works Research Update
  • Kenneth D. Robinson, Ed.D.
  • CORRECTIONAL COUNSELING INC.

2
Public Education Statistics(National Center for
Education Statistics, 2003)
  • 47.223 million Pre-K through 12
  • (2000-2001 school year)
  • 93,273 public schools enrolled these students
  • Status dropout rate was 10.7 for youth ages
    16-24 (school year 2000-01)
  • High School Completers by Race White 91.2
    Black 83.5 Hispanic 63.4 Native American
    85.1 Asian/Pacific Islander 94.0 (2000)
  • Average Expenditure per Student per year in
    Public Schools is 8,048 (2002-2003)

3
Casa Five Year Juvenile Study October 2004
  • Major Findings were
  • 80 of all juveniles between 10-17 have a
    substance abuse issue.
  • 75 also have a mental disorder.
  • Of those using - 92 tested positive for
    marijuana.
  • Only 3.6 of those who needed treatment
    received it.

4
Frequency of use by High School Seniors CSAT
2002
  • Children under 21 25 of Alcohol 27 billion 5
    million or 31 binge 1 x month
  • Drinking 80
  • Smoking 70
  • Marijauna 47
  • Other Drugs 29
  • Huffing 2 million age 12- 17 tried

5
Lifetime Cost to Society of One High Risk Youth
Dropping Out of HS (Mark Cohen, 2001)
  • The lifetime cost of one high risk youth
    dropping out of High School (in 1997 dollars) is
    1.3-1.5 Million.

6
Current Treatment Philosophy BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL
7
What are Alternatives that have been tried by the
Justice System
  • Education
  • Vocational Training
  • Drug Testing
  • Court Cost
  • Fines
  • Jail
  • Prison

8
Alternatives We have tried
  • Twelve Step Programs
  • Psycho-educational Programs
  • Group Counseling
  • Individual Counseling
  • Diversion
  • Scared Straight
  • Therapeutic Communities

9
More Alternatives Tried
  • Domestic Violence
  • Boot Camps
  • Intensive Supervision
  • Day Reporting
  • Electronic Monitoring
  • Behavioral Management
  • Cognitive Programs

10
Programmatic Non-programmatic interventions
  • What Does Not Work
  • Confrontation (Scared Straight) R 24
  • Vocational Training in Justice R 18
  • Vocational Training outside R 2
  • Employment Programs outside R 2
  • Indiv.Counseling/Non-behavioral R 20
  • Diversion
    R 0

11
Programmatic Non-programmatic Interventions
  • WHAT WORKS
  • Behavioral Group Counsel (out) R - 18
  • Cognitive Skills (inside) R - 20
  • Multimodal (CBTbehav.other) R - 21
  • Behavioral programs (inside) R - 25
  • By Ted Palmer IARCA 1993

12
BEST PRESICTORS OF RECIDIVISM
  • STATIC PREDICTORS
  • Age
  • Criminal History
  • Family Variables
  • Race
  • Intellectual Function
  • Socio-economic status
  • DYNAMIC PREDICTORS
  • Anti-social personality
  • Companions
  • Criminogenic needs
  • Social Achievement
  • Substance Abuse
  • Personal Distress

13
Whats Not Working RecidivismEliany Rush,
1992 Gendreau Ross, 1979,1987 Lipton, Falkin,
Wexler, 1990
  • Educational based programs
  • 12 - Step Based Programming
  • Psycho-educational
  • Punishment
  • Client Centered
  • Non-behavioral groups

14
Effectiveness of Therapeutic Intervention Models
  • Counseling/Therapy
  • has been found to be less effective because it is
    delivered in a non-directive manner
  • Psychosocial Education
  • less effective when offered as stand alone. More
    effective when provided self-diagnosis components
    of cognitive behavioral therapy
  • 12-Step Programs
  • Should be viewed as augmentation to the treatment
    process
  • (Simpson et al., 1999)

15
Characteristics of Antisocial PersonalityRobbins,
L.N. Deviant Children Grow Up A Sociological
and Psychiatric Study of Personality. 1966
  • Theft (83)
  • Incorrigibility (80)
  • Truancy (66)
  • Running Away from Home (65)
  • Negative Peers as Companions (56)
  • Physically Aggressive (45)
  • Impulsive (38)
  • Reckless Behavior (35)
  • Slovenly Appearance (32)
  • Bedwetting (32)
  • Lack of Guilt (32)
  • Pathological Lying (26)
  • Sexual Perversions (18)

16
Characteristics of Antisocial PersonalityMost
Common SymptomsA Sociological and Psychiatric
Study of Personality. 1966
  • Alcohol/Drug Abuse (90)
  • Problems with Work (85)
  • Marital problems (81)
  • Financially Dependent (79)
  • Arrests (75)
  • School/Education Problems (71)
  • Lack of Guilt (32)
  • Impulsive Behavior (67)
  • Vagrancy (60)
  • Social Isolation (56)
  • Somatic Complaints (31)
  • Use of Aliases (29)
  • Suicide Attempts 11

17
APD More Common Among Addicted
  • Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (June, 2005)
  • An epidemiological study of 43,000 adults found a
    significant association between abuse or
    addiction and apd, conduct disorder, and adult
    apd behavior.
  • This assoc. was higher for women than men.
  • Dependence on tranquilizers, sedatives,
    marijuana, inhalants, or hallucinogens were more
    likely APD.
  • Abuse of cocaine, alcohol, amphetamines,
    sedatives, or hallucinogens more likely to have
    adult apd behavior.
  • We need need to treat APD syndromes to reduce
    abuse.
  • By Nora Volkow Director of NIDA.

18
WHY HAVE WE NOT BEEN SUCCESSFUL
  • WE HAVE NOT FOCUSED ON THE CORE ISSUES.
  • WE HAVE FOCUSED ON WHAT WORKS FOR US - NORPS
  • WE INVESTED IN DRUG TREATMENT ONLY
  • WE DID NOT TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE PERSONALITY
  • HOW WE SEE THE WORLD - PERCEPTION

19
What Works?
  • Therefore to effectively reduce the subsequent
    recidivism rate and antisocial behaviors of
    participants, all offender programs must include
    a systematic, cognitive behavioral program.

20
(No Transcript)
21
Amygdala
Nature Video
Cocaine Video
Anterior Cingulate
22
Table 4 Example of Comparison of Different
Therapies
23
Cognitive Behavioral Treatment
  • Cognitive behavioral approaches are more
    structured and directive.
  • Cognitive behavioral approaches consistently
    appear to be the most effective treatment therapy
    for substance abusers.
  • Programs that include the cognitive component are
    more than twice as effective as programs that do
    not
  • (Gottfredson, 1997 Mackenzie, 1997 MacKenzie et
    a., 1998 Andrews, et al., 1995 Andrews
    Bonta, 1990 Gendreau, et al., 1993 Palmer, 1995)

24
Effective Treatment for Adult Criminals -
D.A.Andrews 1994
  • Effective Treatment Approach Elements
  • 1. Cognitive-Behavioral
  • 2. Program uses printed program manuals
  • 3. Addresses criminal thinking and needs
  • 4. Approach validated on criminals
  • 5 Staff is specifically trained in approach
  • 6. Structured follow-ups provided

25
NIC s Thinking for a Change
  • Golden (2002) Univ of Texas
  • 22 sessions for 2 hours closed ended
  • N142 (100 male) avg age 27, 71 African-American
    control matched.
  • 13.2 rearrest dropout 18.2
  • Control was 20 - No differences
  • Recidisim 15.1 vs 20 insignificant

26
Georgia DOC Cognitive Study Findings
  • 1155 parolees and 192 pre-release inmates in
    Georgia were assigned into the Reasoning and
    Rehabilitation cognitive skills program or into a
    nontreatment control group.
  • 30 of these clients assigned to Reasoning and
    Rehabilitation failed to complete the program.
  • Differences in prison return data were collected
    over a period of thirty months.
  • The recidivism rate of the treated group was
    41.7 compared to 45 for controls. The
    difference was not statistically significant.
  • Treatment participants had a statistically
    significant higher rate of technical violations
    (61) as compared to the controls (42).

Voorhis, P.V., et.al. (2003) The Georgia
Cognitive Skills Experiment Outcome Evaluation
Phase II Final Report. Joint publication by the
University of Cincinnati Division of Criminal
Justice and Georgia Department of Pardons and
Paroles, NIJ Grant funded, U.S. Department of
Justice.
27
MRT Twice as Effective as RR
  • D.B. Wilson, L.A. Bouffard D. L. MacKenzie.
    Criminal Justice and Behavior, 32, 172-204, 2005.
  • Compared findings of cognitive programs.
  • The two main approaches were MRT
  • R R which accounted for 13 of 20 studies judged
    of high quality.
  • Findings were MRT 2 times more effective than RR.

28
Kohlbergs Six Stages of Moral Reasoning
  • Stage 1 Pleasure/Pain
  • Stage 2 Reciprocity (back-scratching)
  • Stage 3 Interpersonal Concordance
  • Stage 4 Law and Order
  • Stage 5 Social Contract
  • Stage 6 Universal/Ethical Principles

29
Conation
  • A term derived from the philosopher Rene
    DesCartes to describe the point where body, mind
    and spirit are aligned in decision making.
    Reconation refers to altering the process of how
    decisions are made.

30
Major Behavior Change Elements of MRT
  • Confrontation and Assessment of Self.
  • Assessment of Current Relationships
  • Reinforcement of Positive Behavior and Habits
  • Positive Identity Formation
  • Enhancement of Self-Concept
  • Decrease Hedonism
  • Develop Higher Stages of Moral Reasoning

31
Unique Program Attributes
  • Open Ended and Self-Paced
  • Usable across Systems
  • Culturally neutral and encompasses a range of
    learning styles
  • Utilizes an Inside-Out Process
  • Standardized curriculum provides facilitator
    structure and accountability
  • Program emphasizes feedback and student
    reflection
  • Enhances personal problem solving and
    self-direction
  • Help students identify their unique strengths

32
REINCARCERATION RATES OF MRT TREATED FELONY
OFFENDERS COMPARED TO NON-TREATED CONTROLS ONE TO
TEN YEARS AFTER RELEASE(SHELBY COUNTY CORRECTION
CENTER, MEMPHIS, TN 1987-1998)
REINCARCERATION RATE
YEARS OF RELEASE
33
COMBINED TAXPAYER AND CRIME VICTIM BENEFIT FOR
EVERY DOLLAR SPENT
WORK RELEASE PROGRAMS, COMMUNITY-BASED SUBSTANCE
ABUSE TREATMENT, LIFE SKILLS PROGRAMS,
CORRECTIONAL INDUSTRIES, IN-PRISON
NON-RESIDENTIAL SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT AND
OTHER COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY WERE NOT
INCLUDED DUE TO THE SCARCITY OF
EVALUATIONS. SOURCE THE COMPARATIVE COSTS AND
BENEFITS OF PROGRAMS TO REDUCE CRIME, A REVIEW OF
NATIONAL RESEARCH FINDINGS WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR
WASHINGTON STATE, MAY 1999.
34
Anchorage Drug Court
35
Illinois High Risk Parolee Re-Entry Program
Utilizing MRT 3-Yr Data
Source Illinois Department of Corrections
Research Department (2002). Data not yet
published. (N 1503)
36
Table 1 Recidivism Rates Among Juvenile Drug
Court Graduates in the Third Judicial District
Court Without MRT vs. With MRT  
 
37
Tennessee Dept. of Criminal Justice March 2002
  • Of the 32 youth released from the TC, 94 are
    arrest free after 24 months of release.

38
Typical Programs RetentionRate is 28 after six
months
  • Training And Employment Report Of The Secretary
    Of Labor ,    Written under the direction of the
    Department of Labor's Employment and Training
    Administration (ETA), Office of Research and
    Policy, 1998 ltgt

39
TIDEWATER COMMUNITY COLLEGE OUTCOME RESULTS
  • SUCCESSFUL COMPLETIONS - 77
  • EMPLOYMENT PLACEMENTS - 94
  • 6 MONTH RETENTION OF JOB - 92
  • TRANSITION TO LONG TERM - 92
  • INCREASE IN EMPLOYER - 60 COMMITMENTS

40
BETTER PEOPLE PROGRAMPORTLAND OREGON 2002
  • Treatment and Comparison Group consisted of 68
    former offenders who attended an Orientation but
    had not participated in the MRTÒ or any other
    group components versus those who did.
  • There were no significant differences in age,
    ethnicity/race, and gender between the Treatment
    group and the Comparison group.

41
BETTER PEOPLE FINDINGS
  • TREATMENT GROUP
  • 9 ARRESTED
  • 3 INDICTED
  • 3 CONVICTED
  • CONTROL GROUP
  • 21 ARRESTED
  • 13 INDICTED
  • 12 CONVICTED

42
SRT Behavior Change Elements
  • Student Accountability
  • Weekly Goal Setting and Monitoring
  • Cognitive Behavior Problem Solving
  • Behaviorally Targeted Class Process
  • Creating a Positive Peer Culture
  • Social Skill Building

43
Range of Student Problems Addressed
  • Truancy
  • Poor Academic Performance
  • Substance Use
  • Conflicts with Teachers and Disrespect
  • Lying
  • Anger and Fighting
  • Apathy and Depression
  • Re-Entering School after Suspension

44
Billings Project Using MRT and SRT with At-Risk
YouthSenior High
  • 62 kids entered program 1/00-1/02
  • Risk of HS Failure Rated by Assistant Principals
  • Low Risk
  • Moderate Risk
  • Moderate-High Risk
  • High Risk
  • Extremely High Risk
  • Mean Risk LevelVery High Risk
  • Reg Ed Kids Referred4.44
  • Spec Ed Risk Level 4.21

45
Billings At Risk Freshman Attendance, GPA and
Credits Earned Comparisons of 2001 2002
46
Senior High Regular Ed and Special Ed 3.5 Year
Outcomes (49 Reg. Ed, 37 Spec. Ed.)
47
Billings Senior High School At Risk Project 3.5
Year Revenue Impact
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