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What Works and What Doesn’t in Reducing Recidivism for Juvenile Offenders: Applying the Principles of Effective Intervention

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Title: What Works and What Doesn’t in Reducing Recidivism for Juvenile Offenders: Applying the Principles of Effective Intervention


1
What Works and What Doesnt in Reducing
Recidivism for Juvenile Offenders Applying the
Principles of Effective Intervention
  • Presented by
  • Edward J. Latessa, Ph.D.
  • Center for Criminal Justice Research
  • Division of Criminal Justice
  • University of Cincinnati
  • www.uc.edu/criminaljustice

2
How To Digest This Information
  • Think in terms of own agency
  • Think in terms of outside agencies
  • Think in terms of a system perspective

3
Evidence Based What does it mean?
  • There are different forms of evidence
  • The lowest form is anecdotal evidence stories,
    opinions, testimonials, case studies, etc - but
    it often makes us feel good
  • The highest form is empirical evidence
    research, data, results from controlled studies,
    etc. - but sometimes it doesnt make us feel good

4
Evidence Based Practice is
  • Easier to think of as Evidence Based Decision
    Making
  • 2. Involves several steps and encourages the use
    of validated tools and treatments
  • 3. Not just about the tools you have but also how
    you use them

5
Evidence Based Decision Making Requires
  • Assessment information
  • Relevant research
  • Available programming
  • Evaluation
  • Professionalism and knowledge from staff

6
Two Basic Approaches to Evidence Based Practices
7
Model Programs Approach
  • Programs or curriculums are developed and
    implemented (real world and pilots)
  • Programs are subjected to rigorous evaluation and
    peer review
  • If effective program is designated as Model
    Program and others try to replicate

8
Examples
  • Multisystemic Therapy
  • Functional Family Therapy
  • Blueprint Programs
  • Aggression Replacement Training

9
Pros and Cons
  • Advantages
  • Model or program has been shown to work
  • Canned program development costs minimum
  • Research based
  • Disadvantages
  • Replication difficult
  • Dont always know why program worked
  • Usually designed for specific population or
    setting
  • Often proprietary
  • Quality assurance important

10
Principles Approach
  • Based on reviews of research (meta analysis,
    individual evaluations, literature reviews, etc.)
    to identify principles to guide programs
  • Approach pioneered by Gendreau Andrews

11
Pros and Cons
  • Advantages
  • Can design programs locally and tailor to needs
  • Cuts across program settings, types of programs,
    and populations (easier to see if effects hold)
  • Research based
  • Easier to teach and monitor
  • More likely to know why program works (or doesnt
    work)
  • Disadvantages
  • More development time/costs
  • Quality assurance important

12
Another important concept is risk
  • Risk Refers to risk of reoffending. Recidivism
    rates are
  • compared over a standard and specified follow-up
    period.

13
What does the Research tell us?
  • There is often a Misapplication of Research
    XXX Study Says
  • - the problem is if you believe every study we
    wouldnt eat anything (but we would drink a lot
    of red wine!)
  • Looking at one study can be a mistake
  • Need to examine a body of research
  • So, what does the body of knowledge about
    correctional interventions tell us?

14
FROM THE EARLIEST REVIEWS
  • Not a single reviewer of studies of the effects
    of official punishment alone (custody, mandatory
    arrests, increased surveillance, etc.) has found
    consistent evidence of reduced recidivism.
  • At least 40 and up to 60 of the studies of
    correctional treatment services reported reduced
    recidivism rates relative to various comparison
    conditions, in every published review.

15
Criminal Sanctions vs. Treatment for Youthful
Offenders
Number of studies175
Number of studies54
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
-0.02
-0.04
Criminal Sanctions
Treatment
Yes
-0.02
0.13
Source Dowden and Andrews (1999), What Works in
Young Offender Treatment A Meta Analysis. Forum
on Correctional Research.
16
People Who Appear to be Resistant to Punishment
  • Psychopathic risk takers
  • Those under the influence of a substance
  • Those with a history of being punished

17
Most researchers who study correctional
interventions have concluded
  • Without some form of human intervention or
    services there is unlikely to be much effect on
    recidivism from punishment alone
  • The evidence also indicates that while treatment
    is more effective in reducing recidivism than
    punishment Not all treatment programs are
    equally effective

18
Type of Treatment and Effect Sizes for Youthful
Offenders
0.25
0.2
0.15
Reductions in Recidivism
0.1
0.05
0
Non-Behavioral
Behavioral
Effect Size
0.04
0.24
Source Dowden and Andrews (1999), What Works in
Young Offender Treatment A Meta Analysis. Forum
on Correctional Research.
19
Meta-Analysis of Treatment for Femalesby Dowden
and Andrews
Average Effect Sizes
Dowden, C., and D. Andrews (1999). What Works
for Female Offenders A Meta-Analytic Review.
Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 45 No. 4.
20
Another important body of knowledge to understand
is the research on risk factors
  • What are the risk factors correlated with
    criminal conduct?

21
Factors Correlated With Risk
Mean r of studies Lower class
origins 0.06 97 Personal distress/psychopath
ology 0.08 226 Educational/Vocational
achievement 0.12 129 Parental/Family
Factors 0.18 334 Temperament/misconduct/pers
onality 0.21 621 Antisocial
attitudes/associates 0.22 168
Note A re-analysis of Gendreau, Andrews, Goggin
Chanteloupe (1992) by Andrews Bonta (1994)
22
Meta-Analysis of Risk Factors by Simourd Mean
Adjusted r
Risk Factor Adjusted R
Studies Lower social class .05 38 Personal
distress/psychopathy .07 34 Family
structure/parental problems .07 28 Minor
personality variables .12 18 Poor
parent-child relations .20 82 Personal
educational/vocational achievement .28 68 Temper
ament/misconduct/self control .38 90 Antisocial
attitudes/associates .48 106
Source Simourd, L. (1993) Correlates of
Delinquency A Look at Gender Differences. Forum
on Correctional Research. 626-31
23
Simourd and AndrewsMean Adjusted r by Gender
Risk Factor Females Males Lower social
class .07 .06 Personal
Distress/psychopathy .10 .09 Family
structure/parental problems .07
.09 Minor personality variables .18
.22 Poor parent-child relations .20
.22 Personal educational/vocational achievement
.24 .23 Temperament or misconduct
problems .35 .36 Antisocial
attitudes/peers .39 .40
Source Simourd, L., and D.A. Andrews (1994)
Correlates of Delinquency A Look at Gender
Differences. Forum on Correctional Research.
626-31
24
  • Research by Andrews, Gendreau and others has
    led to the identification of some major risk/need
    factors.

25
Major Set of Risk/Need Factors
  • Antisocial/procriminal attitudes, values, beliefs
    and cognitive-emotional states

26
Cognitive Emotional States
  • Rage
  • Anger
  • Defiance
  • Criminal Identity

27
Identifying Procriminal Attitudes, Values
Beliefs
Procriminal sentiments are what people think, not
how people think they comprise the content of
thought, not the skills of thinking.
  • What to listen for
  • Negative expression about the law
  • Negative expression about conventional
    institutions, values, rules, procedures
    including authority
  • Negative expressions about self-management of
    behavior including problem solving ability
  • Negative attitudes toward self and ones ability
    to achieve through conventional means
  • Lack of empathy and sensitivity toward others

28
Neutralization Minimizations
Offenders often neutralize their behavior.
Neutralizations are a set of verbalizations which
function to say that in particular situations, it
is OK to violate the law
  • Neutralization Techniques include
  • Denial of Responsibility Criminal acts are due
    to factors beyond the control of the individual,
    thus, the individual is guilt free to act.
  • Denial of Injury Admits responsibility for the
    act, but minimizes the extent of harm or denies
    any harm
  • Denial of the Victim Reverses the role of
    offender victim blames the victim
  • System Bashing Those who disapprove of the
    offenders acts are defined as immoral,
    hypocritical, or criminal themselves.
  • Appeal to Higher Loyalties Live by a different
    code the demands of larger society are
    sacrificed for the demands of more immediate
    loyalties.
  • (Sykes and Maltz, 1957)

29
Major set Risk/needs continued
  • 2. Procriminal associates and isolation from
    prosocial others

30
Reducing Negative Peer Associations
  • Restrict associates
  • Set and enforce curfews
  • Ban hangouts, etc.
  • Teach offender to recognize avoid negative
    influences (people, places, things)
  • Practice new skills (like being assertive instead
    of passive)
  • Teach how to maintain relationships w/o getting
    into trouble
  • Identify or develop positive associations
    mentors, family, friends, teachers, employer,
    etc.
  • Train family and friends to assist offender
  • Set goal of one new friend (positive association)
    per month
  • Develop sober/prosocial leisure activities

31
Major set Risk/Needs continued
  • 3. Temperamental anti social personality
    pattern conducive to criminal activity including
  • Weak Socialization
  • Impulsivity
  • Adventurous
  • Pleasure seeking
  • Restless Aggressive
  • Egocentrism
  • Below Average Verbal intelligence
  • A Taste For Risk
  • Weak Problem-Solving/lack of Coping
    Self-Regulation Skills

32
Major set of Risk/Need factors continued
  • A history of antisocial behavior
  • Evident from a young age
  • In a variety of settings
  • Involving a number and variety of different acts

33
History of Antisocial Behavior
  • Lifecourse studies indicate that
  • By age 12, up to 40 of later serious offenders
    have committed their first criminal act
  • By age 14, up to 85 have committed their first
    criminal act
  • Variety of settings including home, school,
    streets
  • Escalating behavior

34
Major set of Risk/Needs Continued
  • 5. Family factors that include criminality and a
    variety of psychological problems in the family
    of origin including
  • Low levels of affection, caring and cohesiveness
  • Poor parental supervision and discipline
    practices
  • Outright neglect and abuse

35
Major set of Risk/Needs continued
  • 6. Low levels of personal educational, vocational
    or financial achievement

36
Leisure and/or recreation
  • 7. Low levels of involvement in prosocial
    leisure activities

37
Substance Abuse
  • 8. Abuse of alcohol and/or drugs

38
Major Risk and/or Need Factor and Promising
Intermediate Targets for Reduced Recidivism
  • Factor Risk Dynamic Need
  • History of Antisocial Early continued Build
    noncriminal
  • Behavior involvement in a number alternative
    behaviors
  • antisocial acts in risky situations
  • Antisocial personality Adventurous,
    pleasure Build problem-solving, self-
  • seeking, weak self management, anger mgt
  • control, restlessly aggressive coping skills
  • Antisocial cognition Attitudes, values,
    beliefs Reduce antisocial cognition,
  • rationalizations recognize risky thinking
  • supportive of crime, feelings, build up
    alternative
  • cognitive emotional states less risky
    thinking feelings
  • of anger, resentment, Adopt a reform and/or
  • defiance anticriminal identity
  • Antisocial associates Close association
    with Reduce association w/
  • criminals relative isolation criminals,
    enhance

Adopted from Andrews, D.A. et al, (2006). The
Recent Past and Near Future of Risk and/or Need
Assessment. Crime and Delinquency, 52 (1).
39
Major Risk and/or Need Factor and Promising
Intermediate Targets for Reduced Recidivism
  • Factor Risk Dynamic Need
  • Family and/or marital Two key elements are Reduce
    conflict, build
  • nurturance and/or caring positive
    relationships, better monitoring
    and/or communication, enhance
  • supervision monitoring supervision
  • School and/or work Low levels of
    performance Enhance performance,
  • satisfaction rewards, satisfaction
  • Leisure and/or recreation Low levels of
    involvement Enhancement involvement
  • satisfaction in anti- satisfaction in
    prosocial
  • criminal leisure activities activities
  • Substance Abuse Abuse of alcohol and/or Reduce
    SA, reduce the
  • drugs personal interpersonal
  • supports for SA behavior,
  • enhance alternatives to SA

Adopted from Andrews, D.A. et al, (2006). The
Recent Past and Near Future of Risk and/or Need
Assessment. Crime and Delinquency, 52 (1).
40
This research has led to the identification of
some principles.
41
Principles of Effective Intervention
  • Risk Principle target higher risk offenders
    (WHO)
  • Need Principle target criminogenic risk/need
    factors (WHAT)
  • Treatment Principle use behavioral approaches
    (HOW)
  • Fidelity Principle implement program as
    designed (HOW WELL)

42
Risk Principle
  • Target those offender with higher probability of
    recidivism
  • Provide most intensive treatment to higher risk
    offenders
  • Intensive treatment for lower risk offender can
    increase recidivism

43
The Risk Principle Correctional Intervention
Results from Meta Analysis
Reduced Recidivism
Increased Recidivism
Dowden Andrews, 1999
44
Risk Level by New Conviction Results from 2005
Ohio Study of over 14,000 Youth
45
Risk Level by New Commitment or New Adjudication
Results from Ohio Study of over 14,000 Youth
46
Average Effect Size for Juvenile Residential
Facilities compared to Community Programs and
Adherence to Risk Principle
47
Need PrincipleBy assessing and targeting
criminogenic needs for change, agencies can
reduce the probability of recidivism
  • Criminogenic
  • Anti social attitudes
  • Anti social friends
  • Substance abuse
  • Lack of empathy
  • Impulsive behavior
  • Non-Criminogenic
  • Anxiety
  • Low self esteem
  • Creative abilities
  • Medical needs
  • Physical conditioning

48
Targeting Criminogenic Need Results from
Meta-Analyses from Youthful Offenders
Reduction in Recidivism
Increase in Recidivism
Source Dowden and Andrews (1999). What Works
in Youthful Offender Treatment. Forum on
Correctional Research..
49
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50
  • Many correctional intervention programs are
    based on tradition, custom, imitation rather
    than scientific evidence of effectiveness.

51
Some so called theories we have come across
  • Been there done that theory
  • Offenders lack creativity theory
  • Offenders need to get back to nature theory
  • Offenders lack discipline theory
  • Offenders lack organizational skills theory
  • Offenders have low self-esteem theory
  • Offenders need to change their diet theory
  • Treat them as babies dress them in diapers
    theory
  • We just want them to be happy theory
  • Offenders (females) need to learn to put on
    makeup dress better theory

52
Assessment is the engine that drives effective
correctional programs
  • Need to meet the risk and need principle

53
Why is it Important?
  • Helps you meet the risk principle
  • Tells you who needs the most intervention
  • Helps prevent iatrogenic effects
  • Helps you meet the need principle
  • Tells you what criminogenic needs to target
  • Helps guide decision making
  • Helps reduces bias
  • Improves placement of offenders
  • Helps better utilize resources
  • Helps you know if offender has improved
  • Can lead to enhanced PUBLIC SAFETY

54
Examples of Assessment Tools for Youthful
Offenders
  • Youthful Level of Service/Case Management
    Inventory (MHS.com)
  • Youth COMPAS (Northpointeinc.com)
  • Youth Assessment and Screening Instrument
  • Positive Achievement Change Tool (PACT)

55
Youthful LSI Assessment and Reassessment
Total Score Initial 19.4 Reassess 16.98
Total of 84 youth have been reassessed
56
Youthful Level of Service/Case Management
Inventory
  • Examines 42 items across 8 domains
  • - Offenses
  • - Family
  • - Peers
  • - Substance abuse
  • - School
  • - Leisure
  • - Personality
  • - Attitudes
  • Score and rating in each area and overall

57
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58
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59
Positive Achievement Change Tool
  • Include past and current indicators in the
    following domains
  • Referral offenses and criminal history
  • School
  • Use of free time
  • Employment
  • Relationships
  • Family
  • Alcohol and Drug use
  • Mental Health
  • Attitudes and Behaviors
  • Aggression
  • Skill Sets

60
PACT Overview Report
61
Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version PCL-YV (Hare
Psychopathy)
  • Glib/superficial charm
  • Grandiose sense of self-worth
  • Stimulation seeking
  • Pathological lying
  • Conning/manipulation
  • Lack of remorse/guilt
  • Shallow effect
  • Callousness/lack empathy
  • Parasitic lifestyle
  • Poor anger control
  • Impersonal sexual behavior
  • Early behavioral problems
  • Lacks goals
  • Impulsivity
  • Irresponsibility
  • Failure to accept responsibility for own actions
  • Unstable interpersonal relationships
  • Juvenile delinquency
  • Serious violations of conditional release

62
Responsivity refers to learning style and
characteristics of the offender, which can effect
their engagement in treatment
63
Assessing Responsivity Factors
  • Often neglected
  • Can be useful in assigning offenders to programs
    and groups
  • Addressing responsivity factors can improve
    treatment effectiveness

64
Responsivity areas to assess can include
  • Motivation to change
  • Anxiety/psychopathy
  • Levels of psychological development
  • Maturity
  • Cognitive functioning
  • Mental disorders

65
Responsivity Factors
General Population
Offenders
  • Anxiety
  • Self esteem
  • Depression
  • Mental illness
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • Poor social skills
  • Inadequate problem solving
  • Concrete oriented thinking
  • Poor verbal skills

66
The Responsivity Principle
  • General
  • Most offenders respond to programs that are based
    on cognitive behavioral/social learning theories
  • Specific
  • Offenders learn differently and have certain
    barriers that should be addressed so that they
    are more likely to succeed in programs

67
Specific Responsivity
  • What gets in the way of offenders benefiting from
    treatment?
  • Must take individual learning styles into account
  • Must consider possible barriers to interventions
  • Assessment of responsivity is important to
    maximize benefits of treatment

68
Prioritizing Interventions What to Change and Why
  • Criminogenic targets reduce risk for recidivism
  • Non-criminogenic targets may reduce barriers
    but NOT risk

69
Some Common Problems with Offender Assessment
  • Assess offenders but process ignores important
    factors
  • Assess offenders but dont distinguish levels
    (high, moderate, low)
  • Assess offenders then dont use it everyone
    gets the same treatment
  • Make errors and dont correct
  • Dont assess offenders at all
  • Do not adequately train staff in use or
    interpretation
  • Assessment instruments are not validated or normed

70
Treatment Principle
  • The most effective interventions are behavioral
  • Focus on current factors that influence behavior
  • Action oriented
  • Offender behavior is appropriately reinforced

71
Most Effective Behavioral Models
  • Structured social learning where new skills and
    behaviors are modeled
  • Family based approaches that train family on
    appropriate techniques
  • Cognitive behavioral approaches that target
    criminogenic risk factors

72
Social Learning Refers to several processes
through which individuals acquire attitudes,
behavior, or knowledge from the persons around
them. Both modeling and instrumental
conditioning appear to play a role in such
learning
73
Family Based Interventions
  • Designed to train family on behavioral
    approaches
  • Functional Family Therapy
  • Multisystemic Therapy
  • Teaching Family Model
  • Strengthening Families Program (Office of
    Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention)

74
Effectiveness of Family Based Intervention
Results from Meta Analysis
  • 38 primary studies with 53 effect tests
  • Average Reduction in Recidivism 21
  • However, much variability was present
  • (-0.17 - 0.83)
  • Dowden Andrews, 2003

75
Mean Effect Sizes Whether or not the family
intervention adheres to the principles
76
The Four Principles of Cognitive Intervention
  • Thinking affects behavior
  • Antisocial, distorted, unproductive irrational
    thinking can lead to antisocial and unproductive
    behavior
  • Thinking can be influenced
  • We can change how we feel and behave by changing
    what we think

77
Reasons that CBT can be Effective in Reducing
Recidivism
  • Based on scientific evidence (cognitive
    behavioral theories)
  • Based on active learning (not talk therapy)
  • Focus on the present (how offenders currently
    think and behave)
  • Based on learning (most crime is learned)
  • Target major criminogenic needs (e.g. attitudes,
    values, beliefs)
  • Provides structure to groups and programs
    (manualized treatment)

78
Reasons that CBT is Popular in Corrections
  • Can be done in any setting
  • Existing staff can be trained on CBT
  • Relatively cheap to deliver
  • Wide range of curriculums are available

79
Recent Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Behavioral
Treatment for Offenders by Landenberger Lipsey
(2005)
  • Reviewed 58 studies
  • 19 random samples
  • 23 matched samples
  • 16 convenience samples
  • Found that on average CBT reduced recidivism by
    25, but the most effective configurations found
    more than 50 reductions

80
Factors Not significant
  • Type of research design
  • Setting - prison (generally closer to end of
    sentence) versus community
  • Juvenile versus adult
  • Minorities or females
  • Brand name

81
Significant Findings (effects were stronger if)
  • Sessions per week (2 or more)
  • Implementation monitored
  • Staff trained on CBT
  • Higher proportion of treatment completers
  • Higher risk offenders
  • Higher if CBT is combined with other services

82
Some Examples of Cognitive Behavioral
Correctional Curriculums
  • Controlling Anger and Learning to Manage It (CALM
    and CALMER)
  • Aggression Replacement Therapy (ART)
  • Criminal Conduct and Substance Abuse Treatment
    (adult adolescent version)
  • Thinking for a Change (T4C)
  • Choices, Changes Challenges
  • Persistently Violent Curriculum
  • Corrective Thinking/Truthought
  • Reasoning and Rehabilitation
  • Moral Recognition Therapy
  • Drug Abuse Treatment Program (FBOP)
  • Moving On (Female Offenders)

83
Cognitive Behavioral Approaches Based on Social
Learning Theory
Cognitive Restructuring (What we think content)
Cognitive Skills Development (How we think
process)
Behavioral Strategies (Reinforcement and modeling
prosocial behavior
84
Treatment should be Behavioral in Nature
  • Use rewards and punishers effectively
  • Train, practice, rehearse offenders in prosocial
    alternatives
  • Completion criteria should be based on
    acquisition of prosocial skills

85
For a new behavior to occur one must
  • Have a strong positive intention to perform the
    behavior
  • Have the skills necessary to carry out the
    behavior, and
  • Be in an environment that is free of constraints
    such that the behavior can occur

86
Skill Development
  • Demonstrate, rehearse, practice prosocial
    alternatives
  • Increase difficulty
  • Completion based on acquisition of new prosocial
    skills

87
Effective Modeling
  • Demonstrate behavior
  • Specify the rewards for behaving this way
  • - What do most people gain in the short long
    term?
  • - What can the person expect to gain?
  • Provide reinforcement each and every time the
    person behaves in the desired way

88
One way is to structure groups around the quarter
rule
  • First ¼ spent reviewing what they learned last
    time
  • Second ¼ demonstrate new skill
  • Third ¼ practice new skill
  • Fourth ¼ make practice more difficult

89
Develop a range of reinforcers
  • Three basic Types
  • Tangible material objects that have a personal
    value
  • Token symbolic items that have value because of
    what they can be exchanged for or stand for
  • Social natural rewards that are among the most
    powerful consequences for initiating and
    maintaining behaviors

90
Examples of Each
  • Tangible
  • Food
  • Clothes
  • Music
  • CDs
  • Books
  • Recreational equipment
  • Token
  • Good grades
  • Trophy
  • Award
  • Certificate
  • Diploma
  • Social
  • Attention
  • Praise
  • Approval
  • Acknowledgement

91
Social reinforcers have several advantages
  • Easy to administer
  • Limitless supply
  • Can be administered immediately after target
    behavior
  • Are natural consequences that people receive as
    a regular part of daily lives

92
Maximizing the Effectiveness of Rewards
  • Reinforcement is most effective when it comes
    immediately after the behavior however, this is
    not always practical. You can make a promise of
    delayed reinforcer (IOU)
  • Remember, vary reinforcers since they will lose
    potency over time
  • Natural reinforcers should be used frequently
    (since they are likely to be received outside the
    program)
  • Consistency is very important
  • Rewards should outnumber punishers by 4-1
  • Build rewards into program structure and train
    staff on use

93
Punishers
  • Designed to extinguishes inappropriate behavior
  • Most effective are response cost (i.e. losing
    privileges, and disapproval)

94
Maximizing the Effectiveness of Punishers
  • Escape should be impossible
  • Should be applied immediately
  • Should be applied at maximum intensity
  • Should be applied after every occurrence of
    deviant behavior
  • Should not be spread out should be varied
  • Remember, a punisher only trains a person what
    not to do must also teach prosocial alternative
  • When punishment is inappropriately applied
    several negative consequences can occur (unwanted
    emotional reactions, aggression, withdrawal, or
    increased behavior that is being punished)

95
These approaches help us.
  • Structure our interventions
  • Teach and model new skills
  • Allow offenders to practice with graduated
    difficulty
  • Reinforce the behavior

96
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97
What Doesnt Work with Offenders?
98
Lakota tribal wisdom says that when you discover
you are riding a dead horse, the best strategy is
to dismount. However, in corrections, and in
other affairs, we often try other strategies,
including the following
  • Buy a stronger whip.
  • Change riders.
  • Say things like This is the way we always have
    ridden this horse.
  • Appoint a committee to study the horse.
  • Arrange to visit other sites to see how they ride
    dead horses.
  • Create a training session to increase our riding
    ability.
  • Harness several dead horses together for
    increased speed.
  • Declare that No horse is too dead to beat.
  • Provide additional funding to increase the
    horses performance.
  • Declare the horse is better, faster, and
    cheaper dead.
  • Study alternative uses for dead horses.
  • Promote the dead horse to a supervisory position.

99
Ineffective Approaches
  • Drug prevention classes focused on fear and other
    emotional appeals
  • Shaming offenders
  • Drug education programs
  • Non-directive, client centered approaches
  • Bibliotherapy
  • Freudian approaches
  • Talking cures
  • Self-Help programs
  • Vague unstructured rehabilitation programs
  • Medical model
  • Fostering self-regard (self-esteem)
  • Punishing smarter (boot camps, scared straight,
    etc.)

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The Fidelity Principle Make Sure Programs Are
Delivered With Fidelity and Integrity
  • Includes both external and internal quality
    assurance.

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External QA
  • Activities that focus on examining outcomes,
    performance measures, meeting milestones, etc.
  • Can include evaluation research, accreditation,
    monitoring oversight by outside parties, etc.

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Internal QA
  • Making sure the program is delivered as designed
    and with integrity
  • Ensure staff are modeling appropriate behavior,
    are qualified, well trained, well supervision,
    etc.
  • Make sure appropriate dosage of treatment is
    provided
  • Monitor delivery of programs activities, etc.

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Program Integrity and Recidivism
  • Every major study we have done has found a strong
    relationship between program integrity and
    recidivism
  • Higher integrity score greater the reductions
    in recidivism

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Program IntegrityRelationship Between Program
Integrity Score And Treatment Effect for
Community Supervision Programs
Reduced Recidivism
Increased Recidivism
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Program IntegrityRelationship Between Program
Integrity Score And Treatment Effect for
Residential Programs
Reduced Recidivism
Increased Recidivism
70
31-59
60-69
0-30
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Impact of Program Factors Predicting Felony
Adjudication for Juvenile Programs
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Lessons Learned from the Research
  • Who you put in a program is important pay
    attention to risk
  • What you target is important pay attention to
    criminogenic needs
  • How you target offender for change is important
    use behavioral approaches

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Important Considerations
  • Offender assessment is the engine that drives
    effective programs
  • helps you know who what to target
  • Design programs around empirical research
  • helps you know how to target offenders
  • Program Integrity makes a difference
  • Service delivery, disruption of criminal
    networks, training/supervision of staff,
    support for program, QA, evaluation

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Continuum of ApplicationIts not just one thing
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