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INTRODUCING PHONICS Letter / sound relationships Presented

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INTRODUCING PHONICS Letter / sound relationships Presented by: Rachel Collins July, 2005 Chinese language has one sound per word. The focus is mainly on mastering the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTRODUCING PHONICS Letter / sound relationships Presented


1
INTRODUCING PHONICS Letter / sound
relationships Presented by Rachel Collins July,
2005
2

How is English language learning different to
Language learning in Chinese?
  • Chinese language has one sound per word. The
    focus is mainly on mastering the tones which
    define the meaning of the word.
  • English language focuses on the sound, as each
    word can have more than one sound. For a student
    to really see how the English language works,
    they must see the difference.
  • Understanding phonics will help students to learn
    English.

3

Letter-sound relationships
  • Ten - initial consonant
  • Ran - final consonant
  • Head - diphthong (two vowels, one sound)
  • Phone diagraph (2 consonants, new sound)
  • Break - blend
  • Knife - silent letter

4
Initial Consonant Sounds
  • Initial consonants consonant sounds written
    with one letter
  • e.g. b, d, f, h, k, l m, n, p, r, s, t, w
  • Initial consonant diagraphs single consonant
    sounds written with 2 letters
  • e.g. ch, ph, sh, th, wh
  • Initial consonant blends 2 or more individual
    consonant sounds blended together and written
    with 2 letters or more
  • e.g. bl, cl, fl, pl, sl, br, cr, dr, fr,
    gr, tr, sk, sl, sn,

    .. sp, st, str,
    spr, chr
  • Letters with hard and soft sounds e.g. c, k

5
Ending Consonant Sounds
  • Ending consonants consonant sounds written with
    one letter b, c, d, f, g, k, l, m, n, p, s, t
  • Ending consonant diagraphs - single consonant
    sounds written with 2 letters ch, ck, gh, ng,
    nk, ph, sh, th
  • Ending consonant blends 2 individual consonant
    sounds blended together and written with 2
    letters ft, ld, lk, lt, mp, nd, nt, sk, st
  • Silent letters autumn, climb, column, comb,
    high
  • Consonants which cannot be found at the end of
    words j, qu, wh

6
Short Vowel Sounds
  • Vowels are a, e, i, o, u
  • When vowel sounds are made, there is no
    obstruction to the air flow
  • When consonant sounds are made, there is
    obstruction of the airflow

7
Long Vowels (magic e)
  • Try these
  • mat...mate fat...fate mad...made
  • rat... rate sham...shame can...cane
  • win...wine rip...ripe fin...fine
  • bit...bite shin...shine trip...tripe
  • mop...mope rod...rode rob...robe
  • us...use fuss...fuse hug...huge
  • What do you notice about the vowel sounds?

8
What are the limitations and problems of
phonics?
  • Number of letters 26
  • Number of sounds 44
  • (i) SAME LETTER HAS DIFFERENT SOUNDS
  • e.g. Letter a past what pat paint
    auction warm again
  • (ii) SAME SOUND HAS DIFFERENT LETTERS
  • e.g. /OR/ - for four more poor war
  • (iii) WORDS SOUND THE SAME BUT LOOK DIFFERENT
  • e.g. there their theyre
  • (iv) WORDS LOOK THE SAME BUT SOUND DIFFERENT
  • e.g. bow / bow wound / wound wind / wind
  • EFL students - When students are not exposed to
    English letters and sounds in their natural/daily
    environment, the process of phonics learning can
    be hindered.

9
Peters Letter
My dear wif, How are you? I hop you are well.
Im having a good tim at King Sau. The weather up
here is very fin every day. I have mad a nic kit
in the shap of a cut bird. Ill fly it with you
when I come hom.
Love, Pet
10
Peters Letter
  • My dear wife,
  • How are you? I hope you are well. Im having a
    good time at King Sau. The weather up here is
    very fine every day. I have made a nice kite in
    the shape of a cute bird. Ill fly it with you
    when I come home.

  • Love, Pete
  • Long vowels say the name of the letter

11
When do we use phonics in the classroom?
  • The teaching of phonics should be and is
    occurring in the English classroom all of the
    time. From the introduction of phonic sounds in
    P1 to the correction of pronunciation and sounds
    in higher grades (Key Stage 2 and above), the
    importance of phonics should be reinforced.
  • When we read to students, we naturally sound out
    words and ensure that they are said correctly.
    Through the modelling of correct phonic sounds in
    our everyday usage of the English language,
    teachers are reinforcing the requirements and
    limitations of phonic sound. Thus it becomes
    essential that phonics is taught in the context
    of reading.

12
What are the stages of phonics education?
  • Start with base knowledge of phonics (i.e.
    letter/sound recognition) leading to phonemic
    awareness (the understanding of the ways in which
    sound combinations interrelate with each other
    e.g. c hch.)
  • Letter/sound recognition ? phonemic
    awareness
  • First stage - Knowing that every letter in the
    English alphabet has one sound.
  • Second Stage - when letters are combined some
    basic sounds can change.
  • Third Stage understanding that meaning is
    changed with different letter/sound choices.

13
Important games/activities for teaching phonics
  • All sensory channels are used in a variety of
    games and activities so that the teaching target
    transfers from short-term memory to long-term
    memory.
  • Rhymes, songs, jingles, nursery rhymes, poetry,
    big books, stories with repetitive and rhythmic
    language, tongue twisters, games with a
    beat/rhythm and movement are essential, to
    heighten the students awareness of letter-sound
    relationships, i.e. phonics.

14
Phonics Games and ActivitiesGeneral 1
  • Action Alphabet
  • Sky writing/ Body writing
  • Feeling letter shapes
  • Moulding letter shapes
  • Human words/letters
  • Big Books
  • I spy
  • Poetry
  • Clapping a beat with a partner
  • Floor Boggle
  • Hopscotch
  • Circle game pass a bean bag - rhyme

15
Phonics Games and Activities General 2
  • Barrier Games
  • Battleship
  • Tic-Tac Toe
  • Art and Cooking
  • Collage of letters, words and pictures
  • Moulding clay letters
  • Expressive letter/word drawings
  • Alphabetic recognition in their environment
  • Cooking/making letter shapes in food

16
More Phonics Games and Activities
  • Relays - Written / Oral
  • Silent relays - Tongue Twisters
  • Letter sounds - the first student writes / says a
    sound of an onset / rhyme then passed on down the
    line
  • First letter of previous word in alphabetical
    order
  • Last letter of previous word
  • Word ladder - change one letter each time
  • sat ? pat ? pet ? pen
    ?

17
Words consist of Onsets and Rimes
  • Onsets are the opening unit of a word or syllable
    prior to the vowel
  • Rimes begin with a vowel and are the ending unit
    of a word or syllable
  • Onset Rime
  • C at
  • Gl ad
  • m eat
  • Words with the same rime rhyme.

18
Words can be broken into Syllables
  • Words can be broken in chunks of sounds called
    syllables
  • Children should be taught how to blend chunks of
    sounds and then pronounce the whole word
  • Pan/da ti/ger pup/py tur/tle
    ba/bies flow/ers don/keys Nan/cie

19
Teaching phonics will help my students
  • to recognize differences in sounds
  • to recognize the relationships between letters/
    combinations of letters and their sounds
  • to develop some enabling skills in reading aloud
  • to work out the sounds of unfamiliar regular
    words
  • to develop confidence and proficiency in reading
  • to improve spelling and extend vocabulary.  

20
Word attack skills dinner
  • Do you know any part of this word? (IN)
  • Does it sound like anything you know? (BIN)
  • What sound does the word start with? (d)
  • So what is the first bit of the word (din)
  • What about the next bit? Can you sound that out?
    (ner)
  • What is the whole word? (dinner)

21
Rules rule!
  • E.g. You can drink coffee in me when you eat
    cakes. I am not a classroom but you can find me
    in some schools. My name begins with the same
    letter as certificate, cinema and century.
  • Can you work out a rule to determine when to
    pronounce the letter c as the hard sound (k) or
    the soft sound (s)?
  • (CUP)

22
Activities for teaching phonics
  • Action alphabet daily - the letter sounds must be
    automatic
  • Use the mouth shape flash cards for vowels
  • Familiarise the students with the terms letter
    names , letter sounds, starts with and ends
    with
  • Start with a series of letters that can be
    combined to make words, e.g. a, b, m, n, t, d
  • Put some word families on flashcards flash them
    daily
  • Demonstrate blending and segmenting
  • Human words, students are given large letter
    flash cards asked to come out the front to make
    words
  • Use the web site www.starfall.com to demonstrate
    blending (sounding out)

23
The All-Important Environment
  • Create an English language-rich environment by
    displaying the alphabet and matching sound
    pictures
  • Create word walls of words beginning with each
    letter, words beginning with the same sound,
    words with the same rime, high frequency words,
    new vocabulary, labels, charts, dictionaries

24
An alphabet word wall continue creating
throughout the year
25
A word family word wall
26
Another word wall example - ee
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