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CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE

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CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE Urinalysis Physical characteristics: color, odor, turbidity, volume, & specific gravity Chemical characteristics: pH, glucose, protein ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE


1
CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE
2
Urinalysis
  • Physical characteristics color, odor,
  • turbidity, volume, specific gravity
  • Chemical characteristics pH, glucose, protein,
    ketones, pus (WBCs bacteria), RBCs,
    hemoglobin, bile . . .
  • Microscopic exam of urine sediment crystals,
    cells, etc.

3
Why is urinalysis an important part of routine
patient exams?
  • Urine contains important metabolic information
    the presence of abnormal substances is helpful in
    disease diagnosis
  • Urine is cheap, simple, readily available

4
Odor
  • Fresh urine has a slight characteristic odor but
    drugs such as nicotine, veggies such as
    asparagus, diseases such as PKU or diabetes can
    alter odor
  • Standing (old) urine takes on an ammonia odor
    due to bacterial action on urine solutes

5
List the three main organic solutes of urine
  • Urea, creatinine, uric acid

6
List the three main inorganic solutes of urine
  • Sodium, potassium, chloride

7
State the average daily urine output
  • 1200 - 1500 mL (1.2 - 1.5 L)

8
State the normal daily range of urine output
  • 600 - 2000 mL (0.6 - 2.0 L)

9
Define the following terms
  • Anuria - complete stoppage of urine
  • Oliguria - reduced amount of urine
  • Polyuria - increased amount of urine
  • Nocturia - increased amount of urine _at_
  • night

10
Describe the different types of urine specimens
used in a medical lab
  • Random
  • 1st morning
  • Mid-stream clean catch (MSCC)
  • Fasting
  • 24 hour

11
List the normal colors of urine
  • Any shade of yellow due to the pigment urochrome
    light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, amber . . .

12
List abnormal colors of urine possible causes
  • Colorless - XS fluid intake diabetes
  • Orange - bilirubin, XS Vitamin A
  • Green - bile, Pseudomonas bacteria
  • Red/Brown - hemoglobin, beets
  • Black - melanins
  • Any abnormal color can be due to dyes, foods, or
    medications

13
State the term used to describe urine appearance
  • Turbidity - cloudiness due to
  • particulate matter
  • suspended in urine
  • Clear, transparent, hazy, cloudy, turbid, milky,
    or 0 - 4 system

14
Identify several factors that may affect urine
appearance
  • Crystals, WBCs, RBCs, bacteria, epithelial
    cells, lipids, mucus, fecal material, semen,
    lymph fluid, yeast, powders, creams, cotton
    fibers, etc.

15
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16
Define specific gravity
  • Density of a substance compared to an equal
    volume of water at a similar temperature

17
Describe a urinometer the procedure for using
it to determine s.g. of urine
  • A device that displaces water and sinks to a
    level indicative of the specific gravity
  • Pour urine in jar, place urinometer in fluid,
    spin when it settles, read the results

18
State the normal range of specific gravity for
human urine
  • 1.001 - 1.035

19
Explain the significance of a specific gravity of
1.023 - 1.035
  • Normal 1.023 or above indicates good kidney
    function

20
List 4 common reasons for abnormally high
specific gravity results
  • Presence of glucose
  • Presence of protein
  • Recent X-ray exposure
  • Use of IVs
  • Dehydrating illnesses - fever, sweat, vomit,
    diarrhea

21
List possible reasons for abnormally low specific
gravity results
  • Diabetes insipidus (water diabetes)
  • Renal (kidney) disease/damage

22
Chemical Tests for Urine - pH
  • Average Range 4.5 - 8.0 Average 6.0
  • Affected by diet changes in body metabolism
  • Acidic urine -high protein diet or lots of
  • whole wheat acid forming
  • foods
  • -diabetes
  • Alkaline urine -high veggie or dairy diet base
  • forming foods
  • -UTI
  • Either medications, kidney stones (renal
    calculi)

23
Chemical Tests for Urine - Glucose (glycosuria)
  • Benign -heavy meal
  • -emotional stress
  • Pathologic -diabetes mellitus
  • -kidney tubule defects
  • -CNS damage
  • -thyroid disorders

24
Chemical Tests for Urine - Protein (proteinuria)
  • Benign -cold
  • -strenuous exercise
  • -acute illness (fever)
  • -orthostatic proteinuria
  • Pathologic -kidney damage
  • -pre-eclampsia
  • -hypertension
  • -multiple myeloma

25
Chemical Tests for Urine - Pus (Pyuria)
  • UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) or
  • contaminated specimen
  • High Risk for UTI
  • -School age children esp. girls
  • -pregnant women
  • -diabetic people
  • -previous history of UTIs
  • -patients with catheters
  • -elderly people

26
Chemical Tests for Urine - RBCs (Hematuria)
  • Whole blood cloudy red
  • Bleeding in the urinary tract
  • -trauma (ex auto accident, kick)
  • -kidney stones (renal calculi)
  • -kidney infection (pyelonephritis)
  • -tumors
  • -toxic chemicals/drugs

27
Chemical Tests for Urine - Hemoglobin
(hemoglobinuria)
  • Hemoglobin clear, red appearance
  • -hemolytic anemia
  • -transfusion reactions
  • -severe burns

28
Chemical Tests for Urine - Bile (bilirubinuria)
  • -hepatitis/liver disease

29
Chemical Tests for Urine - Ketones (ketonuria)
  • Source breakdown of fats instead of
  • carbohydrates for energy
  • -diabetes
  • -starvation (decreased carbohydrate
  • intake or increase carbohydrate loss -
  • vomiting)
  • -wrong dose of insulin

30
End.
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