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CIEG 467 – Engineering for Disasters

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CIEG 467 Engineering for Disasters Thanks to Dr. Sue McNeil Spring 2008 * * * * * * * * * * * Tsunami 2004 Hurricane Katrina 2005 Earthquake Pakistan 2005 Lesson ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CIEG 467 – Engineering for Disasters


1
CIEG 467 Engineering for Disasters
Thanks to Dr. Sue McNeil
  • Spring 2008

2
Outline
  • Motivation
  • Class Organization
  • Projects
  • So what is a disaster?
  • Learning from Failures (Chajes)

3
Motivation for a course in Disaster Engineering
http//www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/JPODOCS/REPTS_TE/1
3775_files/image004.jpg http//geopubs.wr.usgs.gov
/circular/c1242/images/fireball.jpg
4
Source http//www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/reports/billi
onz.htmlnarrative
5
Terrorist Attacks on US Interests
  • 1983 Beirut Embassy and Barracks, 257 lives
  • 1988 PanAm 103, Lockerbie, 270 lives
  • 1993 World Trade Center, NY, 6 lives
  • 1996 Saudi Arabia housing towers
  • 1998 US Embassies, Kenya and Tanzania
  • 1999 Oklahoma City Federal Building, 168 lives
  • 2000 US Cole, Yemen, 17 lives
  • 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon, 3000 lives

Source Hall, CREATE
6
Class Organization
  • Projects centered around disaster types
  • Work on 2 phases of disasters mitigation and
    recovery
  • Work in teams
  • Research oriented
  • Engineering will be largely intuitive
  • Review schedule and syllabus
  • http//www.ce.udel.edu/courses/CIEG467_disaster/

7
Projects
  • Seismic Event in New York City
  • Terrorist event in Baltimore railroad tunnel
  • Hurricane at Rehoboth Beach

8
So what is a disaster?
9
Preparedness
Mitigation
Disaster
Response
Recovery
10
  • Preparedness
  • Development of standard operating procedures
  • Departmental annexes
  • Checklists
  • Annual training exercise
  • Pre-deployment of resources
  • Mitigation
  • Retrofit earthquake prone structures
  • Floodproof critical facilities
  • Response
  • Floodfighting
  • Evacuation
  • Recovery
  • Short term recovery
  • Long term recovery

11
MITIGATION
  • ACTIONS TAKEN PRIOR TO THE NEXT DISASTER THAT ARE
    INTENDED TO REDUCE FUTURE LOSSES
  • LONGER-TERM STRATEGIES
  • SHOULD BE IMPLEMENTED EVEN DURING RECOVERY

12
Mitigation Steps
  • Define/determine the hazard
  • Assess risk or vulnerability
  • Determine what to do mitigation
  • Use our projects as examples
  • Seismic event NYC
  • Terrorist event Baltimore
  • Hurricane Rehoboth Beach

13
Some terms
  • Emergency/ disaster events with a significant
    impact on people and property
  • Emergency management process of dealing with
    hazardous events
  • Natural vs manmade
  • Other terms hazard, resilience, vulnerability,
    impact, vulnerable populations, collective
    behavior, failure, protection, criticality,
    mitigation, preparedness, evacuation, recovery,
    interoperability, reliability, redundancy.

14
Disasters
  • Wildfires
  • Hurricanes
  • Tornadoes
  • Typhoon/ Tsunami
  • Volcano
  • Blasts
  • Building fires
  • Terrorist attacks (premeditated, politically
    motivated)
  • Bio-terror
  • Chemical attacks

15
What constitutes a disaster?
  • Small group discussion (15 min)
  • Identify someone to facilitate the discussion,
    someone to take notes and someone to report back
    to the class
  • Make a list of disasters (specific disasters)
  • What do these disasters have in common?
  • What role did civil engineers have in disasters?
  • How do you distinguish among mitigation,
    preparedness, response and recovery

16
Learning from Failure Case Studies in Forensic
Engineering
  • Prepared by Prof. Michael J. Chajes, Acting
    Dean, College of Engineering

17
We learn more from buildings that fall down than
from buildings that stand up.
18
In fact, it is often easier to learn from
failures rather than from successes.
Silver River Bridge - 1967
19
The evaluation of engineering failures
Mianus River Bridge - 1983
Hartford Civic Center - 1978
Forensic Engineering
20
Early engineering was all done using experience.
Roman Aqueduct in Nimes, France
Little math and science, incremental advances,
learning from failures.
21
Modern engineering uses extensive math and
science.
However, there is always some level of
uncertainty, and thus some small probability of
failure.
22
The risks that engineered structures pose to
human life, and environments pose to society,
often conflict with the risks to the economy
that striving for absolute and perfect safety
would bring. from To Engineer is Human The
Role of Failure in Successful Design by Henry
Petroski
23
Causes of Engineering Failures
  • Unknown phenomena
  • Extreme events
  • Design flaws
  • Combinations of the above

24
Failures due to Unknown Phenomena
Can you name one?
25
Tacoma Narrows Bridge - 1940
26
Failures due to Extreme Events
Can you name one?
27
Loma Prieta Earthquake - 1989
28
Failures due to Design Flaw
Can you name one?
29
Hartford Civic Center - 1978
30
Hyatt Regency Skywalk - 1981
31
Recent Disasters
32
World Trade Centers - 2001
33
Northeast Blackout of 2003
  • August 14, 2003 power grid failure

34
Tsunami 2004
35
Hurricane Katrina 2005
36
Earthquake Pakistan 2005
37
Lesson to be Learned
  • As engineering professionals, or as individuals
    in every day life, it is important to learn from
    your mistakes and the mistakes of others, and to
    not repeat them.
  • As engineering professionals its also important
    to learn how we can help prevent the kind of
    destruction we discussed today
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