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Chest Injuries

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Chest Injuries Anatomy Bones sternum - manubrium, body, xyphoid process ribs (costochondral cartilage) 10 true & 2 floating muscles diaphragm intercostals organs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chest Injuries


1
Chest Injuries
2
Anatomy
  • Bones
  • sternum - manubrium, body, xyphoid process
  • ribs (costochondral cartilage)
  • 10 true 2 floating
  • muscles
  • diaphragm
  • intercostals
  • organs - heart lungs

3
Rib Contusions/Fx.
  • Mechanism
  • direct contact
  • indirect
  • SS
  • extreme pt. tenderness at site of fx.
  • athlete my lean toward side of fracture an/or
    hold that side of fx.
  • difficulty breathing shallow rapid
    respirations
  • crepitation and/or deformity may be present
  • hemoptysis

4
Rib Contusions/Fx. (cont.)
  • Most commonly fx. ribs are 5-9
  • Positive compression tests
  • Anterior/Posterior
  • Lateral

5
Rib Stress Fractures
  • rowing, swimming, golf
  • 4-9 ribs (posteriolaterally) are the most
    commonly affected
  • mechanism
  • sudden increase in training
  • improper biomechanics
  • these can sometimes be misconstrued as paraspinal
    muscle strains
  • constant pain modalities do not provide relief

6
Flail Chest
  • occurs when four or more ribs are fx. in two
    different places
  • causes the chest wall to collapse with
    inspiration (protrudes with exhalation)
  • lung collapses under flail portion
  • extreme pain
  • difficulty breathing

7
Rib Fx. - Complications
  • pneumothorax
  • laceration of pleural lining
  • air between pleural lining and lung - causes lung
    to collapse
  • S S
  • rapidly decreasing BP
  • difficulty breathing
  • cyanotic - lips finger nail bids
  • unable to speak
  • true medical emergency
  • spontaneous and tension
  • open sucking chest wound

8
Rib Fx. - Complications
  • hemothorax
  • blood in pleural cavity
  • can occur with a pneumothorax
  • caused by an internal chest wound
  • laceration of lung from fx. rib
  • ruptured blood vessel
  • s s
  • same as pneumothorax
  • may have hemoptysis

9
Costochondral Separation
  • separation of costochondral cartilage and ribs
  • caused by a contusion
  • palpation - bump or defect can be detected
  • may hear a pop or snap
  • s s similar to rib fx. location is
    different

10
Sternum Fx.
  • Direct blow to the sternum
  • getting hit by a helmet
  • palpable defect
  • tx. - rest

11
Heart Contusion
  • commotio cordis
  • caused by trauma to chest
  • heart is compressed between sternum and thoracic
    spine
  • causes the heart to fibrillate (irregular wild
    rhythm) then possibly stop
  • baseball, softball, hockey, bench press
  • must be prepared to perform CPR
  • other injuries aorta rupture, cardiac
    tamponade, and cornary artery tears

12
Traumatic Asphyxia
  • blunt trauma to chest
  • causes breathing to stop
  • need immediate artificial respirations

13
Breast Injuries
  • blunt trauma can cause hematoma formation
  • swelling of breast
  • could lead to necrosis of fat tissue which can
    form a lump can be mistaken for breast cancer
  • breast cancer
  • monthly breast exams
  • painful or non-painful lumps should be examined
    by a physician

14
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