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The History of Early Childhood Education

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Title: The History of Early Childhood Education


1
The History of Early Childhood Education
2
Who are you?
  • How did you grow to become the unique person you
    are today?

Do not copy.
3
What do you remember about your childhood?
  • Earliest memory
  • Memory you expect to keep throughout life

Do not copy.
4
Other Memories . . .
  • Most embarrassing moment?
  • Happiest experience?
  • Scariest experience?

Please share with us by raising your hand. Do
not copy.
5
Happy Birthday
  • Lets sing the Happy Birthday song
  • 1, 2, 3.
  • Happy birthday to you, happy birthday to you,
    happy birthday dear ______________________, happy
    birthday to you!!!!!!!!!!
  • Please share
  • What is your favorite birthday memory?
  • What impact, if any, has the Happy Birthday song
    had on your life?
  • This song was written by one of the leaders in
    the history of early childhood education, Patty
    Hill.
  • We will learn more about her later in the PP
    Notes.
  • Founder of the National Association for the
    Education of Young Children.
  • Person most often credited with the modern
    kindergarten concept.
  • Why do you think these 2 accomplishments would be
    important to the field of early childhood
    education today?

6
The Importance of History
  • Why is it important to
  • know about the history of
  • early childhood education?

copy
7
Priorities in Order Why is it important to know
about the history of ECE?
Priority Number Reasons Student Notes
Provides a sense of support and perspective
Serves as a source of inspiration
Helps teachers develop creative expression
Helps teachers develop better methods of teaching
Creates awareness and understanding of changes in education
Helps individuals get in touch with their own early childhood experiences
Helps individuals develop a philosophy of teaching
(Use the bottom row to add your own ideas about why it is important to know about the history of early childhood education.)

8
Knowing about ECE History
  • Provides a sense of support and perspective
  • Serves as a source of inspiration
  • Helps teachers develop creative expression
  • Helps teachers develop better methods of teaching
  • Creates awareness and understanding of changes in
    education
  • Helps individuals get in touch with their own
    early childhood experiences
  • Helps individuals develop a philosophy of teaching

Copy what is underlined.
9
Many people have contributed to our understanding
of child development
Do not copy.
Please use your handout 9.01D to complete the
rest of the PP slides.
10
John Locke
Philosopher
1632-1704
  • Founder of modern educational philosophy
  • Theory based on scientific method, study of mind
    and learning
  • Believed that each child is born with a clean
    slate (tabula rasa) on which their experiences
    are written


Tabula rasa
11
Environmentalism
John Locke
  • The environment, not innate characteristics,
    determines what children will become
  • The environment forms the mind

12
Your Views - John Locke
  • What do Lockes beliefs and his work mean to you?
  • What do you think about his clean slate theory?

13
Friedrich Froebel
1782 - 1852
  • Coined the word kindergarten
  • Started the first kindergarten in Germany in 1837
  • Emphasized teacher-directed learning
  • Advocated freedom, initiative, and relevant
    curriculum


"Father of the Kindergarten"
14
Friedrich Froebel --- Father of the Kindergarten
  • In German, the word kindergarten means
    childrens garden.
  • Association between flower buds opening and
    children going through a natural unfolding process

15
Your Views Friedrich Froebel
  • What do Froebels beliefs and his work mean to
    you?
  • What do you remember about being in kindergarten?
  • Did your kindergarten experiences affect the
    person you are today?

16
Sigmund Freud
1856-1939
Neurologist
Psychoanalyst
  • A childs personality develops through a
    predictable pattern of psychosexual stages.
  • Many emotional and psychological problems of
    adults are connected to how their parents and
    care providers met their basic needs as children.

17
The Id, the Ego, and the Superego Sigmund Freud
18
Your Views Sigmund Freud
  • What do Freuds beliefs and his work mean to you?
  • How well were your needs met as a child?

19
John Dewey
1858 - 1952
  • First real American influence on American
    education
  • Founder of progressive movement
  • His theory progressivism
  • Advocated child-centered learning in groups


Progressivist
20
Deweys Pedagogic Creed
  • Education, therefore, is a process of living and
    not a preparation for future living.
  • -John Dewey

21
Your Views - John Dewey
  • How much of education do you believe is
    preparation for future living, and how much is
    the actual process of living?
  • Do you feel that learning should be centered
    around the subject or around the child?

22
My Pedagogic CreedWrite 3 to 5 statements that
summarize your beliefs about early childhood
education.
23
Margaret McMillan
1860 - 1931
  • Margaret and her sister Rachel extended concern
    beyond education to medical and dental care for
    children
  • Created open-air nursery in a slum
  • Developed the McMillan theory of fresh air,
    sleep, and bathing

Pioneer

24
The McMillan Sisters
  • Margaret and Rachel McMillan crusaded to improve
    child care in English slums.
  • Many people credit the creation of nursery
    schools to these sisters.
  • Margaret created the name nursery school ---
    nursery to focus on the goal of nurturing good
    health, and school to focus on educating young
    children.

25
Your Views Margaret McMillan
  • How important are fresh air, sleep, and bathing
    to the health and well-being of children?
  • Have you ever known a situation where a child did
    not receive adequate physical care?
  • What were the results?

26
Rudolph Steiner
ART
1861 - 1925
  • Founded Waldorf Schools
  • Interdisciplinary, multi-sensory curriculum with
    emphasis on the arts
  • Emphasized the whole child begin where the
    learner is.
  • Promoted self-regulation and self-discipline


Philosopher
Scientist
Artist
27
Rudolph Steiner
  • Steiner believed that experiences for young
    children need to be carefully selected. He
    believed that fairy tales helped them learn
    important truths.
  • Modern-day followers of Waldorf philosophy
    believe that TV-viewing for children should be
    limited.

28
Your Views Rudolph Steiner
  • What are your views on children and television?

29
Patty Hill
1868 - 1946
  • Founded the National Association for the
    Education of Young Children
  • Originated large-muscle equipment and materials
    for climbing and construction.
  • Wrote the song Happy Birthday


Progressive
30
Patty Hill
  • Her ideas about unifying kindergarten and
    first-grade work became the focus of modern
    kindergarten practice.

31
Your Views Patty Hill
  • Do you believe it is important for kindergarten
    and first-grade learning experiences to be
    unified?

32
Maria Montessori
1870 - 1952
First female physician in Italy
Child copies reality, rather than constructs it.
  • Education begins at birth
  • The early years are very important as children go
    through sensitive periods. Their curiosity
    makes them ready to learn certain things at
    certain times.
  • Goals of education the formation of the child
    and development of character


33
Maria Montessori
  • Elements of early childhood programs that are
    attributed to Montessori
  • A prepared environment (the teachers
    responsibility)
  • Self-correcting and sequential materials (usually
    tactile-touch)
  • Teaching based on observation
  • Trust in childrens inborn drive to learn

34
Your Views Montessori
  • Which of Maria Montessoris philosophies ring
    true for you?
  • Were you ever enrolled in a Montessori school as
    a child, or have you ever visited one?

35
Lev Vygotsky
1896-1934
  • Focuses on the child as a whole
  • Incorporates culture and values into child
    development
  • Sociocultural Theory A childs development is
    influenced by more than personal experiences.

Russian Psychologist
36
VygotskysSociocultural Theory
  • Important influences on a childs development
    include
  • Family
  • Community
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Culture

37
Sociocultural Theory-Implications for Teachers
  1. Incorporate each childs family and culture into
    the school.
  2. The relationship between teacher and child is
    very important to learning.
  3. Use the tools of the society to help children
    learn.
  4. Play is an important part of learning.
  5. Its very important to note individual
    differences among learners.

38
Lev Vygotsky
  • Zone of proximal development (ZPD)
  • (the distance between the actual developmental
    level and the level of potential development)

ZPD
39
Your View Vygotsky
  • Can you think of an area of skill in which your
    ZPD is large --- that is, the distance between
    your actual level of skill and your potential
    skill level is very great?
  • You have a long way to go!

40
Loris Malaguzzi
1920 - 1994
  • Founded Reggio Emilia Schools
  • Schools have teachers, a pedagogista, and an
    aterlierista
  • All children capable of learning
  • Children construct their own learning
  • Documenting childrens work is essential for
    success of the program

Founder

41
Loris Malaguzzi
  • The family and community are important parts of
    the amiable school.

42
Your Views Malaguzzi
  • What do you think should be the role of the
    family in an early childhood classroom?
  • The role of the community?

43
Imagine what our world would have been like
without . . .
  • Kindergarten
  • Nursery school
  • Montessori schools
  • Child-centered learning
  • Medical/dental care for children?

44
What do you think the contributions of these
leaders will mean to you as you work with young
children?
45
creed A statement of beliefs
early childhood education Education in the early years of life the field of study that deals mainly with the learning and experiences of children from infancy through the primary years
pedagogic Of or pertaining to the work of a teacher or to instructional methods
proximal development Potential development
self-regulation Changing from a dependent infant to a self-regulating adult
self-discipline Learning control of oneself, usually for improvement
atelierista In Reggio schools, an art director who helps teachers and children express their interests and knowledge in many different media
pedagogista A person trained in early childhood education who meets weekly with teachers in Reggio schools to consider what experiences mean to children, how to help them learn more, and what additional experiences should be planned
46
id The instinctive part of personality that drives a person to seek satisfaction part of Sigmund Freuds contribution
ego The rational part of personality that forms a persons sense of self part of Sigmund Freuds contribution
superego The moral side of personal that tells a person what is right and wrong part of Sigmund Freuds contribution
kindergarten In German, a word coined by Froebel in 1837 meaning, literally, childrens garden in America, a school or class for four- to six-year-old children
tabula rasa A mind not yet affected by experiences, sensations, and the like in John Lockes theory, a child is born with this clean slate on which all experiences are written
kindergarteners In 19th century America, a term used to describe early childhood practitioners who worked in kindergartens patterned after Froebian models
NAEYC National Association for the Education of Young Children founded by Patty Hill
traditional nursery school A school that nurtures good health and educates young children
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