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A COMPLETE GUIDE

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Title: A COMPLETE GUIDE


1
INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS
  • A COMPLETE GUIDE
  • TO WRITING A
  • RESEARCH PAPER
  • Prof. JESUS G. LLORANDO, PhD

LLAVE CENTER FOR CONTINUING ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT,
INC.
2
  • Guidelines in Writing a Research Paper
  • Format and Style, The Text of a Research Paper
    and other Formalities

  • I/AME FORMAT AND STYLE OF PRESENTATION
  • (TO BE PRINTED ON THE FRONT COVER and the TITLE
    PAGE inside 1st Page)
  • INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS
  • 1061 Metropolitan Avenue, Makati City School
    logo/address
  • 2
  • TITLE OF
    RESEARCH STUDY
  • 2
  • A RESEARCH PAPER PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF
  • INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS
    (I/AME)
  • 3
  • In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
    the Degree of Master in Business Administration
    (Major in Management)
  • 2

3
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Chapter
  • Title
  • CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
  • 1. Background of the Study
  • 2. Theoretical Framework and Conceptual
    Framework
  • 3. Assumption (s)
  • 4. Statement of the Problem
  • 5. Hypothesis of the Study
  • 6. Scope and Delimitation of the Study
  • 7. Definition of Terms
  • 8. Importance of the Study

4
  • CHAPTER II
  • REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
  • 1. Literature
  • Foreign
  • Local
  • 2. Studies
  • Foreign
  • Local

5
  • CHAPTER III
  • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  • Research Design
  • Population of the Study
  • 3. The Instrument and the Data Gathering
  • Procedures
  • 4. Statistical Treatment of Data

6
  • CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
    INTERPRETATION OF DATA
  • 1. Presentation of Data
  • 2. Analysis of Data
  • 3. Interpretation on Data
  • CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
    RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 1. Summary
  • 2. Conclusion
  • 3. Recommendations

7
  • REFERENCE MATERIALS
  • 1. Bibliography
  • 2. Appendices
  • CURRICULUM VITAE

8
  • FRONT MATTER
  • The Preliminaries and Functions
  • A. TITLE PAGE Contains the following
    information. Title of the study. Full name of the
    researcher. The degree for which the paper is
    presented. The institution to which the paper is
    presented and the month and year in which the
    degree is to be granted.

9
  • INDORSEMENT - The school office usually
    prescribes the form of endorsement. Most
    institutions have a model or form printed for
    this purpose and requirements should always
    determine the format of this page.
  • C. APPROVAL SHEET This is a certification of
    approval of the college or department to which
    the paper is presented. It includes the complete
    title of the study full name of researcher
    degree to which the paper is applied for
    statement of acceptance advisers full name and
    signature Deans full name and signature and
    complete date of oral defense.

10
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - This page is the researchers
    written recognition and appreciation of the
    assistance and guidance provided by people who in
    any way helped the researcher in bringing in
    thesis into its completed form.
  • E. TABLE OF CONTENTS List the chapter headings
    into which the paper is divided.

11
  • F. LIST OF TABLES - List of table comes after
    the table of contents is made up of the captions
    of the tables included by the researcher in the
    report to provide substantial evidence in his
    presentation.
  • G. LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS This is
    included only if the researcher used and included
    in his thesis any figures such as graphs, charts
    and other illustration materials.

12
  • H. ABSTRACT - Contains the title of the study,
    full name of researcher, the degree for which the
    paper is presented, the College or Institution to
    which the paper is presented, the name of Adviser
    and the year in which the paper is presented.
    This page contains a brief and concise
    description of the problem (s) investigated, the
    methodology used and the significant findings,
    conclusions and recommendations.

13
  • COMPONENT PARTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER
  • CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
  • 1. Introduction. A brief paragraph introducing
    the problem area that indicates the importance
    and validity if the particular problem. Suitable
    background information maybe incorporated into
    this introductory statement. The introduction
    should indicate the need to study the problem.

14
  • 2. Statement of the Problem. A clear and
    sharply-defined statement of the problem. An
    experimental problem could be stated as one or
    more hypothesis all other kinds or research
    problem are best defined by stating the problem
    then breaking it down into specific questions.
  • 3. Importance of the Study. This section explains
    the contribution of the study, what possible
    effects the results of the study on a theory or
    practice to the student goals, company goals,
    national policies, community goals/plans and also
    for future researches.

15
  • 4.Theoretical Framework. This state the theory
    (ies) on which the study is premised in order to
    establish the relationship among the variables of
    the study. It also explain the concepts and
    present the paradigm in the study.
  • 5. Scope and Delimitation of the Study. This
    should state definite scope of the study and
    period of time involved in the investigation.

16
  • 6. Hypotheses. This states expected or tentative
    conclusions that may be reached. This also states
    the relationship must be tested. This is needed
    most especially in experimental research or
    investigation.
  • 7. Definition of Terms. The contextual,
    preferable not textbook, but the researchers
    definition as well as the working definition
    (used in the study or given about terms that are
    keywords into the research.

17
  • CHAPTER II - REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND
    STUDIES
  • The review of related literature, collates all
    the reading materials which have significance and
    bearing to the statement of the problem. The
    review should not merely summarize a series of
    books and articles rather, it should call
    attention to the most important previous work,
    identify the place of your study in relation to
    other research, and delineate areas of agreement
    and disagreement in the field. This should also
    give the reader the context for the present study.

18
  • The review should evaluate and interpret existing
    research rather than simply repeat it. Organizing
    the review by topic rather than by author and
    avoiding unnecessary direct quotation can help
    you focus the review of research.

19
  • CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  • The chapter devoted to the Research Designs of
    the investigation should discuss such matters as
  • 1. the method of research and techniques to be
    used
  • 2. the nature of the sample and any control
    groups
  • 3. the data needed to test the hypothesis or the
    answer to the questions
  • 4. the source of data
  • 5. the procedures followed in gathering and
    analyzing the data
  • the statistical treatment of data.
  • Research designs may be qualitative,
    quantitative or a combination of both depending
    on the subject of the research study and
    investigation.

20
  • CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS, ANALYSIS
    OF DATA AND INTERPRETATION
  • The analysis chapter presents the result of the
    investigation with the corresponding
    interpretations.
  • Explanations of the information should be written
    in clear, coherent prose. You may wish to
    accompany your analyses with charts or tables,
    but theses should supplement the text rather than
    substitute for it. The body of the paper should
    be comprehensible even if the reader chooses not
    to consult the tables.

21
  • CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
    RECOMMENDATIONS
  • The chapter of summary and discussions should be
    devoted to evaluation and interpretation of the
    data and formulations of conclusions. Also
    covered here, as appropriate are implications of
    the findings for revising the existing body of
    knowledge, possible contributions of the thesis
    top research methodology, the relation of the
    results to previously published studies
    limitations of the study, and unexpected
    conclusions. Practical applications of the
    findings or speculations about further studies
    might conclude this section.

22
  • SUMMARY This section gives an overview of the
    study from the statement of the problem to the
    investigation.
  • B. FINDINGS The findings should present the
    interpretations in relation to the statement of
    the problem.

23
  • CONCLUSIONS This section gives the answers to
    the statement of the problem, the summary points
    gathered by the researcher. This is the
    realization of the over-all aim of the study.
  • D. RECOMMENDATIONS This section presents the
    suggested appropriate courses of action/measures
    to address the findings of the study, either to
    introduce innovative ideas, practices,
    implementation of recommended policies and also
    further related researches to be undertaken in
    the future.

24
  • A. WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER
  • CHOOSING A TOPIC
  • The choice of a topic involves identifying a
    general subject area, limiting and defining the
    topic and stating the topic as a question or
    hypothesis.
  • The adviser sometimes specified a broad area of
    study. The adviser may assign a particular topic,
    provide a list of possible topics, or give the
    writer a free choice of topics within a broad
    range. As you make decisions leading to a topic,
    you should also consider such factors as your
    interest in the subject your ability to be
    objective (especially if the topic is
    controversial) and the time available for
    completing the assignment.

25
  • As you begin to focus on a specific within the
    general subject area, you should evaluate the
    possibilities according to the following
    criteria importance and interest, manageability,
    and availability of resources.
  • You should formulate your topic as a question.
    You will conduct your research by exploring a
    full range of possible answers to your question.
    As you gather information, you may discover that
    you have asked the wrong question or that you are
    more interested in answering a related question.
    If so, you can revise your question. Your answer
    to the question will become the thesis statement,
    or controlling idea, of your paper.

26
  • 2. PREPARING A WORKING BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • After selecting a broad subject of your paper,
    you should begin to work in the library to
    determine how to shape and limit the topic with
    the materials available. This effort should
    result in a working bibliography, a list of
    sources that appear to be relevant at the initial
    stage of your research. Developing a working
    bibliography requires knowledge of library
    sources, the use of reference systems to locate
    sources, and consistent method of preparing
    bibliography cards.

27
  • During the first phase of your research you
    will want to write down information about every
    source you encounter that might be relevant to
    your study even if you are not certain you will
    be able to use it. You are likely to regret
    ignoring potential sources at this early stage.
    As your thinking develops, you will wish that you
    had made bibliography cards for work that seemed
    irrelevant at the time but later proved
    essential. Instructors and suggestions from your
    adviser, as well as the nature and scope of your
    topic, should indicate the appropriate number of
    sources for your working bibliography.

28
  • 3. DATA GATHERING
  • To gather information for your paper, you need
    to develop a bibliography, evaluate sources of
    their dependability and authority, and take
    accurate, useful notes.
  • Books and articles that appear relevant to your
    topic should be listed systematically, one to
    card and in the bibliographic format that you
    will use to your final draft. Each entry on a
    bibliographic card should follow the format
    specified by the style sheet governing, your
    final paper. If the entries on your cards follow
    the specified format, you will able to prepare
    you final bibliography to simply transferring the
    information from the cards.

29
  • As you select works to read and sources to use
    in your paper, you should continually evaluate
    materials with regard to the primary or secondary
    nature of sources, the qualification of the
    author, and the level of the source.
  • An effective system for recording information
    requires you to select cards of a convenient
    size, a system of notation for relating the note
    cards to the bibliography cards and the outline,
    and a form for recording information. Even though
    you will probably want to photocopy some
    materials in the library, you will still need to
    take notes on the works that you find useful for
    your paper.

30
  • 4. OUTLINING THE PAPER
  • Some researches begin with a tentative or
    working outline that guides the choice of
    research materials other let the outline grow
    from research. If you develop outline in advance
    it should remain open to change as you read and
    take notes. Formulating and revising an outline
    will help you arrive at a logical and meaningful
    structure for your paper.
  • Creating an outline involves working decisions
    about the thesis statement, the principle of
    organization, the type of outline, and format of
    the outline.

31
  • 5. WRITING THE PAPER
  • Writing the research paper involves preparing a
    first draft, revising the draft as often as
    necessary, editing the draft preparing the
    documentation and attending to other elements of
    the format, and proofreading.
  • Although the some extent you will approach this
    task in the order they are listed here, should
    not expect to complete any of them until you have
    a finished copy. Each activity proceeds both
    linearly and recursively. Even as you proceed
    with writing your first draft, you will
    constantly be thinking back to the sentences and
    paragraphs you have already written and thinking
    ahead to the projected design of your entire
    paper. Similarly, throughout the writing process
    you may be preparing parts of the final format
    such as the notes and bibliography.

32
  • 6. ON FONTS AND FONTS SIZES
  • A uniform presentation for RESEARCH PAPER of
    all disciplines are required for the font sizes
  • Arial font
  • When using Arial fonts the following fonts
    actual sizes are suggested
  • 1. Title of the STUDY - SIZE 17 20
  • 2. Chapter title - 16
  • 3. Section of Chapter - 15
  • 4. Sub-section of section n - 14
  • 5. Font-size for the body-text - 12 1

33
  • 7. ON MARGINS AND SPACE
  • MARGINS - 1 inch margins on all sides
  • SPACE - One space or Two single spaces
  • 8. Submit to hard copies and soft copy of the
    research paper, BINDED using only the designated
    I/AME binders available in the library.
  • 1 copy for the school
  • 1 copy for the Professor

34
  • REFERENCE MATERIALS
  • BOOKS
  • Turubian, L. Kate, 6th Edition, A Manual For
    Writers of Term Paper, Theses and Dissertations,
    The University of Chicago Press
  • Calmorin, Laurentina Paler and Calmorin, Melchor
    A., 1995, Methods of Research and Thesis Writing,
    Printed by REX Printing Company Inc.
  • WORK BOOK
  • Rebustes, Nerza A., 2002, Methods of
    Research-Fundamental Concepts and Application,
    I/AME Design Studio
  • Guide to Thesis Writing
  • Llorando, 2006, Research, etc. LLAVE Center for
  • Continuing Academic Development, Inc.

35
  • Report on The Research Process
  • One of the characteristics of good research is
    that, it is systematic. It consists of steps or
    stages that must be understood and followed so
    that research can be effective and rewarding.
  • The following are three research process models
    available to researchers.

36
  • By Dr. N. Rebustes By Treece and Treece Jr.
    By Cooper
  • (Eight Steps Model) (Scientific
    Method) (Business Model)
  • Problem Identification 1. Determining the
    1. Discovering the
  • and Formulation Problem
    Management Dilemma
  • and Defining the
  • Creation of the 2. Forming a hypothesis
    Research Problem /
  • Research Design (Intelligent guesses)
    Questions.
  • Constructing an 3. Doing the library 2.
    Research Proposal
  • Instrument for Data Research
  • Collection
  • Selection of the 4. Designing the Study. 3.
    Research Design to
  • Sampling Include Design Strategy,
  • Data Collection Design,
  • and Sampling Design.
  • Collection of the Data 5. Developing the
    4. Data Collection and

37
  • A CLOSER LOOK AT THE EIGHT-STEP
  • STEP 1 Problem Identification and Formulation
  • The research problem is one or more questions to
    be answered empirically by factual investigation.
    It identifies the destination of the research
    work.

38
  • Possible sources of research problems are
    people, problems, programs and phenomena. Other
    sources include theses, dissertations, and
    research journals as the researchers of these
    recommend problems for future research workers to
    investigate into.
  • The research problem should be SMART, that is,
    Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and
    Time-bound whether it is historical, descriptive,
    experimental or a case study.

39
  • Once a research problem has been identified. It
    has to be stated STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. The
    statement of the Problem usually consists of a
    main problem and sub-problems.
  • Main Problem usually stated in declarative form
    covers the broad problem area. It states the
    intent of the investigation in a clear and
    grammatical sequence.
  • b) Sub-Problems interrelated parts of the main
    problem that allows the researcher to confront
    the main problem into smaller sub-parts.

40
  • Characteristics of sub-problems
  • Each sub-problem is a complete research unit
    which should constitute a logical sub-component
    within the larger research goal.
  • Sub-problems must add to the totality of the
    research problem.
  • Each sub-problem should be completely
    researchable units amenable to testing or
    verification.

41
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Statement of the Problem
  • The main problem of this study is to determine
    the problems met by Science and Mathematics
    instructors and professors at the SUC in Region 6
    (Western Visayas) in school 1994 1995.
    Specifically, it attempts to answer the following
    questions
  • 1.What are the problems met by Science and
    Mathematics instructors and Professors at the SUC
    in relation to (a) administration and
    supervision, (b) instructional materials, (c)
    teacher factor, and (d) student factor?
  • What is the most pressing problem met by Science
    and Mathematics instructors and professors in
    relation to administration and supervision,
    instructional materials, teacher factor and
    student factor?
  • 3. Is there a significant difference in the man
    rank levels of the problems met by Science and
    Mathematics instructors and professors in
    relation t (a) administration and supervision (b)
    Instructional materials, (c) teacher factor, and
    (d) student factor?

42
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Management Question
  • What should be done to improve the Complete Care
    programmed for Mind Writer laptop repairs and
    servicing to enhance customer satisfaction.
  • Research Question
  • Should the technical representatives be given
    more intensive training or not?
  • Should ABC courier service be replaced by an
    overnight air transport, or not?
  • Should the repair diagnostic and repair
    sequencing operations be modified, or not?
  • Should the return packaging be modified to
    include pre-model rigid foam inserts,
    conforming-expanding foam protection, or not?
  • 5. Should metropolitan repair centers be
    established to complement or replaced in-factory
    repair facilities, or not?

43
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • Statement of the Problem
  • The main problem of the study is to determine
    the acceptability, nutritive values, and
    economics of canned milkfish (Chanos chanos
    Forskal) with and without seaweeds. The specific
    problems are
  • What is the mean value of the odor, color,
    flavor, texture, and general acceptability of
    canned milkfish with and without seaweed?
  • What are the nutritive values of these products?
  • Which of the products is more nutritious?
  • Which is more economical, canned milkfish with
    seaweeds or canned milkfish without seaweeds?
  • 5. Is there a significant difference on the
    acceptability of odor, color, flavor, and texture
    of canned milkfish (Chanos chanos Forskal) with
    and without seaweeds?

44
  • EXAMPLE 4
  • Statement of the Problem
  • This study explored into the realm of business,
    educational management research and evaluation
    consultancy and the excellencies or expertise
    that must be developed by Filipino students at
    the doctoral level to prepare them for
    consultancy jobs in these fields, and determine
    areas that may need in-depth inquiry.
  • The specific problems attempted to determine the
    approaches/techniques to management consultancy
    in research and evaluation as well as the skills
    and the expertise that must be developed by
    consultants in setting up consultancy services I
    the management of research and evaluation?

45
  • STEP 2 Creation of the Research Design
  • The Research Design constitutes the blueprint
    for the collection, measurement and analysis of
    data. In other words, it includes the plan,
    structure and strategy of investigation conceived
    so as to obtain answers to research questions and
    control variance.
  • Simply stated, research designs are made to
    enable research questions as validly,
    objectively, accurately and economically as
    possible.

46
  • Types of Research Designs
  • There are a number of research designs which a
    researcher may choose to use depending on the
    nature of his investigation. The four major types
    are
  • 1) Historical Research It describes what
    occurred in the past and then makes a critical
    inquiry into the truth of what occurred. It must
    also be interpretative, that is, it describes the
    present situations in terms of past events.

47
  • 2) Descriptive Research It is fact-finding with
    adequate information. The process of descriptive
    research goes beyond mere gathering and
    tabulating of data. It involves elements of
    interpretation of the meaning or significance of
    what is described.
  • 3) Experimental Research it involves the
    control and manipulation of conditions for the
    purpose of studying the relative effects of
    various treatments applied to members of a
    sample, or of the same treatment applied to
    members of different samples.
  • 4) Case Study It is an intensive investigation
    of a particular individual, institution,
    community or any group considered as a unit.

48
  • STEP 3 Constructing an Instrument for data
    collection
  • Research instruments are the devices used for
    gathering or collecting data and are very
    important because the success or failure of a
    study lies on the data gathered.
  • The choice of instrument or tools depends on
    factors such as the nature of the problem, the
    population or universe under study, the cost of
    the survey, and the time factor.
  • There are several tools or instruments for
    collecting data, but the most common are as
    follows

49
Observation (Checklists and Recording
Sheets)Examples a. 1,
Another example of a checklist with short
verbal entries
  • Name of Observer___________________
  • Direction for Observer
  • In the space provider, record observations
    that bear on the individuals physical
    development and social development. Do not
    evaluate, but describe. Avoid vague words such as
    good, strong, shy, etc. Enter statement of what
    happened, or what you saw, as Did three
    push-ups, and couldnt do anymore. Cried and
    started fighting when he was called out. Date
    each entry.
  • Physical Development
  • Social Development
  • Name of Observed (optional)____________________
  • Place of Observation______Date______
  • Direction for Observer Give a brief description
    of each item.
  • Type of Farming _______________
  • Farming tools _________________
  • Work Animals _________________
  • Farming machinery _____________
  • Soil Fertility ___________________
  • Soil preparation _______________
  • Crops planted _________________
  • Water Management ____________
  • Pest control __________________
  • Weed control _________________
  • Fertilizer application ____________
  • Harvesting ___________________
  • Farm structures ________________
  • Access road ___________________
  • Other factors __________________

50
2) Interview (Schedules and Interview Guides
  • INTERVIEW GUIDE
  • Name (optional)______ Date ____
  • Address ______________
    ______________
  • Educational qualification (of faculty)
  • Methods and strategies of teaching
  • Facilities
  • Supervisory assistance
  • Problems encountered in teaching
  • Proposed solutions to problems
  • Implications to the teaching of science
  • Interview Schedule same as questionnaires
  • Interview Guide does not go into details but it
    only provides ideas and allows the
    interviewer to freely pursue relevant topics in
    depth.

51
  • ETHICS IN FAMILY BUSINESS
  • QUESTIONNAIRE
  • _________________________________________
  • Basic Data
  • Age Gender
    Education ________________
  • 2. Your position in the family business
  • Board of Directors Manager
    None
  • Chief Executive Officer
    Other
  • 3. Are you shareholder?
  • Yes No
  • 4. What percentage of equity do you own or
    represent?
  • Less than 5 50
  • Between 5 and 49 More than 50

M
F
52
  • Behaviors and their frequency
  • How common in your experience, are the following
    types of unethical behavior in family business?
  • (The columns indicate the level of frequency.
    Please put cross in the appropriate column)
  • Ownership of capital
  • 1.1 Ways of obtaining ownership
  • 1.1.1 By forcing property rights from other
    people
  • 1.1.2 By valuing shares incorrectly
  • 1.2 Ways of transferring ownership
  • 1. 2.1 By defrauding legitimate heirs
  • 1. 2.2 By creating an ownership structure
    that
  • makes governance of the company difficult

53
  • 2. Power
  • 2.1 Ways to gain Power
  • 2.1.1 By deceiving those entitled to hold
    power
  • 2.1.2 By threatening from a position of
    strength
  • Backed by a large equity stake, confidential
  • information, etc
  • 2.1.3 By using delaying tactics to prevent
    others from
  • Gaining power.
  • 2.2 General ways of using power
  • 2.2.1 Promoting personal financial interest
    and other
  • Expenses.
  • 2.2.2 Adopting strategies that entail serious
    risks for
  • Others.
  • 2.2.3 Satisfying personal preferences to the
  • Detriment of others
  • 2.2.4 Boosting personal prestige and status

54
  • 3. Business Strategy
  • 3.1 Preventing the necessary development,
  • growth and change in the company
  • (by staying in mature business,
  • diversifying, etc.
  • 3.2 Putting the company automatic
  • prior leaving it to carry on
  • us usual, so us to be able to
  • devote more time to other things.
  • 3.3 Preventing others from contributing
  • with their opinions to strategic analysis
  • and decision making
  • 3.4 Neglecting the interest of future
  • generations

55
  • 4. Company organizations
  • 4.1 Appointing incompetent people to
  • important post (Nepotism)
  • 4.2 Unfair or inadequate compensation
  • 4.3 Favoritism and discrimination
  • 4.4 Buying or controlling managers through
  • Compensation, threats, etc.
  • 4.5 Blocking the careers of capable managers
  • 4.6 Delaying successions processes
  • 4.7 Devoting too title time to the company
  • 4.8 Revealing confidential information

56
  • 5. Shareholders
  • 5.1 Alliances among some shareholders
  • at the expense of others
  • 5.2 Obliging the company to pay dividends
  • that have not been earned.
  • 5.3 Demanding favors contrary to the
  • interest of the company
  • 5.4 Demanding information to which
  • they are not entitled
  • 5.5 Making inappropriate personal use of
    company assets
  • 5.6 Appropriating company funds
  • 5.7 Imprudently failing to exercise

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  • STEP 4 Selecting a Sample
  • Sampling means selecting a given number of
    persons, objects or events called subset from a
    given population by specified selection process.
    Sampling also refers to strategies of picking up
    a subgroup from a larger group to be used as a
    basis for making judgments about the larger group
    is the Sample while the larger group is the
    Population.
  • Population means all the members of a real or
    hypothetical set of persons, objects or events of
    interest in study. Also called a Universe.

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  • Sampling Techniques
  • Probability
  • This refers to a technique in which the unique
    characteristic is that one can specify for
    each element in the population the probability
    that it will be included in the sample
  • Is used when inferences about the population are
    required as in thesis and dissertation or other
    academic researches.

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  • 2. Non-probability
  • This is technique used when there is no way of
    estimating the probability that each element has
    being included in the sample and no assurance
    that every element has a chance of being
    included.
  • Is usually adapted when immediate information
    feedback is needed, as in marketing research
    studies, such as product launching.
  • 3. Mixed Sampling
  • Combination of Probability and Non-probability.
  • The sampling theory is guided by two principles
  • 1. The avoidance of bias in the selection of
    a sample
  • 2. The attainment of maximum precision for a
    given outlay of resources.

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  • STEP 5 Collection of Data
  • Data are a collection of numbers, quantities,
    facts, or records, used as bases for drawing
    conclusions or making inferences.
  • Data are what research is searching for and
    which are subjected to analysis, statistical
    procedures, and interpretation so that
    inferences, principles, or generalization are
    drawn. Data also reveal unsatisfactory conditions
    that need to be improved.

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  • Two types of data
  • 1. Primary Data gathered directly from an
    original source. Sources include individuals,
    groups organizations and established practices.
  • 2. Secondary Information taken from published
    or unpublished data which were previously
    gathered by other individuals or agencies.
    Sources are books, magazines, census reports,
    articles, manuscript, internet/world-wide-web and
    the like.

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  • Most common methods of data collection with their
    specific instruments
  • 1. OBSERVATION as a means of gathering
    information for research may be defined as
    perceiving data through the senses sight,
    hearing, taste, touch, and smell. The sense of
    sight is the most important and the most used
    among the senses. Observation is the most direct
    way and the most widely used in studying
    behavior.

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  • Advantages
  • It provides a direct procedure for studying
    various aspects of human behavior which may be
    the only effective way to gather data in a
    particular situation.
  • It enables the observer to code and record at the
    time of its occurrence.
  • Disadvantages
  • Subject may intentionally attempt to exhibit an
    artificial behavior when he knows that he is
    being observed.
  • It is time consuming and sometimes costly.

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  • 2. INTERVIEW is one of the major techniques in
    data gathering or information. It is defined as a
    purposeful face to face relationship between two
    persons, one of whom called the interviewer who
    asks questions to gather information and the
    other is called the interviewee or respondent who
    supplies the information asked for

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  • Purpose and Uses of the Interview
  • The researches may approach and interview
    knowledgeable people to enable him to gain
    insight into his problem, the variables he is
    going to use, the formulation of his specific
    questions and hypotheses, the statistical methods
    he is going to utilize etc.
  • The researcher may also interview knowledgeable
    people about the proper construction and
    validation of a questionnaire, or who can make
    any contribution to the enrichment of his study.

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  • In cases when the subject of the study is a
    person with some signs of abnormality, the
    interviewer may wish to gain information from the
    overt, oral, physical or emotional reactions of
    the subjects towards certain questions to be used
    for a possible remedy of the abnormality.
  • The researcher may also use the interview as the
    principle tool in gathering data for his study or
    just to supplement data collected by other
    techniques.

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  • Types or classes of interview
  • a) Standardized interview in this type of
    interview, the interviewer is not allowed to
    change the specific wordings of the question in
    the interview schedule.
  • b) Non-standardized interview In this type, the
    interviewer has complete freedom to develop each
    interview in the most appropriate manner for each
    situation. He is not held to any specific
    question.

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  • Semi-standardized interview The interviewer is
    required to ask a number of specific major
    questions, and beyond these he is free to probe
    as he chooses.
  • Focused interview This is also called depth
    interview. This is similar to the
    non-standardized interview in which no required
    questions should be asked by the interviewer. The
    researcher asks a series of a question based on
    his previous understanding and insight of the
    situation.
  • e) Non-directive interview In this type of
    interview, the interviewee or subject is allowed
    and even encouraged to express his feelings
    without fear of disapproval.

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  • QUESTIONNAIRE has been defined by Good as a list
    of planned, written questions related to a
    particular topic, with space provided for
    indicating the response to each question,
    intended for submission to a number of persons
    for reply commonly used in normative survey
    studies and in the measurement of attitudes and
    opinions.
  • In other words, a questionnaire is simply a set
    of questions which, when answered properly by a
    required number or properly selected respondents,
    will supply the necessary information to complete
    a research study.

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  • Advantages
  • The questionnaire is easy to construct. The rules
    and principles of construction are easy to follow
  • Distribution is easy and inexpensive.
  • The respondents replies are free.
  • Confidential information may be given freely
  • The respondent can fill out the questionnaire at
    will.
  • The respondent can give more accurate replies.

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  • STEP 6 Analysis and Interpretation of Data
  • Data Processing is a precedent of Data Analysis.
    It involves editing (detecting or errors and
    commissioning and correcting when possible) and
    coding of information (grouping and assigning
    numeric codes to the various responses to a
    particular question) from the research
    instruments.

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  • The following problems to be determined during
    data editing are
  • 1. Dont know answers
  • 2. Not applicable answers
  • 3. Wrong answers
  • 4. Inconsistent answers
  • 5. Ambiguous answers
  • 6. All extreme or central tendency answers
  • 7. Disqualified respondent
  • 8. Illegible writing
  • 9. Mistakes by the researcher
  • 10. Failure of respondent to follow instruction

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4. Unanswered questions Examples of data
codingWhat changes would you like to see in
your company?
  • RAW RESPONSES FREQUENCY
  • Reduction of absenteeism 9

    Obtain zero defects in production 5

    Have a more aggressive advertising
  • campaign for the product 10
  • Lessen tardiness of employees 7
  • Lessen late deliveries to customers 5

    Minimize customer complaints
  • about defective products 14
  • Increase number of delivery vans 3

    Improve products features 3

    Better communication between
  • production and marketing 15
  • Increase efforts towards
  • introducing new things that could
  • add value of the product 5

    Better coordination between
  • departments
    31
  • Engage in TV advertising 4

    Good teamwork within and
  • between departments 12
  • Better relationship with distributors 7

    Additional benefits to employees 20
  • TOTAL
    150
  • CODE CATEGORIES FREQUENCY
  • 1 Human Resources 36
  • Management issues
  • (e. g., absenteeism,
  • tardiness, employee
  • morale, salary, benefits
  • 2 Marketing related issues 29
  • (e.g., advertising,
  • distribution, products
  • added value)
  • 3 Production related issues 19
  • (e.g., quality control,
  • production output)
  • 4 Logistics and Support 8
  • related issues (e.g.,
  • deliveries, warehousing)

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  • Data analysis is the process of breaking down
    and ordering of data into meaningful categories
    or groups and the search for trends and patterns
    or relationships among data categories.
  • Type of Analysis
  • 1. Qualitative Analysis This uses descriptive
    tools such as content analysis and descriptive
    statistics (e.g., percentage, frequency, measure
    of central tendencies etc.).
  • 2. Quantitative Analysis This uses regression,
    Z or t-tests, correlation, and time-series
    analysis.

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STEP 7 Writing a Presentation of
DataPresentation is the process of organizing
data into logical, sequential and meaningful
categories and classification.
  • There are three ways of presenting data
  • Textual The use of statements with numerals or
    numbers to describe the data. Its disadvantage
    especially if it is too long is that it is boring
    to read and the reader may not even be able to
    grasp the quantitative relationships pf the data
    presented.
  • Example
  • Of the total 124 complaints received by XYZ
    Hotel in 2001, 18 complaints or 14.4 were due to
    Missing Guest Preferences, 51 complaints or 40.8
    due to Unresolved guest Difficulties, 5
    complaints or 4 due to Inoperable guestroom
    Equipment, 4 complaints or 3.2 due to Inadequate
    guestroom Housekeeping, 8 complaints or 6.4 due
    to Unready Guest Room, 3 complaints or 2.4 due
    to Inadequate Food/Beverage, 27 complaints or
    21.6 due to Missing/Damaged Guest Property, 2
    complaints or 1.6 due to Inappropriate Hotel
    Appearance, 3 complaints or 2.4 had to do with
    Unaccommodating Staff Attitude, and 4 complaints
    or 3.2 due to Invoice adjustments.

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  • Tabular - This is a systematic arrangement of
    related data in which classes of numerical facts
    or data are given each a row and their subclasses
    are given each a column in order to present at
    the relationships of the sets or numerical facts
    or data in a definite, compact and understandable
    form or forms.
  • Example
  • Customer Satisfaction Ratings by Frequent
    Leisure Travelers of XYZ Hotel and ABC Hotel
  • Criteria XYZ Hotel ABC Hotel
  • Overall Satisfaction 91 80
  • Cleanliness of Room and
  • Facilities 90 77
  • Adequate Security 83 64
  • Value for Money 42 32
  • Staff Knowledgeable and
  • Helpful 67 54

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  • Graphical A graph is a chart representing the
    quantitative variations or changes of a variable
    itself, or quantitative changes of a variable in
    comparison with those of another variable or
    variables in pictorial or diagrammatic form. Its
    purpose is to present the variations, changes,
    and relationship of data in a most attractive,
    appealing, effective and convincing way.
  • Types of graphs or charts
  • Bar graphs 4. Pictograms
  • 2. Linear graphs 5. Statistical Maps
  • 3. Hundred percent 6. Ratio Maps
  • graphs or chart 7. Pie Charts

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  • Example
  • Line Graph Pie Chart

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  • STEP 8 Research Report
  • Writing the report is the last and, for many,
    the most difficult step of the research process.
    This report informs the world of what you have
    done what you have discovered and what
    conclusions you have drawn from the findings.
  • Guidelines for preparing a good research report
  • 1. Purpose Type, length, and nature of data
    being presented should be relevant to the purpose
    of the researcher.

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  • 2. Target Reader/End-user Contents and
    presentation of data should be pertinent to the
    needs of the target reader or end-user.
  • 3. Clarity Using specific, measurable and
    descriptive words will help in illustrating
    statements and ideas. Logical data organization
    and sound interpretation add clarity to the
    report.
  • 4. Appropriate Words Concepts or variables or
    words with flawed meaning, given a particular
    situation or context, should be avoided.

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  • Style (1) The written composition must be
    consistent (grammar, spelling, punctuation etc.).
    (2) In the discussion of the results, it is
    preferable that this section be subdivided into
    subtopics based on the objectives or hypothesis
    of the study to focus more on the analysis. (3)
    To substantiate the interpretation of results, it
    is also possible to cite direct quotations from
    the answers of the respondents. (4) Technical
    writing in research also requires that the report
    be written in the third person Therefore, the
    use of I, we, and our should be avoided.
  • Graphic Aids Use graphic aids properly.
  • Acknowledgement and Citation there are
    instances in the report when the source/s of
    information should be carefully cited and
    acknowledged.
  • 8. Format Research format should try to include
    all possible contents of any research report.

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  • Sources
  • Methods of Research by Nerza A. Rebustes
  • Methods of Research and Thesis Writing by Jose
    Calderon and Expectation Gonzales
  • Methods of Research and Thesis Writing by
    Laurentina Calmorin and Melchor Calmorin
  • Developing Competencies in Research Writing by
    Dr. Maura Fonollera
  • Business Research by Divina Edralin
  • Business Research Methods by Donald Cooper
  • http//cref.montesquieu.u-bordeaux.fr/Nouveau20Si
    te/ARTICLES/Gallo20Cappuyus20199829.pdf

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  • - The End
  • Thank You ! ! !
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