Structural Diagrams: Framing (Non-concrete/ non-metal)

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Structural Diagrams: Framing (Non-concrete/ non-metal)

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Structural Diagrams: Framing (Non-concrete/ non-metal) Referenced Materials Jeff Graybill & Johanna Mikitka AE-390 Professor James E. Mitchell October 20, 2004 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Structural Diagrams: Framing (Non-concrete/ non-metal)


1
Structural DiagramsFraming(Non-concrete/
non-metal)
Referenced Materials
  • Jeff Graybill
  • Johanna Mikitka

AE-390 Professor James E. Mitchell October 20,
2004
2
Navigate the System
  • System Description
  • Transmission of Loads
  • Loads to Consider
  • Detail for Dead Loads
  • Foundation Systems
  • Terms of the System
  • The System According to the class Comments
  • Typical Uses
  • Limitations
  • Materials and Construction Issues
  • Numeric Parameters
  • Alternatives to Timber Construction
  • Typical Uses and Applications
  • Aluminum Structural Framing
  • Aluminum / Fiberglass Columns
  • Other Potential Alternative Building Materials
  • Advantages to Non- metal/concrete Structures
  • Generalizations

Back
3
System Description
A Framed Building is a structure whose weight is
carried by the framework instead of by
load-bearing walls. The term includes modern
metal and reinforced concrete structures as well
as timber-framed buildings.
  • There are several techniques for wood framed
    constructions
  • Balloon Framing- A skeleton of light machine-cut
    uprights or studs is attached to the joints or
    horizontal members by nails to form a cage or
    crate, with clapboard covering also nailed so
    that the whole is held together by nails. The
    studs run from sill to roof plate, spaced about
    16 inches apart.
  • Post and Beam- An ancient and, structurally, the
    simplest type of construction vertical members
    (columns, posts, piers, or walls) support
    horizontal members (beams or lintels).
  • Platform Framing- see Balloon Framing (Platform
    framing differs from balloon framing in that the
    vertical members run from platform to platform
    rather than from sill to roof plate.)
  • Half-timbering- A method of construction in which
    walls are built of interlocking vertical and
    horizontal timbers. The spaces are filled with
    non-structural walling of wattle and daub, lath
    and plaster, etc.

What about the loads?!
Back
All definitions taken from The Penguin
Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape
Architecture.
4
Transmission of Loads
  • LOADS

TRIBUTARY AREA
BEAMS
BEAMS
BEAMS
GIRDERS
GIRDERS
GIRDERS
COLUMNS
COLUMNS
COLUMNS
FOUNDATION SYSTEM
THEY MADE IT! THE LOADS HAVE REACHED THE GROUND!
What loads must be considered in building design?
What types of foundations systems are available?
Back
5
Loads to Consider
  • Dead Loads
  • Dead loads consist of the weights of the
    various structural members and the weights of any
    objects that are permanently attached to the
    structure. (Hibbeler)
  • Live Loads
  • Building Loads
  • Wind Loads
  • Snow Loads
  • Earthquake Loads
  • Other Loads
  • Blast Loads
  • Variance in temperatures
  • Uneven settling of soil

Back
6
Dead Load - Design Loads
Back
Contents of Table from Hibbeler - based on
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other
Structures, ASCE 7-98.
7
Foundation Systems
Back
Graphic http//www.slcc.edu/tech/techsp/arch/cour
ses/ARCH1210/Photos/Fndtyp.jpg
8
Terms of the System
  • 1. Posts - In timber-framed buildings the main
    vertical timbers of the walls.
  • 2. Girder - A box girder is of hollow rectangular
    or other closed cross-section with transverse
    plates or other diaphragm members at intervals
    for strengthening.
  • 3. Principal Beam - In the body of a building a
    main horizontal timber supporting floor or
    ceiling joists.
  • 4. Joist - Horizontal parallel timbers laid
    between the walls or the beams of a building to
    carry the floorboards.
  • 5. King Post - A vertical timber standing
    centrally on a tie- or a collar-beam and rising
    to the apex of the roof where it supports the
    ridge.
  • 6. Rafter - Inclined lateral timbers sloping from
    wall-top to apex and supporting the roof
    covering.
  • 7. Ridge Beam - A horizontal, longitudinal timber
    at the apex of a roof supporting the ends of the
    rafters.

5
7
6
4
3
2
1
Back
All definitions taken from The Penguin Dictionary
of Architecture and Landscape Architecture.
Graphic from Ching.
9
In terms of the Class
  • Class Definition of a System -"A series of
    individual components interacting in order to
    ensure that a design functions as desired.
  • In wood framing, the individual components are
    the different types of timbers explained in Terms
    of the System.
  • Subsystems of wood framing include the following
  • Foundation - needed to support the structure
  • Walls - often fabricated and installed as single
    components
  • Roof - many roof options are available (due to
    complexity of these systems, no detail has been
    provided). Roof constructions include
    crown-post, king-post, truss, gable, hammerbeam,
    hipped, gambrel, mansard, helm, etc.
  • Joint systems - there are many techniques for
    connecting the timber members. Some techniques
    include mortice and tenon joints, steel plate
    connections, bolts, nails, screws, etc.
  • The desired function for a wood frame is to
    adequately meet the spatial and aesthetic needs
    as well as be structurally adequate to handle all
    potential loads.

Back
10
Typical Uses for Wood Framing
  • Residential Construction
  • This is the most common use
  • Timber can be used to create many aesthetically
    pleasing irregular shapes
  • Economic/convenient source of building materials
  • Durable for residential use
  • Ease/speed of construction
  • Small Commercial Buildings
  • Many small commercial buildings are similar to
    residential construction
  • Modular quality is advantageous
  • Barns
  • Ease/speed of construction
  • Simplicity Durability of structure
  • Modular benefits
  • Camp/Park facilities
  • Aesthetically pleasing/appropriate for location
  • Ease/speed of construction

Graphic http//www.iaw.on.ca/blkcreek/
Click here for some outstanding examples of the
use of exposed timber framing systems!
Back
11
Limitations
  • Natural Size limitations
  • Because the timbers come from trees, sizes are
    naturally limited by the trees available.
  • The natural strength to resist loading of the
    timbers limits the span.
  • Does not accommodate large open spaces
  • The framing concept does not allow for large open
    spaces as the posts are a necessary aspect of the
    frame. Beam spans range from 8 to 32.
  • Wood is organic matter and is therefore subject
    to decomposition over a period of time.
  • Wood may absorb/lose water content causing
    warping and deformation in the system over time.
  • Wood is subject to infestations of destructive
    insects such as termites, carpenter ants, etc.

Back
12
Materials and Construction Issues
  • Typical Strong Woods
  • Douglas Fir
  • Larch
  • Southern Pine
  • Oak
  • Many types of wood uses
  • Connections
  • Metal Connectors
  • Shear Plate Connections
  • Spike Grid Connections
  • Toothed-ring Joints
  • Bolts, screws, nails, etc.
  • Wood on Wood Connections
  • Mortice and Tenon
  • Lap Joint
  • Spline
  • Fabrication
  • On-Site Fabrication
  • Allows for irregular shape construction
  • Off-Site Fabrication
  • Allows for high-speed construction as members
    only need to be pieced together
  • Beneficial for modular installation

Back
13
Shear-Plate Connector
  • Shear plates are typical for wood-steel
    connections.
  • Pairs of sheer plates can be used to form
    wood-wood connections.

http//www.tpub.com/content/engineering/14070/css/
14070_27.htm
Back
14
Spike Grid Connector
  • Spike Grid connectors are embedded into the wood
    members before they are bolted together to
    provide a source of friction to prevent shearing
    of the bolts.

http//www.tpub.com/content/engineering/14070/css/
14070_27.htm
Back
15
Toothed-ring Joints
  • Toothed-ring Joints are used similarly to the
    spike grid installation.

http//www.tpub.com/content/engineering/14070/css/
14070_27.htm
Back
16
Numeric Parameters
  • Nominal Depth of Beam vs. Span (Solid)
  • Depth of Beam vs. Span (Laminated)
  • Design Values Bending, Tension, Shear,
    Compression, and Modulus of Elasticity
  • How much does it weigh?

Back
17
Nominal Depth vs. Span
  • This chart shows span ranges based on the nominal
    depth of the wood beam selected.
  • Nominal depths are slightly larger than actual
    depths.
  • Note that with a 24 beam depth maximum span is
    only 32.

Back
18
Depth vs. SpanLaminated Beams
  • This chart shows span ranges based on the depth
    of the laminated wood beam selected.
  • Laminated beams can span greater distances that
    their solid wood counterparts. This is in part
    because their size is not restricted by nature.
  • Note that Span is in feet and depth is in inches.

Back
19
Design Values - Allowable Loadings
  • S-P-F Design Values (psi)
  • Douglas Fir- Larch Design Values (psi)
  • Hem-Fir (North) Design Values (psi)
  • Northern Species Design Values (psi)

These tables will help you to decide what size
and what type of wood is necessary based on
loading factors such as bending, tension, shear,
and compression. Design loadings are given for
specified types and grades of timbers. Loadings
are presented in pounds per square inch.
Back
20
S-P-F Design Values (psi)
Back
http//www.cwc.ca/products/lumber/visually_graded
/us_values.php
21
Douglas Fir- LarchDesign Values (psi)
Back
http//www.cwc.ca/products/lumber/visually_graded
/us_values.php
22
Hem-Fir Design Values (psi)
Back
http//www.cwc.ca/products/lumber/visually_graded
/us_values.php
23
Northern SpeciesDesign Values (psi)
Back
http//www.cwc.ca/products/lumber/visually_graded
/us_values.php
24
Wood Densities for Design Loads
  • One of the primary components of the Dead Load
    calculation is the weights of the structural
    members. The densities allow the engineer to
    calculate the weight added by the timber members.

Back
25
Alternatives to timber construction
  • Although not used as widely as timber, concrete,
    and steel construction materials, lightweight and
    durable materials are being used for the more
    decorative structural elements.
  • These materials include aluminum, structural
    foam, plastics, and fiberglass.

Back
26
Typical uses and applications
  • Commercial
  • Walkway Canopies
  • Shade Structures
  • Metal Roofing
  • Residential
  • Lattice
  • Pool Enclosures
  • Sunrooms
  • Carports

Back
27
Aluminum Structural Framing
  • Aluminum framing has advantages in high
    insulating value, diffuse-light transmitting
    swimming pool enclosures. Typical ferro-vitreous
    buildings utilize 2 3/4" structural roof panel
    systems providing good insulating values, energy
    performance, human comfort and condensation
    control. The panels are incorporated into an
    aluminum box beam sub-structure resulting in an
    enclosure that is designed to meet or exceed all
    local snow and wind load requirements - from
    Canadian snowstorms to Caribbean hurricanes.
  • Aluminum Structural Framing comes factory
    pre-finished, uses a hollow box-beam design
    allowing easy wire and conduit concealment,
    typically will use internal gussets, traditional
    truss designs, and can be used in a variety of
    roof styles.

Back
28
Aluminum/Fiberglass Columns
  • The columns are designed for all types of
    decorative and load bearing installations and are
    architecturally correct in their proportions and
    projections. Fiber-glass columns require very
    little maintenance, are durable and are ideal for
    indoor or outdoor applications.
  • All components are non-porous, waterproof, and
    impervious to insect infestation. The fiberglass
    columns are classified as NFPA Class A and UBC
    Class 1, with a smoke density rating below 450
    according to ASTM E84-01 testing criteria.
  • Structural fiberglass columns are load bearing
    and will typically have some sort of warranty.
    They can vary in diameters from 5 to 36 inches
    with a load-bearing capacity from 16,000 to
    31,000 lbs., and can be found in lengths ranging
    from 8 to 30 feet.
  • Extruded Aluminum sections have high resistance
    to torsional stress and compression. Aluminums
    properties give the columns excellent load
    bearing strength and durability. Since Aluminum
    is also light weight it aids in the ease of
    installation. Aluminum and Fiberglass also have a
    longer usable lifetime than wooden members.

www.colonialcolumns.com
Back
29
Other specific uses
  • Aluminum is used in architectural skylights which
    are held using space frames due to its
    lightweight and strong material properties.
  • Aluminum is also used in prefabricated dome
    structures typically used on religious or
    institutional buildings.
  • Alternative materials are also now used in
    pedestrian bridges and serve as low maintenance
    crossways for traffic ranging from horses and
    pedestrians to golf carts. These bridges are
    environmentally friendly and meet state and
    federal codes. These materials are used on a
    smaller scale presently but show potential use on
    large scale bridges in the future.
  • These alternative construction materials are
    typically used in the decorative elements of
    buildings, but are being accepted as load bearing
    materials due to their weight, strength, cost
    effective manufacturing, and modular abilities.
  • Roofs can utilize aluminum not only in framing
    but can replace shingles and traditional roofing
    products. And, many insurance companies in select
    states are now offering discounts on homes with
    metal roofs as an incentive.

www.roofdomes.com
Back
30
Other Potential Alternative Building Materials
  • Plastics
  • Bottles/containers
  • Automotive
  • Furniture, etc.
  • Epoxy Resin members
  • Bicycle/automotive parts
  • Other sports equipment
  • Structural Foam
  • Pool walls
  • Automotive parts
  • Computer housings
  • Furniture
  • Industrial Containers

www.specialized.com
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31
Advantages to Non-metal and Concrete Structures
  • Great design flexibility
  • Modular, pre-fabricated, ease of manufacturing
  • High strength to weight ratio
  • Electrical/thermal insulating properties
  • Potentially longer lifespan
  • Cost effective
  • Ease of installation
  • Comparably Aesthetic to other traditional
    materials

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32
Generalization
  • Wood framing is ideal for residential
    construction and some commercial construction.
  • One of the best aspects to wood framing is the
    modular concept. This allows you to expand with
    great ease.
  • For further exploration, one could investigate
    the combination of the systems presented by the
    class in this project. More advanced structures
    may need to use more than one structural concept
    act as a system and perform the desired functions.

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33
References
  • Allen, E., Iano, J. The Architects Studio
    Companion - Rules of Thumb for Preliminary
    Design. 3rd ed. New York John Wiley Sons.
    2002
  • Ching, Francis. A Visual Dictionary of
    Architecture. New York, New York John Wiley
    Sons, Inc. 1997
  • Fleming, J., Honour, H., Pevsner, N. The
    Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape
    Architecture. 5th ed. New York Penguin. 1999
  • http//www.slcc.edu/tech/techsp/arch/courses/ARCH1
    210/Photos/Fndtyp.jpg

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