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Social Marketing for Health & Nutrition


Social Marketing for Health & Nutrition COMT 492/592-001 Overview research methods and type of information gathered by marketers for advertising campaigns targeted to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social Marketing for Health & Nutrition

Social Marketing for Health Nutrition
  • COMT 492/592-001

  • research methods and type of information gathered
    by marketers for advertising campaigns targeted
    to children and teenage youth.
  • advertising techniques, styles, and channels
    marketers use to reach young consumers.
  • how current knowledge of market research methods,
    strategies, and techniques can be used --within a
    social marketing framework--to encourage
    healthful eating habits among children and
    teenage youth.

  • The advertising industry aggressively seeks to
    understand, anticipate, and influence the
    perceived needs and desires of young consumers.
  • Marketers gain a wealth of information about
    children and teenagers.
  • 16.1 million spent on childrens research by
    marketers in 1990

Family Economics and Nutrition Review, Fall 1998
v11 i4 p31 How Marketers Reach Young Consumers
Implications for Nutrition Education and Health
Promotion Campaigns. Vivica Kraak David L.
  • Much research exists that assesses the specific
    influence of television advertising on children's
    food- and nutrition-related decisions and
    behavior over the past two decades.
  • Few studies or reviews, however, have attempted
    to examine the presence of commercialism in
    promotional mediums such as school lesson plans,
    movies, magazines, games, and kid's clubs

Research Question
  • How can we use the research methods marketers use
    to gain information about young consumers to
    design targeted marketing campaigns?

Concepts Terms
  • The Center for the Study of Commercialism
    describes commercialism as "ubiquitous product
    marketing that leads to a preoccupation with
    individual consumption to the detriment of

  • focus groups, written or telephone surveys,
    individual or group interviews, picture drawing,
    story-telling, secret ballot, and observational
    field studies.

  • keep their efforts child-focused.
  • ask children the right questions and select
    appropriate outcome measures (e.g., product
    recognition, attention level or in-store
    behavior, likability rating, verbal recall, and
    conventional indicators of product preference).
  • keep corporate attention focused on children's
    needs (using seminars, qualitative interviews,
    and periodic testing of products).
  • complement intuition with theory

Caution against using adult methods
  • Using conventional focus groups with children,
    for instance, can lead to "follow-the-leader"
    group dynamics.
  • Keep boys girls separate
  • Keep kids within 2-year age span
  • Make sure they are unacquainted with each other
  • Moderator can be a trained peer
  • collect information in familiar surroundings such
    as in schools, at summer camps, or at sporting

Kid-friendly research
  • surveys must be engaging and user-friendly
  • "through-the-book" magazine method, television
    diary, and product questionnaire
  • card sorts and cartoon figures
  • have children draw pictures
  • to learn about how children perceive the shopping
  • storytelling and secret ballot
  • useful for children who may not express
    themselves well verbally

More kid-friendly techniques
  • Observational field studies
  • Find out parent-child interaction
  • Gives more accurate picture of what influences
    children's consumer behavior than will verbal

Advertising styles, techniques, and channels
  • market segmentation
  • television advertising
  • sales promotions at schools, stores, and sporting
  • multimedia exposure
  • celebrity endorsement
  • kid's clubs
  • product placement
  • advertorials

Advertising techniques
  • Retailers, manufacturers, wholesalers, the media,
    schools, and corporate donors are creating
    mutually beneficial partnerships

Market segmentation
  • Although marketers usually segment young
    consumers into three age categories (2- to
    5-year-olds, 6- to 11-year-olds, and 12- to
    17-year-olds), there is agreement that large gaps
    exist in understanding young consumers' behavior
    and the existing age categories may be initially
    helpful but are arbitrary

Market segmentation
  • The ability to understand and depict cultural
    nuances and the use of appropriate language are
    the two greatest challenges faced by marketers
    and educators
  • McMoms, a program that targets bilingual mothers
    of children ages 2 to 7, inserts bilingual
    response cards into its "Happy Meal" boxes. In
    return, mothers receive Spanish language
    newsletters and promotions

TV ads
  • In a 3-hour setting, a child may watch 30 minutes
    of advertising, and may be exposed to
    22,000-25,000 ads per year
  • Marketers now targeting children on prime-time
    slots or through radio, when youth are likely to
    watch with parents
  • to take advantage of young people's power to
    influence family purchases

Sales promotions
  • Sales promotions need to capture target
    audiences attention
  • occur at rock concerts, beaches, malls, and
    sports events in stores and schools.
  • used to motivate children and teens to make
    purchases at places they or their parents
    regularly shop

  • cross-selling, the practice of combining
    promotional efforts to sell a concept, product,
    or service.
  • Disney has marketing agreements with Coca-Cola,
    Proctor Gamble, Kraft, McDonald's.

  • TV more expensive, less efficient
  • Children increasingly exposed to different media
  • Radio, magazines and newspaper sections written
    for youth, and Internet
  • School media (critiqued as commercialization)

Celebrity endorsement
  • Heroes, heroines, and role models
  • McDonald's - Michael Jordon
  • Pepsi - Michael Jackson
  • Products are costly and celebrities are slick
  • Children contend not only with the celebrity
    appeal in TV and magazine but also with peer
    pressure from friends who see the same

Kids clubs
  • A kid's club establishes an ongoing relationship
    with its members by providing membership cards
    and participatory activities that are dependent
    on spending money
  • Research shows they are effective at building
    brand loyalty

Product placement
  • Advertisers pay 10,000 - 1 million to display
    brand name products in movies, with the price
    increasing if an actor uses a product
  • Burger King Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles

  • Regulation
  • critics say "unfair" marketing indicates a need
    for government regulation, particularly to
    protect younger children who may not have the
    cognitive abilities to discern fact from an
  • Effective nutrition and health promotion message
  • Health educators can apply what has been learned
    from market research to create more effective
  • Create partnerships
  • with stakeholders who are also concerned about
    the influence of commercialism

  • Health educators have focused on psychological,
    cognitive and dietary messages
  • Consumer-oriented models emphasize how young
    consumers view the world and function within it.
  • Consumer behavior research and communications
    research can provide useful information on
    children's and parents' attitudes, perceptions,
    and behavior and provide information on media
    channels that can best reach targeted groups.

Social Marketing
  • Social marketing is explicitly based on marketing
  • It provides a framework and guidelines that
    health educators can use systematically to
    address problems related to health behavior.
  • Social marketing is most often used to
  • disseminate new information to individuals,
  • offset the negative effects of a practice or
    promotional effort by another organization or
  • motivate people to move from intention to action

Keys to success?
  • It offers benefits people want, reduces barriers
    people face, and persuades instead of just
  • It is not about selling preformulated ideas about
    desirable nutrition habits.
  • It is about creating food and nutrition concepts
    that conform to a particular target group's
    expressed desires, values, and tendencies

5 Marketing Ps
  • Product this may be defined not only as a
    service but also as an idea, concept, social
    cause, or behavior change
  • Place the distribution channels that will be
    used to get the product or messages to the target
  • Price the social, behavioral, psychological, and
    geographic costs for the consumer to adopt a
    behavior and
  • Promotion the communication tools used to
    increase acceptance and use of a product, tools
    such as advertising, public relations, and
    consumer incentives.
  • Politics is added as a fifth "P" that evaluates
    the political environment within which a campaign

  • Barriers to young consumers' ability and desire
    to change their food- and nutrition-related
    decisions and behavior include
  • nutritious foods not being readily available at
    home, in school, and in other settings
  • misperceptions about healthful eating
  • aggressive promotion of unhealthful foods

  • these and other barriers and benefits children
    and teenage youth believe influence their ability
    to eat more healthfully
  • what they think will make healthful eating more
    fun, exciting, entertaining or rewarding and
  • the concepts and vocabulary that are needed when
    designing and pre-testing nutrition and health
    promotion messages targeting different age groups

  • Exposure to commercials for healthful nonsugared
    foods did not always lead to increased
    consumption of healthful foods but appeared to
    reduce further consumption of sugared foods
  • use the appropriate vocabulary move quickly and
    have the right location, set, props, music,
    wardrobe, and colors reflecting a desirable
    lifestyle or product
  • Separate nutrition messages were the most
    effective short-format messages in terms of
    children's verbalized snack selections.

  • Use multiple and reinforcing communication
    channels and approaches
  • Knowledge is necessary but insufficient to
    influence attitudes, decisions, and behavior of
    young consumers
  • Educators must use the knowledge gained from
    marketing and communications research
  • Work collaboratively with potential allies and