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RTI and ELLs: Effective Instructional Strategies

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RTI and ELLs: Effective Instructional Strategies Sylvia Linan-Thompson, Ph.D. Sanibel Leadership Conference June 23, 2011 These are pap * * * * * * * * Don t ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RTI and ELLs: Effective Instructional Strategies


1
RTI and ELLs Effective Instructional Strategies
  • Sylvia Linan-Thompson, Ph.D.
  • Sanibel Leadership Conference
  • June 23, 2011

2
Practice Guides
  • Effective Literacy and English Language
    Instruction for English Learners in the
    Elementary Grades
  • Assisting Students Struggling with Reading
    Response to Intervention and Multi-Tier
    Intervention in the Primary Grades

3
RtI and ESL Programs
4
Parallel Programs
5
Five practice guide recommendations
6
Five practice guide recommendations
7
Assessment
8
RtI and ELL Practice Guide Recommendations
Assessment
9
Recommendation 1 RtI
  • Screen students for potential reading problems
    at the beginning of the year and again in the
    middle of the year.
  • Regularly monitor the progress of students who
    are at elevated risk for developing reading
    disabilities.
  • Level of Evidence Moderate

10
Recommendation 1 ELL
  • Universal screening and formative assessments
    with ELs using English language measures of
    phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and
    word and text reading. Use data to identify ELs
    who need additional instructional support
  • Scientific evidence base Strong.

11
Screening
  • Students oral language proficiency alone is not
    a valid predictor of reading success or failure
    but it is important to take it into account and
    it may have more of an impact as students get
    older.
  • A one-point-in-time measure is not always enough.
  • Examine students scores in relationship to
    established goals and language program.

12
Relationship between ORF and State Assessment
(Kung, 2009)
  • 130 cwpm at 3rd grade
  • Non-ELL 90
  • Non-ELL and low SES 75
  • High English proficiency 68
  • Low English proficiency 29
  • 130 cwpm at 5th grade
  • Non-ELL 82
  • Non-ELL and low SES 62
  • High English proficiency 58
  • Low English proficiency 19

13
Examine students scores in relationship to
established goals and language experience
14
Jessica
  • Received Spanish instruction in pre-k and k and
    is transitioning to English is 1st.
  • On Spanish measures, she is in the established
    range.
  • (Linan-Thompson Ortiz, 2009)

15
Daniel
  • Received Spanish instruction in pre-k and k and
    is transitioning to English is 1st.
  • On Spanish measures, he is in the emerging range.
  • (Linan-Thompson Ortiz, 2009)

16
Jose
  • Is an ELL who has received English instruction
    since pre-k.
  • (Linan-Thompson Ortiz, 2009)

17
Recommendation 4 RtI
  • Monitor the progress of tier 2 students at
    least once a month. Use these data to determine
    whether students still require intervention. For
    those still making insufficient progress,
    school-wide teams should design a tier 3
    intervention plan.
  • Level of Evidence Low

18
Suggestions
  • Select a set of efficient screening measures that
    identify children at risk for poor reading
    outcomes with reasonable accuracy.
  • Develop data-driven decision rules for providing
    differentiated instruction to students at varied
    reading and language proficiency levels for part
    of the day.
  • Provide training for teachers on how to collect
    and interpret student data on reading efficiently
    and reliably.

19
Integrate RTI and the identification of ELLs
  • Rather than have 2 parallel systems determine how
    the two will work together.
  • Consider data in light of students language
    proficiency and their opportunities to learn.
  • Consider the norming sample of assessments used.
  • Consider with whom interventions have been
    validated.

20
Screening and Progress Monitoring Tool Charts
  • http//www.rti4success.org/index.php?optioncom_co
    ntenttaskviewid1091Itemid139
  • http//www.rti4success.org/chart/progressMonitorin
    g/progressmonitoringtoolschart.htm

21
Instruction Tier 1
22
RtI and ELL Practice Guide Recommendations
Differentiation
23
Recommendation 3 ELL
  • Provide high-quality vocabulary instruction
    throughout the day. Teach essential content words
    in depth. Also, use instructional time to address
    common words, phrases, and expressions ELLs do
    not know.
  • Scientific evidence base Strong.

24
Importance
  • Growth trajectories in English reading for ELs
    who enter kindergarten with limited oral English
    proficiency lead to large differences
  • in achievement compared to native English
    speakers by fifth grade (Kieffer, 2008).
  • Language knowledge and language proficiency
    differentiate good and poor readers (Gersten).
  • Background knowledge is linked to language.

25
In general, ELLs
  • have fewer opportunities to engage in academic
    discussions,
  • to be exposed to rich content instruction, and
  • to have good language models among their peers.

26
Recommendation 3 Specifics
  • Use evidence-based approaches to teach
    vocabulary.
  • An important percentage of this instruction
    should be explicitparticularly for words ELLs
    should use in different forms of communication.
  • Rule of thumb
  • multiple days,
  • multiple media (print, oral, writing)
  • Multiple times during the day
  • Multiple means about 3 here..

27
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
  • Pronounce the word
  • Word consciousness
  • Student friendly definition
  • Give examples and non-examples.
  • Give students opportunities to create powerful
    sentences
  • Give students opportunities to encounter the word
    throughout the lesson.

28
Recommendation 3 Specifics
  • Core reading programs and other sources should be
    used to identify words.
  • But you need to pick out the right words.

29
Recommendation 3 Specifics
  • Districts should play a lead role in producing
    target vocabulary words for instruction.
  • District lists can be supplemented by schools and
    teachers as needed in response to student needs.
  • Good sources include Bringing Words to Life by
    Beck, McKeown and Kucan and Vocabulary Book by
    Michael Graves

30
Recommendation 4ELL
  • Academic English is the language of the
    classroom . . . of academic disciplines . . . of
    texts and literature, and of extended, reasoned
    discourse.
  • Scientific evidence base Low

31
Aspects of Academic Language
  • Vocabulary Knowledge
  • Language of Instruction
  • Words to teach learn the lesson content
    (strategies, pre-writing, context clues)
  • Language of Text
  • Words related to Unit/Theme/Selection (habitats,
    camouflage, voyagers)
  • Word Complexity
  • Multi-syllabic words with prefixes, suffixes,
    Greek Latin roots (informational, hopelessness,
    psychology)

32
Recommendation 4 Specifics
  • it is recommended that there be a specific time
    each day when the primary instructional focus is
    on English language development. Some of that
    time should be devoted to academic English.
  • Increase the time ELs have to learn English.
  • The focus can be clearly on language.

33
Recommendation 4 Specifics
  • Many features of academic English are not
    intuitive. Therefore, the best way to teach
    academic English is through a curriculum with a
    defined scope and sequence.
  • However, there are few curriculum materials that
    have solid evidence of effectiveness.
  • Consequently, materials should be selected
    carefully and implementation should be planned
    thoughtfully.

34
Building Concepts and Background Knowledge
35
Something interesting to talk about
  • Big ideas are concepts or principles that
    facilitate the most efficient and broadest
    acquisition of knowledge.

36
Practice To build language
  • Discussions
  • Structured opportunities to use vocabulary words
    taught, to use vocabulary associated with
    content, and to compare information from various
    formats.
  • Increases students opportunities for both
    comprehensible input and output.
  • Is focused and scaffolded

37
Recommendation 5 ELL
  • Peer assisted learning
  • ELs should get at least 90 minutes a week of
    instructional activities in which pairs of
    students work together on academic tasks. The
    focus of these activities should be practice and
    extension of material already taught.
  • Scientific evidence base Strong

38
Recommendation 5 Specifics
  • Peer-assisted learning activities should be
    planned and organized carefully. Instruction
    should address both the social and academic
    aspects of working with a peer.
  • Activities can begin as early as kindergarten,
    focusing on simple routines.
  • Older students can learn routines targeting
    reading practice, vocabulary, and comprehension
    skills.

39
Practice Peer Assisted Learning
  • Structured pair work
  • Increases students opportunities for both
    comprehensible input and output.
  • Provides an interactive and motivating structure
    for peer-mediated learning, and
  • Increases engaged time.

40
Recommendation 2 RtI
  • Provide differentiated reading instruction for
    all students based on assessments of students
    current reading levels (tier 1).
  • Level of Evidence Low

41
Core reading instruction that
  • builds decoding skills,
  • increases opportunities to develop vocabulary
    knowledge,
  • teaches strategies and knowledge needed to
    comprehend and analyze text, and
  • focuses on fluency instruction that includes
    increased exposure to vocabulary and print
  • is effective in improving student outcomes.

42
Different Types of Texts for Different Objectives
  • Decodable Easy Readers
  • Leveled texts
  • Literature

43
Assessment
  • The key in an RTI approach is response.
  • Are students learning?
  • Are they able to learn?

44
Instruction
  • Needs to move beyond foundational skills
  • Needs to move beyond vocabulary instruction
  • Needs to focus on building concepts
  • Needs to give students opportunities to convey
    ideas, understanding, and knowledge orally and in
    writing

45
Flexible grouping
  • Increases opportunities for engagement in
    structured, academic talk.
  • Provides independent reading opportunities that
    is purposeful.
  • Provides peer-assisted learning opportunities.

46
Summary
  • The components have evidence of being effective
    general instruction practices and research with
    ELLs indicates that the objective met with each
    of the components has been identified as
    important in improving the academic outcomes of
    ELLs (August Hakuta, 1997).

47
RtI and ELL Practice Guide Recommendations Tier 2
48
Recommendation 3 RtI
  • Provide intensive, systematic instruction on
    up to three foundational reading skills in small
    groups to students who score below the benchmark
    on universal screening. Typically these groups
    meet between three to five times a week for 20-40
    minutes (tier 2).
  • Level of Evidence Strong

49
Recommendation 2 ELL
  • Provide focused, intensive small-group
    interventions for ELLs. Interventions should
    focus on several of the five core elements
    phonological awareness, phonics, reading fluency,
    vocabulary, comprehension and/or writing.
    Explicit instruction should be the primary means
    of instructional delivery.
  • Scientific evidence base Strong.

50
Recommendation 2 Specifics
  • 30 minutes per day in small homogeneous groups of
    3-6 students.
  • There may be advantages in having ELLs and
    non-ELLs in the same groups.
  • Use flexible grouping strategies. (e.g. moving
    students based on progress in the small groups
    and data)

51
Integrated Process
52
Benefits
  • Preventive approach
  • Assessment is used to inform instruction
  • Instruction is focused on critical components
  • Serves as a means for gauging efficacy of
    instruction
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