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PROBLEM-SOLVING and DECISION-MAKING TOOLS

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PROBLEM-SOLVING and DECISION-MAKING TOOLS Presented by: Karen Deering, Jon Ross, Mark Kesler THE PDSA CYCLE CONTINUOUS PROCESS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PROBLEM-SOLVING and DECISION-MAKING TOOLS


1
PROBLEM-SOLVING andDECISION-MAKING TOOLS
  • Presented by Karen Deering,
  • Jon Ross, Mark Kesler

2
(No Transcript)
3
THE PDSA CYCLE
  • CONTINUOUS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT CYCLE
  • THE SEVEN PHASES TO THE
  • PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD

4
6 PRINCIPLES OF TQM
  • Mark
  • Leadership and Customer Service
  • Jon
  • Employee Involvement and Continuous
    Process Improvement
  • Karen
  • Supplier Partnerships and
    Performance Measures

5
LEADERSHIP
  • As organizations are searching for new and/or
    better ways to be successful, more attention and
    accountability are being placed on those
    responsible for charting the course, navigating
    the changes, and keeping the organization afloat.
    The forces and factors impacting organizations in
    the new millennium are more interdependent,
    dramatic, fast paced, and unpredictable. The
    complexity of what decision makers in
    organizations must know and be able to do if
    organizations survive and thrive is being
    influenced by its leaders

6
LeadershipWhy, What and How?
  • Whyto motivate and inspire to a common goal or
    purpose. Providing direction, engagement, and
    encouragement
  • Whatethical, realistic, consistent, responsible,
    courageous, visionary
  • Howknow where to go. Have a vision
  • and create cohesion of the team

7
Empower your employees to allow them to
have the confidence, ability, and commitment to
take the responsibility and ownership to improve
the process and initiate the necessary steps to
satisfy customer expectations within
well-defined boundaries in order to achieve
organizational values and goals
8
TEAM PROBLEM-SOLVING
  • Is a process that uses a group of people in a
    team setting with the objective of resolving a
    problem or improving an existing process at any
    level of the organization

9
Six Sigma
  • Refers to the number of standard deviations found
    between the process central tendency and the
    closest specifications.
  • Six Sigma Methodology
  • Disciplined team problem solving approach
    using metrics and measurements to track
    lossstatistical tools to ensure best results

10
8D
  • 8 Disciplines in problem solving which follows a
    fact based approach that fits well with Decision
    Making and PDSA models
  • DO - Prepare for the 8D Process
  • D1 - Establish the team
  • D2 Describe the problem
  • D3 Develop the Interim Containment Action and
    Verification

11
  • D4 Define and Verify Root Cause and Escape
    Point
  • D5 Choose and Verify Permanent Corrective
    Actions for Root Cause and Escape Point
  • D6 Implement and Validate Permanent Corrective
    Action
  • D7 Prevent Recurrence
  • D8 Recognize Team and Individual Contributions

12
OTHER LEADERSHIP TOOLS
  • Psychological Type Theory (MBTI)
  • ORJI
  • Left hand Column
  • Hermans Brain Model
  • Dialogue

13
MODELS and THEORIES
  • THE NORMATIVE DECISION MODEL
  • THE SITUATION LEADERSHIP THEORY
  • THE CONTINGENCY MODEL
  • THE PATH GOAL THEORY
  • POST-HEROIC LEADERSHIP
  • TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
  • 7 HABITS OF HIGHLY EFFECTIVE PEOPLE

14
CUSTOMER SERVICE
  • WHY FOCUS ON CUSTOMERS?
  • WHO ARE OUR CUSTOMERS?
  • WHAT DO CUSTOMERS WANT?
  • HOW DO WE BETTER UNDERSTAND OUR CUSTOMERS?
  • HOW DO WE TRANSLATE CUSTOMER NEEDS INTO
    SPECIFICATIONS/STANDARDS?

15
CUSTOMER SERVICE
  • Why? Customers are the most important asset. They
    determine the bottom line.
  • Who? External and Internal Customers
  • What? Quality, durability, and price.
  • Most critical or important
  • function or
    reliability
  • How? Standards such as ISO 9000

16
HOW DO WE BETTER UNDERSTAND OUR CUSTOMER
  • Comment cards
  • Surveys
  • Focus Groups
  • Telephone
  • Customer Visits
  • Report Cards
  • Internet
  • Employee Feedback

17
MEET SID THE CAB DRIVER
18
Academic Assessment
  • Employee participation
  • and
  • continuous improvement

19
What is Academic Assessment?(Employee
involvement)
  • A continuous improvement tool
  • Involving all employees and management
  • Not a method to grade student work
  • Students and employees grade course or program

20
How do we assess academics(Continuous
improvement cycle)
  • Review mission and purpose statement
  • Review program goals
  • Identify assessment methods / intended outcomes
  • Gather data or make the measurement
  • Analyze the information
  • Take Action

21
Gather data
Analysis
Academic Assessment Cycle
Objectives
Action
Program Goals
Foundation
22
Review of mission and purpose / Program goals
  • Courses and programs must be aligned with mission
    and purpose of the entire organization
  • Changes should be made at this level if alignment
    is not found

23
Measurement tools
  • Timing of assessment
  • Pre enrollment data
  • Process (during course) data
  • Post enrollment data
  • Assessment tools
  • Direct measures
  • Indirect measures

24
Direct Measurement Assessment Tools
  • Pre/post test
  • Course embedded tests
  • Portfolios
  • Capstone exam/project
  • Standardized exams
  • Performance assessment
  • Primary trait analysis
  • Professional certification

25
Indirect Measurement Assessment Tools
  • Focus groups
  • Graduate survey / interview
  • Employer/faculty survey

26
Interpretation of measurements
  • What did you measure?
  • Are the results what you predicted?
  • Can you use the data?
  • What other factors may have influenced the data?
  • Help in statistical measurement maybe needed

27
Use the data to make changes
  • Slight variation may require small changes
  • Larger variations require new curriculum or
    further study
  • Repeated large variations may require new focus
    in mission or purpose.

28
Variations of assessment plans
  • Plans and methods will vary between institutions
  • Plans and methods will vary internal to the
    institution
  • Plans will vary based on needs and resources

29
How to be sure assessment successful
  • Why is assessment being done?
  • Management must support and provide resources for
    assessment
  • Employees must understand the benefits and use
    the method
  • Multiple sections of a course and multiple
    instructors will complicate method
  • Communication is vital
  • Success should be rewarded

30
Review
  • Assessment (PSDA) cycles are not just for
    manufacturing business
  • Assessment methods can be used on small scale
    projects or large scale operations
  • Find a process and follow it.
  • Several cycles will be needed to have valid data

31
  • Tools for Solving Problems
  • and Making Decisions
  • Supplier Partnerships
  • and Performance Measures

32
Supplier Partnerships
  • Long Term Commitment
  • Mutual Trust
  • Goals and Objectives
  • Expectations and Values
  • Increased Efficiency
  • Lower Costs
  • Innovation
  • Continuous Improvement
  • Equal Quality Standards
  • Cost, Quality, Overall Value Added
  • Understand Philosophy
  • Dependent Independent

33
Performance Measures
  • Set Performance Expectations
  • Benchmark
  • Continuously Improve the Process
  • Customer Satisfaction, On-time Delivery,
    Absenteeism, and Turnover
  • Customer Focused
  • East to Interpret
  • Valued by the Employee
  • Vision, Mission, Quality Policy Statements
  • Baseline - Benchmark
  • Record Findings
  • Analyze Results
  • Review and Update

34
Making Decisions
Solving Problems
35
The PDSA Cycle
  • PLAN carefully what is to be done.
  • DO carry out the plan.
  • STUDY the results.
  • ACT on the results.

36
Continuous Process Improvement Cycle
Phase 1 Identify the Opportunity
Phase 7 Plan for the Future
Phase 2 Analyze the Process
Phase 6 Standardize the Solution
Phase 3 Develop the Optimal Solution(s)
Phase 5 Study the Results
Phase 4 Implement
37
Using a systematic, orderly approach will yield
the highest probability of success.
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