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Trematodes

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Trematodes Gregory L. Brower, D.V.M., Ph.D. Cell Biology and Anatomy School of Medicine Columbia, South Carolina ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Trematodes


1
Trematodes
  • Gregory L. Brower, D.V.M., Ph.D.
  • Cell Biology and Anatomy
  • School of Medicine
  • Columbia, South Carolina

2
Trematodes (Flukes)
  • Schistosoma
  • S. mansoni
  • S. hematobium
  • S. japonicum
  • Fasciolopsis buski
  • Fasciola hepatica
  • Opisthorchis
  • O. sinensis
  • O. felineus
  • O. viverini
  • Paragonimus
  • P. westermani
  • P. kellicotti

3
Schistosomiasis
  • It is believed that Napoleon's army in North
    Africa was defeated not by the enemy but by
    infestation of his soldiers with Schistosomal
    infections.

4
SchistosomiasisGeographical Distribution
5
The Schistosome
6
SchistosomaLife Cycle
7
A Case of Hematuria
  • An 8-year-old son of an Egyptian immigrant family
    is referred to the nephrology clinic with a 2-yr
    history of painless macroscopic hematuria. Smear
    from a centrifuged urine sample revealed this
    object
  • NEJM 2000

8
SchistosomiasisSymptoms
9
SchistosomiasisSymptoms
Cercarial Dermatitis
10
SchistosomiasisHistologic Appearance
11
SchistosomiasisDiagnosis
S. Mansoni Lateral Spine
S. Hematobium Terminal Spine
S. Japonicum Smaller egg Minute Spine
  • History
  • Symptoms
  • Histology
  • Eggs in the urine or stool

12
SchistosomiasisTreatment and Control
  • Praziquantel is effective
  • Avoid swimming in snail infested water
  • Sanitary disposal of sewage
  • Elimination of snails

13
SchistosomiasisTreatment and Control
14
Fasciolopsis buskiGiant Intestinal Fluke
Geographic Distribution
15
Fasciolopsis buskiMorphology
16
Fasciolopsis buskiLife Cycle
17
Fasciolopsis buskiLife Cycle
18
Fasciolopsis buski Symptoms
  • Epigastric pain
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Generalized edema and ascitis in heavier
    infections

19
Fasciolopsis buski Diagnosis
  • Symptoms
  • History of eating uncooked water chestnuts in
    endemic areas
  • Eggs in stool

20
Fasciolopsis buski Treatment and Control
  • Praziquantel is effective
  • Avoid eating uncooked water chestnuts in endemic
    areas
  • Sanitary disposal of sewage
  • Elimination of snails

21
Fasciola hepaticaLife Cycle
22
Fasciola hepaticaLife Cycle
23
Fasciola hepatica Symptoms
  • Upper quadrant tenderness and pain
  • Chills and fever
  • Eosinophilia
  • Hepatitis
  • Hyperplasia and blockage of bile duct

24
Fasciola hepatica Diagnosis
  • Symptoms
  • History of eating uncooked watercress from
    infested locale
  • Eggs in stool

25
Fasciola hepatica Treatment and Control
  • This species of fluke is Praziquantel resistant
  • Triclabendazole is effective
  • Avoid eating uncooked watercress in endemic areas
  • Elimination of snails

26
Treatment of Hermaphrodiditic Flukes
27
Opisthorchis sinensis Geographic Distribution
28
Opisthorchis sinensis Morphology
29
Opisthorchis sinensis Life Cycle
30
Opisthorchis sinensis Symptoms
  • Epigastric pain
  • Indigestion
  • Liver necrosis and tenderness
  • Liver dysfunctions related to fluke burden
  • Diarrhea, hepatomegaly, jaundice and ascites in
    heavier infections

31
Opisthorchis sinensis Diagnosis
  • Symptoms
  • History of eating improperly cooked fish in
    endemic areas
  • Eggs in the stool

32
Opisthorchis sinensis Treatment and Control
  • Praziquantel is effective
  • Avoid eating improperly cooked fish in endemic
    areas
  • Sanitary disposal of sewage
  • Elimination of snails

33
Paragonimus westermaniGeographic Distribution
34
Paragonimus westermaniMorphology
35
Paragonimus westermaniLife Cycle
36
Paragonimus westermani Symptoms
  • Dry cough, pleurisy
  • Pulmonary pain
  • Blood-stained rusty brown sputum
  • Fluke may migrate to brain, produce eggs and
    cause epilepsy-like symptoms

37
Paragonimus westermaniDiagnosis
  • Symptoms
  • History of eating improperly cooked crab-meat in
    endemic areas
  • Eggs in the sputum

38
Helminthic Eggs
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