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Title: Earth Science Soil Grade 1 Curriculum Portal Compiled by


1
Earth Science Soil
  • Grade 1

Curriculum Portal Compiled by Teresa A.
Minogue, M.Ed. K-4 Science Curriculum
Coordinator Shaker Regional School
District Canterbury Elementary School July, 2007
ENTER
2
Why study soil in Grade 1?
  • Pebbles, Sand, and Silt introduces first graders
    to earth science. Through investigations and
    observations theyll learn how rocks and soil are
    an important natural resource. This unit of study
    helps prepare them for the Earth Materials
    investigation in grade 3.

To Table of Contents
3
Table of Contents
Essential Questions and Big Ideas
  • Benchmarks and NH State Standards

Suggested Scope and Sequence
FOSS
  • Background information
  • What every adult needs
  • to know about soil

Elementary Globe The Scoop on Soil
Some ideas to consider while teaching about soil
Assessment
Examine the research on student learning and
misconceptions
Bibliography
Back to Opening Slide
4
Essential Questions and Big Ideas
  • Essential Questions
  • How are earth materials used around us?
  • How are earth materials the same?
  • How are they different?
  • What tools should I use for my observations?
  • How do my drawings show how soil samples are the
    same and different?
  • Big Ideas
  • Develop a curiosity and interest in the physical
    world around them.
  • Observe, describe, and sort earth materials based
    on properties.
  • Separate earth materials by size, using different
    techniques.
  • Observe the similarities and differences in the
    materials in a river rock mixture silt, sand,
    gravel, and small and large pebbles.
  • Explore places where earth materials are found
    and ways that earth materials are used.
  • Compare the ingredients in different soils.
  • Organize and communicate observations through
    drawing and writing.
  • Acquire the vocabulary associated with earth
    materials.

Back to table of contents
5
Suggested Scope and Sequence
Term 1 Theme soil
Term 2 Theme Balance and Motion
Term 3 Theme Plants and Animals
Back to Table of Contents
6
Benchmarks Identifying Concepts and Specific
Ideas
Benchmarks for Science Literacy (Earth Space
Science K-2)
National Science Education Standards (Earth
Space Science K-4)
Benchmarks for Science Literacy ( Inquiry K-2)
NH State Frameworks and Standards
Back to Table of Contents
7
Benchmarks for Science Literacy (K-2 Earth Space
Science)
  • By the end of the 2nd grade, students should know
    that
  • Chunks of rocks come in many sizes and shapes,
    from boulders to grains of sand and even smaller.
  • Change is something that happens to many things.
  • Animals and plants sometimes cause changes in
    their surroundings.

Return to Benchmarks
Return to Table of Contents
8
FOSS- Pebbles, Sand, and Silt
What is FOSS?
Content and Processes that connect to the
standards
Click on New Hampshire to see how FOSS
correlates with NH Frameworks New Hampshire .
(You may have to end the slide show temporarily
in order to see this link at the bottom of your
screen.)
FOSS Teacher Preparation Video
FOSS- Website
Return to table of contents
9
New Hampshire Frameworks and Standards
NH State Frameworks for Science Literacy (Earth
Space Science) K-2
NH State Frameworks for Science Literacy (Science
Process Skills) K-2
Philosophy behind the NH state standards
K-12 Broad Goals of Science Education
  • The Entire New Hampshire State Frameworks
    including all GLEs and how to read them are in
    your binder. Please refer to it for any
    additional information

Back to Table of Contents
Back to Benchmarks
10
NH Earth Space K-2 Grade Span Expectations part
1
Return to NH Standards
Return to Table of Contents
continue to Earth Space part 2
11
NH Earth Space K-2 Grade Span Expectations part 2
to Table of Contents
Return to Benchmarks
continue to part 3
To part 1
12
NH Earth Space K-2 Grade Span Expectations K-2
part 3
to Table of Contents
Return to Benchmarks
Back to part 2
13
NH Frameworks Science Process Skills K-2 part 2
continue to part 3
Return to Table of Contents
Return to NH Standards
Back to part 1
14
Content and teaching standards based on the
National Science Education Standards
  • SCIENCE AS INQUIRY
  • Develop students' abilities to do and understand
    scientific inquiry.
  • Ask and answer questions.
  • Plan and conduct simple investigations.
  • Employ tools and techniques to gather data.
  • Use data to construct reasonable explanations.
  • Communicate investigations and explanations.
  • Understand that scientists use different kinds of
    investigations and tools to develop explanations
    using evidence and knowledge.
  • CONTENT PHYSICAL SCIENCE
  • Develop students' understanding of the properties
    of materials.
  • Objects can have many properties, including size,
    weight, shape, color, and texture.
  • CONTENT EARTH SCIENCE
  • Develop students' understanding of the properties
    of earth materials.
  • Solid rocks and soils are earth materials. The
    physical properties of earth materials make them
    useful in different ways, such as for building
    materials or for growing plants.
  • Develop students' understandings about changes in
    the earth.
  • Natural forces such as ice, rain, wind,
    landslides, and volcanoes can break apart or
    smooth the surfaces of rocks.
  • SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  • Develop students' understandings about science
    and technology.
  • Scientists use tools and scientific techniques to
    make better observations.

Back to Table of Contents
Back to FOSS-Pebbles, Sand, and Silt
15
What is FOSS?
  • FOSS is a research-based science curriculum for
    grades K8 developed at the Lawrence Hall of
    Science, University of California at Berkeley.
    FOSS is also an ongoing research project
    dedicated to improving the learning and teaching
    of science. The FOSS project began over 20 years
    ago during a time of growing concern that our
    nation was not providing young students with an
    adequate science education. The FOSS program
    materials are designed to meet the challenge of
    providing meaningful science education for all
    students in diverse American classrooms and to
    prepare them for life in the 21st century.
    Development of the FOSS program was, and
    continues to be, guided by advances in the
    understanding of how youngsters think and learn.
  • Science is an active enterprise, made active by
    our human capacity to think. Scientific knowledge
    advances when scientists observe objects and
    events, think about how they relate to what is
    known, test their ideas in logical ways, and
    generate explanations that integrate the new
    information into the established order. Thus the
    scientific enterprise is both what we know
    (content) and how we come to know it (process).
    The best way for students to appreciate the
    scientific enterprise, learn important scientific
    concepts, and develop the ability to think
    critically is to actively construct ideas through
    their own inquiries, investigations, and
    analyses. The FOSS program was created to engage
    students in these processes as they explore the
    natural world. (http//www.lawrencehallofscience.o
    rg/foss/introduction/index.html)

Back to FOSS-Pebbles, Sand, and Silt
Back to Table of Contents
16
NH Frameworks Science Process Skills K-2 part 1
Return to Benchmarks
Return to Table of Contents
continue on to process part 2
17
NH Frameworks Science Process Skills K-2 part 5
Return to Table of Contents
Return to Benchmarks
Return to NH Standards
18
NH Frameworks Science Process Skills K-2 part 3
continue to part 4
to Table of Contents
Return to NH Standards
Back to part 2
19
NH Frameworks Science Process Skills K-2 part 4
continue on to part 5
to Table of Contents
Return to NH Standards
Back to part 3
20
Benchmarks Science as Inquiry By the end of the
2nd grade, students should know that
  • People can often learn about things around them
    by just observing those things carefully, but
    sometimes they can learn more by doing something
    to the things and noting what happens.
  • Tools such as thermometers, magnifiers, rulers,
    or balances often give more information about
    things than can be obtained by just observing
    things without their help.
  • Describing things as accurately as possible is
    important in science because it enables people to
    compare their observations with those of others.
  • When people give different descriptions of the
    same thing, it is usually a good idea to make
    some fresh observations instead of just arguing
    about who is right.

Return to Table of Contents
Return to Benchmarks
21
National Science Education Standards (Earth Space
Science K-4)
  • PROPERTIES OF EARTH MATERIALS
  • Earth materials are solid rocks and soils, water,
    and the gases of the atmosphere. The varied
    materials have different physical and chemical
    properties, which make them useful in different
    ways, for example, as building materials, as
    sources of fuel, or for growing the plants we use
    as food. Earth materials provide many of the
    resources that humans use.
  • Soils have properties of color and texture,
    capacity to retain water, and ability to support
    the growth of many kinds of plants, including
    those in our food supply.
  • CHANGES IN THE EARTH AND SKY
  • The surface of the earth changes. Some changes
    are due to slow processes, such as erosion and
    weathering, and some changes are due to rapid
    processes, such as landslides, volcanic
    eruptions, and earthquakes.

Return to Table of Contents
Return to Benchmarks
22
Assessment
  • The following is an explanation from Lawrence
    Hall of Science, Berkley, how notebooks can be
    used for formative assessment.
  • A students science notebook is a personal record
    of learning during a FOSS module.  For students,
    the notebook is, first of all, a place to record
    and organize observations and data.  Second,
    students generate a sequential exposition of
    their reasoning and conclusions that relates to
    the science data they record.  And finally, the
    notebook provides a place for students to write
    reflections about their thinking and the meaning
    they derived from the science experiences.
  • Science notebooks provide benefits to teachers,
    too.  Notebooks present opportunities for
    students to exercise and demonstrate skills
    developed in other areas of the curriculum, such
    as mathematics, language development, and art. 
    The important skills of vocabulary development,
    reading, and writing are applied continuously in
    the notebook.  The notebook record provides an
    authentic body of student work for assessment of
    written language and science content
    understanding.
  • Suggestions for initiating or expanding your use
    of science notebooks, or gleaning ideas for
    improving student understanding through the use
    of science notebooks, can be found in the FOSS
    Science Notebooks Folio.
  • Great Science Notebook Website
    http//www.sciencenotebooks.org/
  • I can also get this article for you
  • "Childrens Science Journals Tools for
    Teaching, Learning, and Assessing, by Daniel P.
    Shepardson and Susan J. Britsch. Science and
    Children, February, 1997, pp. 13.

Back to Table of Contents
Go back to opening slide
23
K-12 Broad Goals of Science Education
  • Students will use inquiry strategies to
    investigate and understand the natural world.
  • Students will demonstrate an understanding of key
    concepts and principles central to the
    biological, physical, and earth sciences, and
    engineering, while recognizing the
    interrelationship of all the sciences.
  • Students will demonstrate an understanding of the
    basic laws which govern and explain phenomena
    observed in the natural world
  • Students will demonstrate an understanding of,
    and be able to practice, the basic processes
    which scientists use to obtain and continually
    revise knowledge about the natural world.
  • Students will perceive that scientific and
    technological knowledge is the result of the
    cumulative efforts of people, past and present,
    who have attempted to explain the world through
    an objective, peer-tested, rational approach to
    understanding natural phenomena and occurrences.
  • Students will display a sense of curiosity and
    wonder about the natural world, and demonstrate
    an increasing awareness of the interdependence
    between all living things and the environment.
  • Students will demonstrate their abilities to
    identify human needs and concerns and to engage
    in problem-solving processes to define the
    problem, research and generate solutions, and
    develop simulations and prototypes to test their
    ideas before implementation.
  • Students will be able to apply rational,
    creative-thinking, and investigative skills and
    use scientific and technical knowledge in their
    roles as citizens, workers, family members, and
    consumers in an increasingly technological
    society.
  • Students will use oral and written communication,
    mathematical representation, and physical and
    conceptual models to describe and explain
    scientific concepts and ideas, and will be able
    to apply scientific and technical knowledge.
  • Students will know and employ safe practices and
    techniques in the laboratory, in field work or
    any other scientific investigation, and when
    using scientific or technological materials at
    home or work.

Return to NH State Standards
Return to Benchmarks
24
The Pebbles, Sand, and Silt Module emphasizes the
development of observation and description skills
and building explanations based on experience.
This module supports the following National
Science Education Standards.(FOSS, 2005)
  • SCIENCE AS INQUIRY
  • Develop students' abilities to do and understand
    scientific inquiry.
  • Ask and answer questions.
  • Plan and conduct simple investigations.
  • Employ tools and techniques to gather data.
  • Use data to construct reasonable explanations.
  • Communicate investigations and explanations.
  • Understand that scientists use different kinds of
    investigations and tools to develop explanations
    using evidence and knowledge
  • CONTENT PHYSICAL SCIENCE
  • Develop students' understanding of the properties
    of materials.
  • Objects can have many properties, including size,
    weight, shape, color, and texture
  • CONTENT EARTH SCIENCE
  • Solid rocks and soils are earth materials. The
    physical properties of earth materials make them
    useful in different ways, such as for building
    materials or for growing plants.
  • Develop students' understandings about changes in
    the earth.
  • Natural forces such as ice, rain, wind,
    landslides, and volcanoes can break apart or
    smooth the surfaces of rocks.
  • SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  • Develop students' understandings about science
    and technology.
  • Scientists use tools and scientific techniques to
    make better observations.
  • SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES

Return to Table of Contents
Back to FOSS
25
Ideas to consider while teaching about Soil
These essays are from National Science Education
Standards (Available in the library)
  • These essays are from Benchmarks for Science
    Literacy

The Earth General Essay, and K-2 Grade Span
Essay.
Earth and Space Science K-4 Grade Span Essay
Some ideas you should consider while teaching
inquiry-based Science
Processes that Shape the Earth, and K-2 Grade
Span essay
Atlas of Science Literacy Map, pages 50-51
Note the Rocks and Sediments conceptual strand
Scientific Inquiry, and K-2 Grade Span essay
This essay is from the New Hampshire Frameworks
Return to Table of Contents
26
Some misconceptions students have about soil
  • Students of all ages may hold the view that the
    world was always as it is now, or that any
    changes that have occurred must have been sudden
    and comprehensive (Freyberg, 1985). The students
    in these studies did not, however, have any
    formal instruction on the topics investigated.
    Moreover, middle-school students taught by
    traditional means are not able to construct
    coherent explanations about the causes of
    volcanoes and earthquakes (Duschl, Smith,
    Kesidou, Gitomer, Schauble, 1992).

Library Resources Please refer to Making Sense
of Secondary Science Research into Childrens
Ideas, for the following chapters based on these
topics Concept of Soil Chapter 14. page 114.

Return to Table of Contents
27
NH Frameworks Ideas to Consider Science in the
Grade Spans Elementary Grades K-4
  • Children in grades K-4 observe, describe, and
    interact with the world around them. At this
    level effective learning environments provide
    opportunities for developing awareness of and
    involvement with the world around them through
  • Playing with, exploring, collecting, handling,
    sorting, and classifying objects.
  • Using graphic organizers and other strategies to
    motivate, organize, and identify the questions
    children ask about the world. Test Guess
  • Using tools (for example non standard measures,
    rulers, and magnifiers) to enhance observations,
    collect, represent and interpret data.
  • Organizing and manipulating data in multiple
    ways, which may include tools of technology,
    e.g., calculators, and computers.
  • Communicating (through reading, writing,
    speaking, listening, movement and viewing) to
    describe their observations of the world.
  • In summary, the K-4 classroom should
    provide students opportunities to engage with
    concrete manipulative activities that will lead
    children to construct the desired concepts
    through investigation and analysis of experience.
    At this level in particular, science should be
    integrated with other curricular areas (e.g.,
    reading, writing, math, social studies,
    technology, art, music, or physical education).

Return to Ideas to Consider
NH State Standards
Return to Table of Contents
28
The following is a list of resources for you to
gain some background information.
The Earth and Processes that Shape the Earth. (
Both essays are from Science for All Americans)
Be sure to scroll down the page to see the second
essay.
Library Resource Science Matters Achieving
Scientific Literacy Earth Cycles, chapter 14,
pages 191-192 The Rock Cycle, chapter 14, pages
193-196
Video sources
Back to table of Contents
NSTA Learning Center
29
NH Frameworks Earth Space Science K-2
Return to Benchmarks
Return to Table of Contents
continue to part 2
30
Video Resources for Grade 1 Annenberg Media is
a wonderful resource for you to use access
background information. Not only will you watch
a video to gain general background information,
youll also see how some teachers are teaching
science in their classrooms using exemplary
practices. The following resources are from
their website http//www.learner.org/resources/se
ries179.html. The videos are free to view via
your computer. You just have to set up a login
and password. When you get to the webpage, just
scroll down the page and youll see the different
videos.
  • Background informational videos in Earth and
    Space Science, Life Science, and Physical
    Science Essential Science For Teachers
  • Case study on videos http//www.learner.org/resou
    rces/series21.html
  • Patricia, a first-grade teacher, wants to
    increase her students' role in their learning.
  • Ingrid, a first-grade teacher, works with
    students' ideas while focusing on specific
    learning goals.
  • (These are just a a few samples of what
    Annenberg Media offers. There are many more free
    videos about exemplary teaching of science and
    other curricular areas.)

Back to table of contents
Back to resources
31
.
Video Resources for Grade 1 Annenberg Media is
a wonderful resource for you to use. Not only
will you be able to watch a video to gain general
background information, youll also see how some
teachers are teaching science in their classrooms
using exemplary practices. The following
resources are from their website
http//www.learner.org/resources/series179.html.
The videos are free to view via your computer.
You just have to set up a login and password.
When you get to the webpage, just scroll down the
page and youll see the different videos.
  • Essential Science for teachers Earth/Space
    Science These video lessons are an excellent
    resource. They include background information,
    panel discussions, and examples of how the basic
    principles are taught in the classroom.
  • Earth/Space Science link http//www.learner.org/r
    esources/series195.html
  • Case study on videoGrade 1
  • Patricia, a first-grade teacher, wants to
    increase her students' role in their learning
    http//www.learner.org/resources/series21.html
  • (These are just a a few samples of what
    Annenberg Media offers. There are many more free
    videos about exemplary teaching of science and
    other curricular areas.)

Back to table of contents
Back to resources
32
What is the philosophy behind the frameworks?
  • How do the new frameworks differ from the old
    ones?
  • Science should not be approached as a collection
    of isolated abilities and bits of information,
    but as a rich fabric of mutually supported ideas
    and skills that must develop overtime. From
    primary school to high school what students learn
    should build on what they learned before, makes
    sense in terms of what else they are learning,
    and prepare them for what they will learn
    next1.This framework looks at how kids perceive
    and interact with the world.
  • One of the major changes from the earlier
    framework can be seen the structure of the new
    frameworks reflecting the developmental stages of
    children. To help districts develop curricula for
    all grade levels, the new Frameworks for Science
    Literacy includes Grade Span Expectations (GSEs)
    that break down the content into specific grade
    spans (K-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-12). Each span lists
    proficiencies which indicate what all students
    should know and be able to do by the end of that
    grade span.
  • The old framework had six strands 1) Inquiry 2)
    Science, Technology and Society 3) Life Science
    4) Earth Space Science 5) Physical Science and
    6) Unifying Themes. Many district curricula had
    little to no emphasis on strands 1, 2, and 6. In
    the new edition, Science is divided into three
    content domains (Earth Space Science, Life
    Science, and Physical Science) and one Science
    Process Skills domain. Ideas and objectives which
    correspond to the 1995 Science Framework strands
    1, 2, and 6 have been rolled into each of the new
    strands.
  • Science Process Skills (SPS) is a new addition to
    the Frameworks. It reflects the need to make sure
    that in the early years students develop specific
    skill sets that will help them be successful in
    future science experiences. The last section of
    the skills strand, SPS4, looks at goals for
    Information and Computer Technology standards in
    Science. This was included to help districts meet
    the needs of all students and to meet the new ICT
    requirements for K-8 and 9-12 digital portfolios.
  • Everything in the old framework could be the
    subject of the state assessment in science. In
    the new framework, only specific proficiencies
    will be part of the upcoming NECAP Science
    Assessment. These NECAP Science Targets are
    clearly marked in bold boxes throughout the GSEs
    for each grade span. They are also referenced in
    the Science Process Skills documents as they
    connect to Inquiry and the Unifying themes of
    science. The other proficiencies should become
    part of each districts local science assessment
    system.
  • 1 Atlas of Science Literacy, American
    Association for the Advancement of Science, 2001,
    page 3

Return to Table of Contents
NH Frameworks and standards
Return to Benchmarks
33
References The following sources were used in the
development of this curriculum.
  • Books with online tools
  • American Association for the Advancement of
    Science. (1994). Benchmarks for science literacy.
    NY, NY Oxford University Press.
    http//www.project2061.org/publications/toolWeb.ht
    m
  • American Association for the Advancement of
    Science. (1990). Science for all Americans. NY,
    NY Oxford University Press. http//www.project206
    1.org/publications/toolWeb.htm Books without
    online tools
  • American Association for the Advancement of
    Science/Project 2061. (2001). Atlas of Science
    Literacy, AAAS and National Science Teachers
    Association, Washington, D.C.
  • Driver, R., et. al (1994). Making sense of
    secondary science Research into children's
    ideas.pp.23, NY, NY Routledge Press.. Hazen,
    R. and Trefil, J. (1991). Science matters
    Achieving scientific literacy. NY. NY Anchor
    Books.
  • Keeley, Page. (2005). Science Curriculum Topic
    Study. NSTA Press.
  • Websites
  • Elementary GLOBE , (2007) Retrieved July 6,
    2007, from http//www.globe.gov/fsl/html/templ.cg
    i?elemGLOBElangennav1
  • FOSS Lawrence Hall of Science, (2003)
    Retrieved June 29, 2007, from
    http//www.fossweb.com/modulesK-2/Trees/index.htm
  • FOSS Correlations Delta Education. (2006)
    Retrieved, May 27, 2007 from http//www.delta-ed
    ucation.com/science/foss/correlations/NewHampshire
    .pdf
  • Lawrence Hall of Science, (2003). FOSS Full
    Options Science Systems. Retrieved June 29, 2007,
    from http//www.lawrencehallofscience.org/foss/
  • NH Dept. of Education, (2006). NHEON. Retrieved
    June 29, 2007, from Curriculum Frameworks
    Website http//www.ed.state.nh.us/education/doe/o
    rganization/curriculum/CurriculumFrameworks/Curric
    ulumFrameworks.htm

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