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Heritage Language Learners: Research Data and Discussion

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Heritage Language Learners: Research Data and Discussion Olga Kagan, Director, National Heritage Language Resource Center STARTALK Chicago, October 18, 2009 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Heritage Language Learners: Research Data and Discussion


1
Heritage Language Learners Research Data and
Discussion
  • Olga Kagan, Director,
  • National Heritage Language Resource Center
  • STARTALK
  • Chicago, October 18, 2009

2
A heritage language learner a working definition
  • Broad definition those who have a strong
    cultural connection to a particular language,
    usually through family interaction (Fishman 2001
    Van Deusen-Scholl 2003).
  • NO MEASURABLE PROFICIENCIES
  • Narrow definition those who 1) were exposed to a
    family language in childhood, 2) switched to
    another language that became dominant but 3)
    still some competency in the home language.
    MEASURABLE PROFICIENCIES
  • Source Polinsky and Kagan 2007

3
NHLRC Survey of Heritage Language Learners
  • An on-line survey
  • 1,700 responses
  • 22 languages
  • College level HL learners
  • Survey Report http//www.nhlrc.ucla.edu
  • http//www.international.ucla.edu/languages/nhlrc/

4
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5
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6
77
  • U.S.-born
  • arrivals before age of 5

7
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8
To salvage heritage languages
  • there should be regular and active use of the
    language beyond the preschool years.
  • T. Au (2007)

9
HLL VS. NS
9
10
HLL VS. FLL
11
Becoming A Native Speaker
  • In becoming a native speaker of a given
    language, the child learns to attend to
    particular aspects of experience and to relate
    them verbally in ways that are characteristic of
    that language.
  • Berman and Slobin, p. 611

12
HL and Personal History
  • Variation across heritage speakers
  • Correlating language level and personal history
  • Commonalities and differences across HLs
  • Related to the pattern of immigration and
    community/family practices

13
Russian Heritage Learners Grouping
  • GROUP 1 completed/almost completed
  • high school in the former S.U.
  • GROUP 2 attended/completed junior high
  • GROUP 3 attended/completed elem. school
  • GROUP 4 emigrated at a pre-school age or born
    outside of the former S.U.
  • How would you group speakers of your HL?

14
What are the main features of the HL?
  • Limited vocabulary
  • Incomplete morphology
  • Impoverished syntax
  • Spotty socio-cultural knowledge
  • Not fully developed register
  • Interpersonal (informal)
  • Presentational
  • Interpretive

15
For all the imperfections
  • The glass is ¾ full
  • (Polinsky 2007)
  • HLLs have some real life language competencies

16
16
17
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18
A typical (?) HLLs Profile
  • Access to language since age 0
  • Output interrupted at age 5
  • Continued exposure to the HL
  • at home
  • in the community
  • through some HL media
  • Is this true of your HLLs?

19
MOTIVATIONS
20
How important is it for you to accomplish the
following goals in your HL class? 1-
unimportant 5 - very important
21
Research on Vocabulary
  • Vocabulary is emerging as the best indicator of
    HLLs overall proficiency
  • Polinsky (1995, 1997, 2000) - Russian
  • Kanno et al.( 2008) - Japanese
  • Increasing vocabulary may emerge as the primary
    goal of HLL instruction

22
Research on Grammar
  • incomplete L1 acquisition in heritage speakers is
    selective and localized.
  • some areas of grammatical knowledge appear to be
    more susceptible to incomplete development than
    others.
  • Montrul et al. (2008)

23
Curriculum Development
  • Increase vocabulary
  • Target certain areas of grammar
  • Focus on register and culture
  • What instructional strategies would you suggest?

24
Macro-Approach
  • Using aural/oral proficiency as a point of
    departure
  • Taking into account existing (if not explicitly
    understood) linguistic competencies
  • Clarifying and systematizing what they know
  • Not teaching what students know already
  • Using large volumes of written/aural texts
  • Source O.Kagan K.Dillon, A new Perspective on
    Teaching Russian Focus on the Heritage Learners.
    SEEJ, Vol.45, 3 (2001) pp. 507-518

25
What needs to be done?
  • agree upon the goals of HL instruction
  • describe the range of HL proficiencies
  • formulate objectives and outcomes
  • develop teaching materials or
  • formulate an approach to developing
  • teaching materials

26
PROPOSED MATRIX a Program for Heritage Learners
  •    Proper placement
  •     Time on task
  •     Programmatic rigor
  •     HL specific instructional materials
  •     An uninterrupted, comprehensive curriculum
  •     Instructors trained in heritage language
    acquisition
  •     A multi-year sequence
  •     Awareness of home/community native speaker
    environment
  •     Metalinguistic framework raising awareness
    of importance of grammatical accuracy and
    register
  • Source O.Kagan K.Dillon Heritage
    Speakers' Potential for High-Level Language
    Proficiency
  • Advanced Foreign Language Learning A
    Challenge to College Programs. H.Byrnes
  • H.Maxim, Editors. AAUSC Series Issues in
    Language Program Direction. BostonHeinle, 2004.

27
References
  • Au, T. K-f Salvaging Heritage Languages in
    Heritage Language Education A New Field
    Emerging, ed. Brinton, Kagan, Bauckus
  • He A. W. (2006) Toward an Identity Theory of the
    Development of Chinese as a Heritage Language.
    Heritage Language Journal, Volume 4, Number 1
  • Kagan, O. Dillon, K. (in press) Bridging
    Contexts, Making Connections Selected
    Proceedings from the Fifth International
    Conference on Language Teacher Education. 
    Minneapolis, MN Center for Advanced Research on
    Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.
  • Kagan, O. Dillon, K. (2001) A New Perspective
    on Teaching Russian Focus on the Heritage
    Learner . Slavic and East European Journal 45.3
    (2001) 507-18. Reprinted in Heritage Language
    Journal Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 2003
  • Kagan, O. (2005) In Support of a
    Proficiency-based Definition of Heritage Language
    Learners The Case of Russian. International
    Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism,
    8, 213-221.
  • Kagan, O., Friedman. D. (2004). Using the OPI
    to place heritage speakers of Russian. Foreign
    Language Annals 36(4), 536-545.
  • Kanno, K., Hasegawa,T., Ikeda,K.,Ito Y.and Long
    M. Prior Language-learning Experience and
    Variation in the Linguistic Profiles of Advanced
    English-speaking Learners of Japanese. In
    Brinton, D., Kagan, O., and Bauckus, S. ed.
    Heritage Language Education A New Field
    Emerging. Pp. 165-180
  • Kondo-Brown, K. (2002) Family and School Factors
    Influencing Academic Performance of Bilingual
    Shin Nisei Students in Hawaii. Asian and Pacific
    Islander
  • American Education Social, Cultural, and
    Historical Contexts. Ed. Eileen Tamura, Virgie
    Chattergy, and Russell Endo. South EL Monte, CA
    Pacific Asia Press, 2002. 149-74.
  • Kondo-Brown, K. (2005). Differences in language
    skills Heritage language learner subgroups and
    foreign language learners. The Modern Language
    Journal, 89(iv), 563-581.

28
References
  • He A. W. (2006) Toward an Identity Theory of the
    Development of Chinese as a Heritage Language.
    Heritage Language Journal, Volume 4, Number 1
  • Kagan, O. Dillon, K. (2009) Bridging Contexts,
    Making Connections Selected Proceedings from the
    Fifth International Conference on Language
    Teacher Education.  Minneapolis, MN Center for
    Advanced Research on Language Acquisition,
    University of Minnesota.
  • Kagan, O. Dillon, K. (2001) A New Perspective
    on Teaching Russian Focus on the Heritage
    Learner . Slavic and East European Journal 45.3
    (2001) 507-18. Reprinted in Heritage Language
    Journal Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 2003
  • Kagan, O. (2005) In Support of a
    Proficiency-based Definition of Heritage Language
    Learners The Case of Russian. International
    Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism,
    8, 213-221.
  • Kagan, O., Friedman. D. (2004). Using the OPI
    to place heritage speakers of Russian. Foreign
    Language Annals 36(4), 536-545.
  • Kanno, K., Hasegawa,T., Ikeda,K.,Ito Y.and Long
    M. Prior Language-learning Experience and
    Variation in the Linguistic Profiles of Advanced
    English-speaking Learners of Japanese. In
    Brinton, D., Kagan, O., and Bauckus, S. ed.
    Heritage Language Education A New Field
    Emerging. Pp. 165-180
  • Kondo-Brown, K. (2002) Family and School Factors
    Influencing Academic Performance of Bilingual
    Shin Nisei Students in Hawaii. Asian and Pacific
    Islander
  • American Education Social, Cultural, and
    Historical Contexts. Ed. Eileen Tamura, Virgie
    Chattergy, and Russell Endo. South EL Monte, CA
    Pacific Asia Press, 2002. 149-74.
  • Kondo-Brown, K. (2005). Differences in language
    skills Heritage language learner subgroups and
    foreign language learners. The Modern Language
    Journal, 89(iv), 563-581.

29
  • Montrul, S. (2004). Subject and object expression
    in Spanish heritage speakers A case of
    morpho-syntactic convergence. Bilingualism,
    Language and Cognition 7,125142.
  • Montrul, S. (2008). Incomplete acquisition in
    bilingualism Re-examining the age factor.
    Amsterdam John Benjamins.
  • Polinsky, Maria. 1995. Cross-linguistic parallels
    in language loss. Southwest Journal of
    Linguistics 14. 87-124.
  • Polinsky, Maria. 1997. American Russian Language
    loss meets language acquisition. In Wayles Browne
    et al. (eds.). Annual Workshop on Formal
    Approaches to Slavic Linguistics The Cornell
    Meeting (1995), 370-406. Ann Arbor, MI Michigan
    Slavic Publishers.
  • Polinsky, Maria. 2000. A composite linguistic
    profile of a speaker of Russian in the USA. In
    Olga Kagan and Benjamin Rifkin, eds. The learning
    and teaching of Slavic languages and cultures.
    Bloomington, IN Slavica.
  • Polinsky, M. (2006). Incomplete acquisition
    American Russian. Journal of Slavic Linguistics
    14, 191262.
  • Polinsky, M. (2007). Russian gender under
    incomplete acquisition. The Heritage Language
    Journal 7.
  • Polinsky, M. Kagan, O. (2007). Heritage
    Languages in the wild and in the classroom.
    Compass of Language and Linguistics,
    (http//www.blackwell-compass.com/home_linco_compa
    ss)

30
References
  • Rothman, J. (2007) Heritage speaker competence
    differences, language change, and input type
    Inflected infinitives in Heritage Brazilian
    Portuguese. The International Journal of
    Bilingualism International Journal of
    Bilingualism Volume 11 Number 4 2007, 359
    389
  • Sohn, S-O., Shin, S-K. (2007). True beginners,
    false beginners, and fake beginners Placement
    strategies for Korean heritage learners. Foreign
    Language Annals, 40.3, 353-364.
  • Schwartz, Ann M. 2001. Preparing teachers to work
    with heritage language learners. In J.K.Peyton,
    D.A. Ranard, S. McGinnis, eds. Heritage Languages
    in America Preserving a National Resource,
    229-252. McHenry, Il Center for Applied
    Linguistics and Delta Systems Co.
  • Valdés, Guadelupe. 2000. The teaching of
    heritage languages An introduction for
    Slavic-teaching professionals. In O. Kagan and B.
    Rifkin, eds. Teaching and Learning Slavic
    Languages and Cultures, 375-403. Bloomington, IN
    Slavica.
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