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Labeling Theory

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Labeling Theory Emphasizes on ways Individuals react to Deviance Labeling Theory History Labeling Theory came from the new social thinking of the 1960 s and 1970 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Labeling Theory


1
Labeling Theory
  • Emphasizes on ways Individuals react to Deviance

2
Labeling Theory History
  • Labeling Theory came from the new social thinking
    of the 1960s and 1970s
  • It is the manifestation of the mistrust of
    governmental power
  • New civil rights decisions
  • Revamping of the education system

3
Labeling Theory History
  • Traces Back to Frank Tannenbaums 1938 Crime and
    the Community
  • Criminal behavior is a product of the The
    conflict between a group and the community at
    large.

4
Labeling Theory
  • Those engaging in criminal behavior are not
    necessarily criminal
  • Why do people become criminal becomes How do
    people get reacted to as being deviant?(Becker,
    1970)
  • Certain individuals are labeled as deviant
  • The subsequent effect of labeling

5
Two Results of Labeling
  • The Label may catch the attention of the labeling
    audience
  • The Label stigmatizes as the Label is
    internalized This is SECONDARY DEVIANCE

6
Primary And Secondary Deviance
  • Secondary deviance is when a person reacts to the
    label

7
The ZIG Zag Path
  • The formation of a Persons Identity is a
    reflection of others definition of him or her
  • Individuals who are labeled as deviant become
    more deviant than if they had not been so labeled
  • AW, Everyone is Labeled! Yes, but the label must
    PROFOUNDLY shape the way others react to him/her

8
Becker(1967)
  • One of the most crucial steps in the process of
    building a stable pattern of deviant behavior is
    likely to be the experience of being caught and
    publicly labeled as a deviant.
  • Treating a person as though he were generally
    rather than specifically deviant produces a self
    fulfilling prophecyconspire to shape the person
    in the image people have of him. (Becker 1967)

9
Labeling Concepts
  • Master Status-There are central traits of a
    persons identity that binds them to other traits
  • Example Priest, Physician
  • Retrospective Interpretation Identities can be
    reconstructed to crate a new label

10
Primary Deviance
Individual Reacts to the Label
Secondary Deviance
Strengthening of Self concept
Individual Joins Deviant Subculture
Master Status
11
Policy Changes Empirical Validity
  • Criminological theory of shaming an extension
    (rip off) of labeling
  • Juvenile diversion
  • Sealing of juvenile records
  • Decriminalization
  • Deinstitutionalization

12
Those in Power Create Laws
The process Labels Some As Criminals
13
Conflict Theory
  • Crime is the Outcome of Class Struggle

14
The Capitalist Bourgeoisie
Wages
PROFITS
Proletariat
(Those that do the Actual Labor)
Lumpen Proletariat
The parasites
15
Surplus Value
Worker produces Goods
Surplus creates profit
The profit Goes to the Bourgeoisie. They buy
machines to replace workers
When workers make less, they buy less. This
creates an economic crisis.
16
Marx on Law
  • Law itself is a tool of the ruling class
  • All crime is a product of class struggle
  • Relationships to the mode of production as an
    explanation for crime

17
Conflict Theory
  • People kept in a state of poverty will rebel by
    committing crimes
  • Crime is the outcome of CLASS STRUGGLE
  • Powerful groups use Laws to Support Their
    Interests
  • Interests of One Group do Not coincide with
    another

18
Social and Political Unrest/Race class and gender
discrimination/exploiting the working class
19
Quinney
  • The Criminal justice movement is a
    state-initiated and stste supported effort to
    rationalize mechanisms of social control. The
    larger purpose is to secure a capitalist order
    that is in grave crisis, likely in the final
    stage of development.

20
Radical Perspectives
  • Structural Marxism
  • Law is for the long term interests of the
    capitalists, by keeping the system operating
    efficiently
  • This is an explanation on why some laws like rent
    control exist
  • Left realism
  • Crime victims in all classes need equal
    protection
  • Reduce the ability for police to enforce,
    increase the sensitivity

21
Radical Perspectives
  • Radical feminism
  • Cause of crime on women is male aggression mens
    attempts to subordinate women
  • Male power, female economic dependency
  • Instrumental Marxism
  • Law is used by the ruling class to their
    advantage
  • The state, law and the ruling class are the same
  • Peacemaking criminology
  • Humanistic, non violent and peaceful solutions to
    crime (victim centered)
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