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A Quick Review of Basic Concepts in Science, Systems, Matter, and Energy

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A Quick Review of Basic Concepts in Science, Systems, Matter, and Energy G. Tyler Miller s Living in the Environment 14th Edition Chapter 3 Key Concepts The Nature ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Quick Review of Basic Concepts in Science, Systems, Matter, and Energy


1
A Quick Review of Basic Concepts in Science,
Systems, Matter, and Energy
G. Tyler Millers Living in the Environment 14th
Edition Chapter 3
2
Key Concepts
  • Science as a process for understanding
  • Components and regulation of systems
  • Matter forms, quality, and how it changes
    laws of matter
  • Energy forms, quality, and how it changes
    laws of energy
  • Nuclear changes and radioactivity

3
The Nature of Science
  • Science is an attempt to discover order in the
    natural world and use the knowledge to describe
    what is likely to happen in nature
  • GOAL to increase our understanding of our world
  • Based upon the scientific process

4
The Nature of Science
  • Can you give a real world example in which
    science has increased our understanding of the
    natural world?

5
The Nature of Science
  • Three critical components to any good science
  • Skepticism Do not believe what you see until
    verified
  • Reproducible data and results should be able to
    be done over and over
  • Peer Review other scientists must review work

6
Science, and Critical Thinking
  • Scientific data
  • Scientific hypotheses
  • IFTHENBECAUSE
  • Scientific (natural) laws
  • Scientific theories
  • Consensus science
  • Frontier science
  • Junk Science

Fig. 3-2 p. 33
7
The Nature of Science
  • Scientists can do 2 major things
  • Disprove things
  • Can establish that a particular model, theory, or
    law has a high degree of certainty of being true.
    NOT ABSOLUTELY TRUE
  • Scientists should not say Cigarettes Cause
    Cancer but can say There is overwhelming
    evidence from thousands of studies that indicate
    a relationship between cigarette usage and lung
    cancer

8
Key Environmental Science Concept
  • Any action in a complex system has multiple,
    unintended, and often unpredictable effects.
  • Most environmental impacts we face today are a
    result of trying to increase the quality of human
    life.
  • Examples????

9
(No Transcript)
10
Matter Forms, Structure, and Quality
What do these terms mean?
  • Elements
  • Compounds
  • Atoms
  • Ions
  • Molecules

11
Atoms
Subatomic Particles
  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • Electrons

Atomic Characteristics
  • Isotopes
  • Hydrogen 1, 2 and 3
  • Atomic number
  • Carbon 6, Uranium 92
  • Ion
  • Lost or gained e-
  • Atomic mass
  • Uranium 235

12
Examples of Isotopes
Fig. 3-5 p. 40
13
pH
  • Measures acidity or alkalinity of water samples
  • Scale 0 14
  • Acids 0 6.9
  • Neutral 7.0
  • Alkaline (Basic) 7.1 14

14
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15
Chemical Bonds
  • Chemical formulas
  • Ionic bonds
  • Covalent bonds

16
Organic Compounds CARBON
  • Organic vs. inorganic compounds
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Simple carbohydrates
  • Complex carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic acids

17
The Four States of Matter
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma

18
Matter Quality and Material Efficiency
  • High-quality matter
  • Low-quality matter
  • Material efficiency (resource productivity)

Fig. 3-8 p. 43
19
Energy
  • Definition Capacity to do work and transfer
    heat
  • Types
  • Kinetic
  • Potential
  • Radiation Energy Wavelength

20
Electromagnetic Spectrum Some energy travels in
waves at the speed of light
Fig. 3-9 p. 44
21
Transfer of Heat Energy
Heat total kinetic energy of all moving atoms in
a substance.
22
Energy Quality (ability to do work)
  • High-quality energy
  • Low-quality energy

Fig. 3-12 p.46
23
Changes in Matter
  • Physical composition
  • unchanged (water and steam)
  • Chemical change in the composition of elements
    or compounds.

24
Chemical Changes or Reactions
Fig. In text p. 47
25
The Law of Conservation of Matter
  • Matter is not destroyed
  • Matter only changes form
  • There is no throw away

26
Matter and Pollution
  • Chemical nature of pollutants
  • Concentration
  • Persistence
  • Degradable (nonpersistent) pollutants
  • Biodegradable pollutants
  • Slowly degradable (persistent) pollutants
  • Nondegradable pollutants

27
Half-life
Fig. 3-13, p. 49
28
Nuclear Reactions
Fission
Fusion
Fig. 3-15 p. 50
Fig. 3-16 p. 50
29
Laws Governing Energy Changes
First Law of Thermodynamics (Energy)
  • Energy is neither created nor destroyed
  • Energy only changes form
  • You cant get something for nothing

ENERGY IN ENERGY OUT
30
Laws Governing Energy Changes
Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • In every transformation, some energy is converted
    to heat (lost)
  • You cannot break even in terms of energy quality

31
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32
As we study environmental science always remember
these few basic scientific concepts.
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