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Vertebrates Fishes, Amphibians, Birds, Reptiles, Mammals

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Vertebrates Fishes, Amphibians, Birds, Reptiles, Mammals Biology B Nonvertebrate Chorodate Choradate Dorsal hollow nerve cord Notochord Pharyngeal pouches Tail that ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vertebrates Fishes, Amphibians, Birds, Reptiles, Mammals


1
VertebratesFishes, Amphibians, Birds, Reptiles,
Mammals
  • Biology B

2
Chordate Cladogram
Section 30-1
Mammals
Birds
Reptiles
Amphibians
Fishes
Nonvertebratechordates
Invertebrate ancestor
3
Nonvertebrate Chorodate
  • Choradate
  • Dorsal hollow nerve cord
  • Notochord
  • Pharyngeal pouches
  • Tail that extend beyond anus
  • Nonvertebrate Chorodates
  • Tunicates and Lancelets

4
 The Generalized Structure of a Chordate
Section 30-1
5
b
6
3 Characteristics of all Vertebrates
  • Endoskeleton.
  • Supports larger animal size.
  • Grows with animal (No molting!)
  • Backbone and cephalization.
  • Well-developed brain with sensory organs.
  • Earliest vertebrates were called ostracoderms.
  • Closed circulatory system with multi-chambered
    heart.
  • 3- or 4-chambered heart allows blood to be
    separated into oxygenated or deoxygenated.
  • More efficient delivery of oxygen to the body.

7
Endotherms and Ectotherms
  • Ectotherm Temperature is regulated by external
    environment.
  • Fish, amphibians, reptiles
  • Endotherm Body temperature is regulated by
    internal processes.
  • Mammals, birds

8
Temperature Control in Chordates
Section 33-2
Body Temperature (C)
Environmental Temperature (C)
9
Diversity of Chordates
Section 33-1
10
Characteristics of Fishes
  • Live in water.
  • Overlapping scales that cover skin.
  • Mucus coat (reduces friction when swimming).
  • Swim bladder (buoyancy, sharks dont have one).
  • Why do many sharks never stop swimming?
  • Lateral line system (detects vibrations in
    water).
  • Gills (blood and water flow in opposite
    directions more efficient oxygen absorbtion and
    CO2 release. OPERCULA opening and closing flaps
    sharks)

11
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12
The Anatomy of a Fish
Section 30-2
13
Circulation in a Fish
Section 30-2
Gills
Brain and head circulation
Atrium
Sinus Venosus
Oxygen-poor bloodfrom the veins collects in the
sinusvenosus.
Blood enters theatrium and flowsto the
ventricle.
Body muscle circulation
Ventricle
Digestive system circulation
Bulbus Arteriosus
The ventricle pumps blood into the bulbus
arteriosus.
Heart
The bulbus arteriosus moves blood into the
ventral aorta and toward the gills.
14
Fish Life Cycle
  • Varied strategies.
  • Sharks internal fertilization. Salmon external.
  • Generally, lay many more eggs than they need.
  • Many are never fertilized.
  • Many more are fertilized than the environment can
    support. (Why? Isnt this wasted effort on the
    part of the fishes?)

15
Rainbow
Cut Throat
16
Characteristics of Amphibians
  • Live both in water and on land.
  • Four strong limbs.
  • Nictating membrane see through second eyelid.
    Why is this helpful on both land and in the
    water?
  • Tympanic membrane hearing. Land? Water?

17
Amphibians Energy and Wastes
  • A frogs skin breathes it must be kept moist.
  • 3-Chambered Heart, Double-looped circulatory
    system. What is that? Why is that a good thing?
  • Metamorphisis teeth/jaws, gills turn into lungs,
    circulatory system changes
  • Kidneys regulate the amount of water in the frog.
  • In water excrete, on land retain.

18
The Life Cycle of a Frog
Section 30-3
Adult Frog
Adults are typically ready tobreed in about one
to two years.
Young Frog
Frog eggs are laid in water and undergo external
fertilization.
The eggs hatch into tadpoles a few days to
several weeks later.
Fertilized Eggs
Tadpoles
Tadpoles gradually grow limbs, lose their tails
and gills, and become meat-eaters as they develop
into terrestrial adults.
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22
Characteristics of Reptiles
  • Dry, scaly skin (prevents evaporation).
  • Keratin A hard, water-resistant protein (human
    hair and fingernails, bird feathers).
  • Usually carnivores.
  • Separated 3-chambered heart (crocodiles have 4
    chambers).
  • Ectotherms.
  • How does a reptile regulate its body temperature?

23
Rafekie
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28
The Amniotic Egg (Figure 26.4)
  • Embryo connected to Yolk by a stalk.
  • Yolk food source.
  • Amnion fluid that protects the embryo.
  • Chorion regulates gas exchange.
  • Shell Waterproofs, protects. The shell is porous
    (gas can exchange through it).
  • Allantois stores wastes.

29
 The Amniotic Egg
Section 31-1
Amnion
Allantois
Embryo
Chorion
Yolk sac
Shell
30
Characteristics of Birds
  • Adaptations center around flight
  • Light-weight bones hollow, but have cross
    braces.
  • Shape of a birds wings gives lift.
  • Fused bones (ligaments are heavy).
  • Massive flight muscles (Pectoralis 25 of
    weight).
  • Shape of the wings gives lift.
  • The one reptilian characteristic of birds is
    their scale-covered legs.

31
 The Digestive System of a Pigeon
Section 31-2
Brain
Esophagus
Lung
When a bird eats, food moves down the esophagus
and is stored in the crop.
Heart
1
Kidney
Crop
Air sac
Liver
Moistened food passes to the stomach, a two-part
chamber. The first chamber secretes acid and
enzymes. The partially digested food moves to the
second chamber, the gizzard.
2
Firstchamberof stomach
Pancreas
Large intestine
Gizzard
Smallintestine
Undigested food is excreted through the cloaca.
Cloaca
5
The muscular walls of the gizzard squeeze the
contents, while small stones grind the food.
3
As digestion continues, the food moves
through the intestines.
4
32
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33
You Eat Like A Bird
  • Endotherms requires a lot of energy to maintain
    their high metabolism.
  • Feathers trap body heat.
  • Unique respiratory system air flows one-way.
  • Crop ? Gizzard ? Intestines.
  • Figure 26.18.

34
Blue Jay- Mr. Phillips Favorite Bird
  • Toronto Blue Jays World Series 1992-1993 Champions

35
Characteristics of Mammals
  • Endotherms hair.
  • Mammary glands produce milk.
  • Large, well-developed brains.
  • 4-chambered heart, double-looped circulatory
    system.

36
Variety of Mammals
  • Size
  • Smallest shrew (weighs less than a dime)
  • Largest whale (100,000 kg 32 elephants)
  • Speed
  • Slowest Two-toed sloth (1 meter/15 seconds)
  • Fastest Cheetah (400 meters/15 seconds)
  • Humans (150 meters/15 seconds)
  • Environments

37
Mammals Movement and Energy
  • High-speed running long bones and flexible hip
    and shoulder joints.
  • Eat a variety of foods different teeth
    structures.
  • Diaphram More gas exchange.
  • Air sacs increased surface area for gas exchange.

38
The Jaws and Teeth of Mammals
Section 32-1
CARNIVORE
HERBIVORE
Jawjoint
Jaw joint
Horse
Wolf
39
Mammals Types of Life Cycles
  • Monotremes Reproduce by laying eggs (duck-billed
    playtpus).-
  • Marsupials Give birth to small, immature young
    that then further develop inside the mothers
    external pouch (kangaroo).
  • Placental mammals Babies develop inside the
    mothers body (95 of all mammals).

40
 The Placenta
Section 39-4
41
The Success of Mammals
  • Well-developed cerebrum The largest part of the
    brain makes processing information and learning
    possible.
  • Care of the Young Development inside the mother
    care of the young for the first year(s) of their
    life.

42
Compare/Contrast Table
Section 33-3
Comparing Functions of Chordates
Respiration Circulation Excretion Response
Gills and diffusion No true chambers Gills
andgill slits Simple mass of nerve cells
Non- vertebrate Chordates Gills and diffusion No
true chambers Gills andgill slits Simple mass
of nerve cells
Gills/air sacs Single loop 2
chambers Kidney andgills Cephalization small
cerebrum
Simple lungs and skin Double loop 3
chambers Kidney andgills Cephalization small
cerebrum
Lungs Double loop 3 chambers Kidney Cephali
zation small cerebrum
Lungs (tubes and air sacs one-way
flow) Double loop 4 chambers Kidney Cephalizatio
n large cerebrum
Lungs (alveoli) Double loop 4
chambers Kidney Cephalization large cerebrum
Birds
Function
Fishes
Amphibians (adult)
Reptiles
Mammals
43
The Circulatory Systems of Vertebrates
Section 33-3
Double-Loop Circulatory System
Single-LoopCirculatory System
FISHES
MOST REPTILES
CROCODILIANS, BIRDS,AND MAMMALS
44
Compare/Contrast Table continued
Section 33-3
Comparing Functions of Chordates
Movement Reproduction TemperatureContr
ol
Muscles,no bones External
fertilization Ectothermic
Muscles on either side of backbone External
fertilization Ectothermic
Limbs point directly toward ground muscles
and ligaments Internal fertilization shelled
egg Ectothermic
Upper limbs are wings 2 feet muscles and
ligaments Internal fertilization shelled
egg Endothermic
2 or 4 legs walk with legs straight under
them muscles and ligaments Internal
fertilization and development Endothermic
Birds
Function
Non- vertebrate Chordates
Fishes
Amphibians (adult)
Reptiles
Mammals
45
The Digestive Systemsof Vertebrates
Section 33-3
Shark
Salamander
Lizard
Pigeon
Cow
Esophagus Stomach Intestine Liver Gallbladder Panc
reas Cloaca Crop Gizzard Cecum Rectum
46
Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I
Section 35-1
Nervous System
Integumentary System
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Circulatory System
47
Figure 35-8 The Synapse
Section 35-2
Direction of Impulse
Dendrite of adjacent neuron
Axon
Receptor
Vesicle
Axon terminal
Synaptic cleft
Neurotransmitter
48
Figure 35-9 The Brain
Section 35-3
49
The Senses of Smell and Taste
Section 35-4
50
Figure 35-14 The Eye
Section 35-4
51
Figure 35-15 The Ear
Section 35-4
52
The Skeletal System
Section 36-1
Axial Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
53
Figure 36-7 Skeletal Muscle Structure
Section 36-2
54
Figure 36-13 The Structure of Skin
Section 36-3
55
Figure 37-2 The Circulatory System
Section 37-1
56
Figure 37-3 The Structures of the Heart
Section 37-1
Left Atrium
Right Atrium
Left Ventricle
Septum
Right Ventricle
57
Figure 37-13 The Respiratory System
Section 37-3
58
Figure 37-15 The Mechanics of Breathing
Section 37-3
Air exhaled
Air inhaled
Rib cage lowers
Rib cage rises
Diaphragm
Diaphragm
Inhalation
Exhalation
59
Figure 37-14 Gas Exchange in the Lungs
Section 37-3
Alveoli
Bronchiole
Capillary
60
 The Digestive System
Section 38-2
61
 The Small Intestine
Section 38-2
Small Intestine
Villus
62
The Male Reproductive System
Section 39-3
63
The Female Reproductive System
Section 39-3
64
Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part 2
Section 35-1
Respiratory System
Digestive System
Excretory System
Endocrine System
Reproductive System
Lymphatic/Immune Systems
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