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Alzheimer’s Disease

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Alzheimer s Disease Causes, Effects, and Treatments Alzheimer s Disease Degenerative brain disorder 4 million Americans 10% of all people over 65 50% of all ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Alzheimer’s Disease


1
Alzheimers Disease
  • Causes, Effects, and Treatments

2
Alzheimers Disease
  • Degenerative brain disorder
  • 4 million Americans
  • 10 of all people over 65
  • 50 of all people over 85
  • 19 million people are family members of an
    Alzheimers patient
  • 22 million people worldwide will be diagnosed by
    2025

3
The History of Alzheimers
  • Alois Alzheimer in 1906 performed an autopsy
  • Peculiar formations
  • Dense bundles

4
Functioning Brain
  • Cerebrum- 2 hemispheres
  • Higher order functioning- reasoning, planning,
    analyzing, creating
  • Lobes
  • Frontal
  • Parietal
  • Temporal
  • Occipital

5
Functional Brain
  • Hippocampus
  • Part of limbic system
  • Role in memory formation
  • Sorts and sends new info to correct part of brain
    to be stored and recalled when necessary

6
Neurons
  • Basic unit of nervous system- nerve cells
  • Stimulus causes neuron to send an electric
    impulse through the cell body to the tip of the
    axon where neurotransmitters carry the signal
    across the synapse to the next neuron

7
What Alzheimers does
  • Neuron degeneration
  • First in hippocampus
  • Spreads to frontal, parietal, temporal lobes
  • Loss in basal nucleus of Meynert
  • Goes on to rest of brain
  • Brain mass shrinks

8
What Alzheimers Does
  • Amyloid plaques
  • Abnormal build-up of a protein called
    beta-amyloid
  • Neurofibrillary tangles
  • Threads of protein tau begin to twist and
    structure of cell collapses
  • Do plaques and tangles cause Alzheimers or are
    they a result of the disease?

9
Signs and Symptoms
  • Severe memory loss
  • Confusion
  • Inability to formulate abstract thoughts
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Difficulty carrying out routine or complex tasks
  • Personality changes
  • Paranoid or bizarre behavior

10
Alzheimers A variety of possible causes
  • Genetic
  • Beta-amyloid and plaques
  • Tau and neurofibrillary tangles
  • Inflammatory responses
  • Oxidative stress
  • Calcium levels
  • Other risk factors

11
Treating cognitive symptoms
  • Affect levels of acetylcholine, called
    cholinesterase inhibitors
  • Acetylcholine involved in selective attention
  • Designed to maintain cognitive function
  • Used only for mild to moderate Alzheimers
  • Tacrine, Donepezil, Rivastigmine, Galantamine

12
Treating behavioral symptoms
  • Which include aggression, agitation, delusions,
    hallucinations, resisting help, suspiciousness or
    paranoia, sleep disturbances, wandering
  • Finding the right environment, structure
  • Antipsychotics, anxiolytics, antidepressants

13
New directions in treatment the beginning of the
end?
  • Anti-inflammatory agents
  • Prednisone, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Estrogen
  • Antioxidants
  • Vitamin E and selegiline, ginkgo
  • Neurotrophic agents
  • Nerve growth factor, leteprinim potassium
  • Anti-amyloid treatment
  • AN-1792 vaccine, protease inhibitors

14
The future of Alzheimers
  • Currently, Alzheimers disease is treatable, but
    incurable. Researchers are, however, feeling
    ever closer to pin-pointing the specific causes
    and biological basis of the disease, which will
    lead to a possible cure.
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