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HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

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Title: HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT


1
HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
  • LIFE-SPAN EXAM 1 DISCUSSION

2
LIFESPAN CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
3
1. How do the lives of Ted Kaczynski and Alice
Walker illustrate the questions explored in the
course textbook?
  • One question is what leads one person, full of
    promise and potential to commit acts of brutal
    violence and

4
  • another to change poverty and trauma into a
    literary treasure chest.

5
  • Another question is how are different lives
    unique.
  • A third question is how does understanding
    lifespan development illuminate the nature of
    development and
  • how science seeks to ask and answer questions
    about development.

6
2. What is the importance of studying the
development using the lifespan perspective?
  • Studying development using the lifespan
    perspective illustrates how lives are unique
  • contain information about who we are
  • how we came to be the way we are and
  • where future will likely lead us.
  • shows that development involves both growth and
    decline as well as changes that occur from
    conception until death.

7
3. What are 8 characteristics of the lifespan
perspective?
  • A. lifelong includes changes from conception
    until death
  • B. multidimensional body, mind and emotions and
    relationships change and affect each other
    throughout life
  • involves biological, cognitive and socioemotional
    dimensions

8
  • C. multidirectional in all phases of life some
    abilities improve while others decline
  • example is ability to learn second and third
    languages decreases as we grow older.
  • D. plastic involves capacity for change and
    growth during different stages of life in terms
    of cognition, physiology and social and emotional
    functioning.

9
  • E. multidisciplinary lifespan perspective
    integrates information from psychology,
    sociology, anthropology, neurology and medicine
    to help us to understand development

10
  • F. contextual lifespan perspective emphasizes
    that development occurs in a particular setting
    or context (cultural, social, geographical).
  • context of development has 3 types of influence
    on development 1)normative age-graded
    2)normative history-graded and 3)nonnormative.

11
  • G. involves 3 goals of growth, maintenance and
    regulating loss of functioning.

12
  • H. involves interaction of factors associated
    with biology, culture and individual experiences
  • biology includes physiological and genetic
    factors suggesting tendencies and possibilities
  • culture provides environment and context

13
  • individual experience contributes a unique
    dimension to each persons life.

14
4. What are 4 contemporary concerns regarding
lifespan development?
  • A. health and well-being
  • mental and physical health professionals help us
    to improve our physical and mental state and
    feeling of well-being
  • physical and psychological lifestyle and state
    affects both mental and physical health.

15
  • B. parenting and education
  • Understanding lifespan perspective helps us to
    answer questions about pressures on the family
    and problems facing educators
  • other issues child care, divorce, parenting
    styles, intergenerational relationships, early
    childhood education, efforts to promote lifelong
    learning.

16
  • C. social and cultural contexts and diversity
  • 4 concepts
  • 1)culture behavior patterns, beliefs of a
    particular group
  • 2)ethnicity related to cultural heritage,
    nationality, race, religion and language

17
  • 3)socioeconomic status
  • position in society with regard to occupation,
    education and economic resources
  • 4)gender psychological and social and cultural
    experience of being male or female.

18
  • D. social policy
  • governments course of action for protecting and
    promoting the welfare of citizens
  • involves values, economics and politics
  • special concern for children and elderly
    individuals.

19
5. What are 4 features of the nature of
development?
  • A. biological, cognitive and socioemotional
    processes
  • 1)biological processes
  • changes in physiology
  • examples, genes from parents, brain development,
    height and weight gain, hormonal changes in
    adolescence

20
  • 2) cognitive processes
  • changes in thinking, intelligence and language
  • examples, watching a crib mobile, creating
    multiword sentences, imagining what is would be
    like to president of the United States.

21
  • 3)social and emotional processes
  • changes in relationships with other people,
    emotions and personality
  • examples, infant smile in response to cuddling,
  • toddlers aggressive behavior toward a playmate,
  • mutual affection expressed by elderly couple.

22
  • B. periods of development
  • time frame in life characterized by certain
    features, usually involving an 8-period sequence

23
  • 1)prenatal period
  • conception to birth
  • from single cell to complete organism with
    complex brain and nervous system capable to
    variety of behaviors

24
  • 2) infancy
  • birth to 18-24 months
  • extreme dependency on adults and other older
    individuals
  • psychological activity begins

25
  • 3) early childhood
  • age 2 to 5 or 6
  • preschool years
  • become more self-sufficient
  • learn school readiness skills such as following
    instructions and recognizing letters and colors

26
  • 4) middle and late childhood
  • from 6 to 11 or 12
  • elementary school years
  • master basic skills of reading, writing and
    arithmetic
  • achievement is central theme
  • person shows increasing self-control

27
  • 5) adolescence
  • transition from childhood to early adulthood
  • from 10-12 to age 18-22
  • begins with rapid physical changes characteristic
    of puberty
  • major goals becoming independent and developing
    an individual identity
  • thinking more logical and abstract

28
  • 6) early adulthood
  • from late teens through 30s
  • establish personal, social, emotional and
    economic independence
  • beginning career development
  • select life partner
  • start family and child rearing

29
  • 7)middle adulthood
  • from early 40s until around age 60
  • expand personal and social involvement and
    responsibility
  • assist next generation
  • reach and maintain career satisfaction.

30
  • 8) late adulthood
  • from 60s and 70s until death
  • time of review and reflection
  • retirement and adjusting to decreasing strength
    and health
  • longest span of any developmental period

31
  • C. conceptions of age
  • 1)chronological age number of years since
    birth
  • 2)biological age describes biological health
    and functional capacity of vital organs, such as
    heart, lungs, kidneys, circulatory system
  • 3)psychological age measure of adaptive
    capacities, including ability to learn, establish
    and maintain motivation, be flexible and think
    clearly.

32
  • D. Developmental issues start here mon sep7
  • 1) nature and nurture
  • extent to which our development is affected by
    biological inheritance and environmental
    experiences

33
  • evolutionary and genetic tendencies (nature) as
    well as environmental setting result in shared
    growth and developmental experiences
  • some controversy as to how much nature and
    nurture influence development.

34
  • 2) stability and change
  • involves degree to which early traits and
    characteristics persist throughout life
  • some disagreement about amount of stability or
    change we are likely to experience
  • remember idea of plasticity suggesting potential
    for change exists throughout the lifespan.

35
  • 3)continuity and discontinuity
  • focus on degree to which development is gradual
    and continuous or
  • occurs in distinct stages
  • usually continuous within stages and
    discontinuous or discrete between stages.

36
  • 6. Describe 6 theoretical approaches that help
    understand development gttheory set of related
    ideas about development that explain what happens
    and why

37
  • A. psychoanalytic
  • B. Cognitive
  • C. Behavioral and Social Cognitive
  • D. Ethological
  • E. Ecological
  • F. Eclectic

38
  • Testing a theory involves using scientific method
  • a. state a process or problem to be studied
  • b. collect research information or data
  • c. analyze the data
  • d. draw conclusions
  • e. share findings with others.

39
  • A. psychoanalytic
  • assumes development is mostly unconscious and
    influenced by emotions
  • emphasizes behavior consists of mainly surface
    characteristics
  • true understanding involves analyzing symbolic
    meaning
  • stresses early childhood experiences.

40
  • Examples of psychoanalytic theories from Sigmund
    Freud and Erik Erikson
  • Freud suggested 5 stages of development
    including
  • oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital
  • personality depends on how we resolve conflicts
    between sources of pleasure and demands of
    reality at each stage.

41
  • Erikson proposed 8 stages of development
  • each stage involves unique developmental task
    presenting the person with a crisis to resolve.
  • Ericksons crises are turning points
    characterized by increased vulnerability and
    potential.

42
  • Ericksons stages
  • 1)trust vs mistrust first year
  • 2)autonomy vs shame and doubt second year
  • 3)initiative vs guilt ages 3-5

43
  • 4) industry vs inferiority ages 6-12
  • 5)identity vs role confusion ages 13-19
  • 6)intimacy vs isolation 20s -30s
  • 7) generativity vs stagnation 40s-50s
  • 8)integrity vs despair 60s -death

44
  • B. Cognitive theories
  • emphasize effects of conscious thoughts on
    development.
  • Examples of cognitive theories
  • a. Piagets cognitive stages,
  • b. Vygotskys Sociocultural cognitive theory,
  • c. information processing theory.

45
  • a. Piaget proposed 4 stages of cognitive
    development
  • sensorimotor,
  • preoperational,
  • concrete operational and
  • formal operational
  • suggested we actively construct our understanding
    of the world

46
  • Cognitive understanding involves organization
    (deciding how to separate ideas and describe how
    the ideas relate to each other) and
  • adaptation (adjusting to environmental demands).
  • Each stage is age-related and characterized by a
    distinct way of thinking that is qualitatively
    different from thinking in other stages.

47
  • Description of Piagets cognitive stages
    1)sensorimotor
  • birth to 2 years
  • coordinate sensory experiences with physical
    motor or muscle responses

48
  • 2)preoperational
  • 2-7 years
  • represent world with words, images and drawings
  • lack ability to perform operations
  • internalized mental actions
  • allow child to accomplish mentally what could
    previously be done only physically.

49
  • 3)concrete operational
  • 7-12 years perform operations involving objects
  • reason logically when reasoning applied to
    specific or concrete examples.

50
  • 4)formal operational
  • from 11-15 through adult life
  • think in abstract and logical terms
  • develop images of ideal circumstances used for
    comparison with reality
  • think about future possibilities

51
  • Formal operations more systematic in problem
    solving compared to earlier stages
  • develop hypotheses about why something happens
    and test hypotheses.

52
  • b. Vygotskys sociocultural cognitive theory
  • believed child actively constructs knowledge
    about the world
  • emphasized effects of social interaction and
    culture
  • believed child development inseparable from
    social and cultural activities

53
  • Vygotsky proposed cognitive development involves
    learning to use social inventions such as
    language, math, memory strategies
  • believed social interaction with skilled adults
    and peers essential to cognitive development
  • learn through social interaction to use tools
    needed for adaptation and success in a particular
    culture.

54
  • c. Information processing theory
  • emphasizes manipulating and monitoring
    information
  • developing strategies about information
  • propose a gradually increasing capacity for
    processing information
  • allowing a person to acquire increasingly complex
    knowledge and skills

55
  • IP theory proposes people perceive, encode,
    represent, store and retrieve information while
    thinking
  • important to learn effective information
    processing strategies.

56
  • C. Behavioral and social cognitive theories
  • development described in terms of behaviors
    learned through interaction with the environment.

57
  • a. behaviorism
  • study scientifically only what we directly
    observe and measure
  • examples
  • Skinners operant conditioning
  • Banduras social cognitive theory

58
  • 1)Skinners operant conditioning theory
  • consequences of behavior produce changes in
    probability of behavior occurring
  • behavior followed by reward more likely to occur
    later
  • behavior followed by punishment or no
    consequences less likely to occur in the future

59
  • Skinners key to development behavior rather
    than thought and feelings
  • emphasize development as pattern of behavioral
    changes resulting from rewards and punishment.

60
  • 2)Banduras social cognitive theory
  • propose behavior, environment and
    personalcognitive factors key to development
  • emphasize cognitive processes important link to
    environment and behavior
  • early focus on observational learning(imitation
    or modeling)
  • we learn by observing others

61
  • Banduras cognitive link to observational
    learning person representing behavior
    cognitively or mentally and
  • adopting the observed behavior

62
  • most recent model of social cognitive theory has
    3 elements
  • behavior, personal cognition and environment
  • person develops while experiencing confidence
    about controlling success in life
  • based on cognitive strategies learned and used.

63
  • D. Ethological theory
  • stresses behavior influenced by biology and
    genetics
  • behavior characterized by critical periods or
    sensitive periods
  • or special time frames associated with the
    absence or presence of experiences having lasting
    influence on the persons development.

64
  • Examples Konrad Lorenz and John Bowlby
  • Lorenzs critical period is important for
    imprinting very early in life as with baby geese.
  • Sensitive periods similar to Bowlbys idea of a
    time period in the life of human infants.

65
  • 1) Konrad Lorenz promoted ethology
  • the study of animal behavior with emphasis on the
    behavioral patterns that occur in natural
    environments.

66
  • Lorenz studied behavior of greylag geese who
    follow mother soon after hatching
  • Lorenz separated a group of eggs from one mother
    goose

67
  • Group A eggs were returned to mother goose for
    hatching and care
  • these baby geese later behaved as expected
  • Group B eggs were hatched in an incubator and saw
    mother Lorenz immediately after hatching

68
  • later all baby geese placed in a box with a lid
  • when lid was lifted Group A babies headed for
    mother goose as expected

69
  • Group B babies headed for motherLorenz
  • Lorenz called the process imprinting, a rapid
    innate learning involved in attachment to the
    first moving object viewed after hatching.

70
  • 2) John Bowlby proposed important application of
    ethology to development
  • suggested a childs attachment to caregiver
    during first year of life is important influence

71
  • if attachment is positive and secure, future
    development is likely positive
  • if attachment is negative and insecure, future
    develop likely characterized by problems.

72
  • E. Ecological theory emphasizes environmental
    factors effect on development

73
  • 1. Bronfenbrenners ecological theory
  • development reflect effects of 5 environmental
    systems

74
  • a. microsystem setting in which person lives,
    such as family, peers, school, neighborhood
  • most direct interaction with social agents such
    as parents, teachers and peers
  • person helps to construct developmental setting

75
  • b. mesosystem
  • Controls relations between microsystem and
    connections between contexts
  • example relationship between family and school
    or school and church

76
  • c. exosystem links between social setting where
    individual is not active and persons immediate
    context
  • example childs experience at home influenced
    by moms experience at work

77
  • d. macrosystem
  • culture in which individual lives
  • Includes behavior patterns, beliefs and products
    of a group shared among different generations and

78
  • e. chronosystem
  • pattern of environmental events and transitions
    over life course
  • plus sociohistorical circumstances
  • examples divorce as transition
  • recent increased career opportunities for women
    as sociohistorical circumstances.

79
  • Recent addition of biological influences has
    resulted in bioecological theory,
  • heavy emphasis on ecological influences.

80
  • F. Eclectic theoretical orientation
  • All theories together form a more complete
    picture of development.
  • Psychoanalytic theories best at explaining
    unconscious mind.

81
  • Eriksons theory best to explain adult
    development.
  • Piaget and Vygotsky information processing
    theory best to explain cognitive development.

82
  • Behavioral and social cognitive ecological
    theories best to explain environmental
    influences.
  • Ethological theory best to explain effects of
    biological factors and influence of sensitive
    periods.

83
  • Course textbook best described as eclectic in
    orientation.

84
7. Describe 3 features of research in development
  • A. 5 methods for collecting data,
  • B. 3 research designs
  • C. 3 time frames for research

85
  • A. Methods for collecting data
  • 1)observation must be systematic
  • know what you are looking for
  • know when, where and how to make observations and
    how to record observations
  • where to make observations in laboratory or
    everyday life

86
  • observe scientifically in controlled conditions
    in laboratory
  • drawbacks to lab
  • unnatural setting,
  • participants aware of observation,
  • people willing to come to lab may not be typical
    -?

87
  • participants could be intimidated by lab setting
  • naturalistic (everyday life) observations
  • eg observing parents and children in science
    museum with no attempt to control or influence
    behavior.
  • Observations easier to relate to typical
    experiences

88
  • 2) surveys and interviews
  • ask people directly
  • survey or questionnaire using standard set of
    questions
  • useful to get information on wide range of
    information -?

89
  • Difficulty with surveys and interviews
  • people tend to give what they consider socially
    acceptable answers.

90
  • 3)standardized tests
  • uniform procedure for administering and scoring
  • allow comparison with other people
  • gives information about individual differences
  • example Stanford-Binet intelligence test (Ch 7)
    -?

91
  • Criticism of standardized tests
  • assume behavior is consistent and stable
  • however, personality and intelligence, commonly
    studied using standardized tests, can vary with
    situation or setting.

92
  • 4) case study
  • In-depth study of single individual or a few
    individuals
  • provides information for a specific person or a
    small group such as a family
  • information can come from interviews and medical
    records -?

93
  • cautious about generalizing to other individuals
    or families
  • unknown reliability.

94
  • 5. physiological measures
  • often used to study development at different
    times during lifespan
  • example blood levels of hormones in adolescence,
    early, mid and late adulthood -?

95
  • also neuroimaging such as functional Magnetic
    Resonance Imaging (fMRI) ?
  • use electromagnetic waves to construct images of
    brain tissue and biochemical activity.

96
  • 3 research strategies
  • 1. descriptive - all methods previously listed
    can be used in descriptive studies
  • cannot be used to support cause and effect or to
    predict behavior
  • can be source of extensive information

97
  • 2. correlational
  • helps to predict how people will act, think, and
    feel in the future
  • goal describe relationship between 2 or more
    variables
  • example ask if children of permissive parents
    are likely to show decreased self-control -?

98
  • analyze data statistically using correlation
    coefficient (number ranging from 1.00 to -1.00)
  • positive number indicates variables are related
    in the same direction
  • negative number shows variables are related in
    opposite direction -?

99
  • higher number shows stronger relationship and
    better prediction
  • lower number shows weaker relationship and worse
    predictions.

100
  • 3. Experimental research
  • experiment is carefully controlled procedure
  • can determine cause and effect relationships

101
  • 2 types of variables
  • Independent?
  • (controlled by experimenter
  • is a potential cause
  • manipulated by experimenter independently of
    other variables) and-?

102
  • dependent ?
  • (can change in the experiment in response to the
    independent variable
  • dvs are measured for potential effects).

103
  • Example
  • study whether meditation could cause newborns
    sleeping and breathing patterns to change
  • Group A moms meditate and Group B moms do not
    then-?

104
  • study newborns breathing patterns from both
    groups to see whether there is a difference to
    test the hypothesis

105
  • 2 types of groups
  • Experimental-?
  • (receives the experimental treatment) and
  • Control?
  • (does not receive experimental treatment
  • provides a baseline comparison level)

106
  • random assignment to experimental and control
    groups important
  • reduces effects of experimenter bias and
    participant expectations.

107
  • C. 3 Time spans or Time frames of research
  • cross-sectional
  • longitudinal,
  • cohort effects

108
  • 1. cross-sectional
  • compares several groups of participants of
    different ages at same time
  • example study 3 groups of children, ages 5, 8
    and 11
  • can be compared using variety of independent and
    dependent variables such as IQ, memory or peer
    relationships -?

109
  • advantage
  • economical in time, money and effort

110
  • drawback no information about stability and
    change across time in factors studied for
    individual participants
  • 2. longitudinal same individuals studied over a
    certain period of time, such as 5, 10 or 20
    years
  • gives information about stability and change for
    individuals as well as influence of early
    experience for later development

111
  • drawbacks
  • expensive and time-consuming
  • participants may drop out for variety of reasons,
    creating a source of positive or negative bias.

112
  • 3. cohort effects
  • cohort is group of people born at similar point
    in time
  • share similar experiences
  • example live through Korean, Vietnam or Middle
    Eastern war
  • shared experiences result in range of differences
    compared to other cohorts -?

113
  • Cohort effects result from time of birth, era or
    generation
  • not necessarily related to actual age.
  •  

114
8. How can research designer make sure the
research is ethical?
  • Important to know rights of research
    participants, whether you are experimenter or
    participant
  • proposed research studies at colleges and
    universities must meet standards imposed by
    research ethics committees

115
  • American Psychological Association has
    established important ethical guidelines
  • research participants should be protected from
    mental and physical harm.

116
  • 4 important issues
  • a. informed consent (know what research involves
    and possible risks)
  • b. confidentiality (keep all data confidential
    and, if possible, completely anonymous)

117
  • c. debriefing
  • (after study discuss purpose of research and
    methods used)
  • d. deception
  • (if deception used, ensure deception will cause
    no harm
  • afterward tell participants about the nature of
    the study).

118
LIFESPAN CHAPTER 2 BIOLOGICAL BEGINNINGS
119
  • 1. What ideas do the stories of the Jim and Jim
    twins and the giggle sisters illustrate about
    genetic heritage and biological factors effect on
    development?

120
  • A. Jim and Jim, separated at birth, demonstrate
    the effects of genetic similarity. Similar jobs,
    vacations, cars, pet names, wife names, personal
    habits, and physiological symptoms.

121
  • B. Daphne and Barbara (giggle sisters) also
    separated in young infancy, also showed similar
    characteristics.
  • C. Can other factors cause similarities? twins
    share some experiences as well as genes.

122
  • 2. What are features of the evolutionary
    perspective?
  • A. Natural selection and adaptive behavior -?
    natural selection process by which individual in
    a species best adapted survive and reproduce

123
  • Charles Darwin suggested struggle for food, water
    and resources occurs among young because some
    dont survive
  • survivors who reproduce pass genes to next
    generation
  • those best adapted to survive leave more
    offspring

124
  • B. Evolutionary psychology
  • emphasizes importance of adaptation, reproduction
    and survival fittest in shaping behavior
  • fit ability to bear offspring who are capable
    of surviving to have offspring of their own

125
  • natural selection favors behavior that increases
    reproductive success
  • David Buss (2008) suggests evolution influences
    decisions, aggressive tendencies, emotions and
    mating choices
  • example among a culture of hunters and
    gatherers, those who hunted needed certain
    physical traits as well as cognitive abilities
    to be successful hunters

126
  • successful hunters could have passed these
    traits to their offspring.

127
  • C. Developmental evolutionary psychology
  • application of evolutionary psychology to
    understand development
  • extended human childhood evolved because humans
    required time to develop large brains and learn
    about human society

128
  • many psychological mechanisms are domain
    specific,
  • applying only to specific aspects of individual
    makeup, such as information processing
  • the idea that mind is not a general purpose
    device
  • specific information processing skills developed
    contributing to ancestors task success

129
3. What are some features of the genetic
foundations of development?
  • A. Genetic process
  • begin life as single cell
  • contains genetic code
  • nucleus of each cell contains chromosomes, made
    of DNA
  • genes are short segments of DNA which direct
    cells to reproduce cells and assemble proteins

130
  • hormones circulate in the blood and activate or
    deactivate genes
  • hormone flow also influenced by environmental
    conditions such as light, nutrition and behavior

131
  • B. Genes and chromosomes 3 processes-? 1.
    mitosis,2. meiosis and 3.fertilization.
  • 1. mitosis regular cells (all except sperm and
    eggs) reproduce by mitosis, cells nucleus
    reproduces itself and creates exact duplicate
    with 46 chromosomes

132
  • 2. meiosis reproductive cells (sperm and egg)
    duplicates chromosomes then divides again,
    resulting in 4 cells, each with 23 chromosomes
  • 3.fertilization egg and sperm join to form a
    single cell or zygote
  • each parent contributes ½ the genetic
    information

133
  • chromosome structure for males and females differ
    at 23rd chromosome pair-? male, XY and female, XX

134
  • C. Sources of variability
  • combining genes of 2 parents results in increased
    variability
  • provides more characteristics for natural
    selection

135
  • 3 sources of variability
  • 1)chromosomes in the zygote not exact copies of
    parent chromosomes
  • in forming sperm and egg, pairs of chromosomes
    are separated
  • later which chromosomes in each pair go to the
    sperm or egg is random

136
  • 2)variability from DNA
  • sometimes random effects resulting from mistakes
    in cell metabolism or environmental damage lead
    to mutated genes
  • 3)differences between genotype (complete genetic
    potential) and phenotype (observable
    characteristics)

137
  • D. Genetic principles
  • 1)dominant and recessive genes
  • dominant genes influence phenotype even when only
    one gene present
  • recessive genes require presence of both genes
    for the trait to be observed. -?

138
  • examples of dominant traits
  • brown hair and far-sightedness
  • Recessive traits
  • blonde hair and near-sightedness

139
  • 2)sex-linked genes
  • most mutated genes are recessive
  • if mutated gene is on X chromosome, trait is
    X-linked with different implications for males
    and females
  • males have only one X chromosome, so the harmful
    gene may lead to an x-linked disease-?

140
  • females have 2 X chromosomes so healthy gene is
    more influential
  • more males than females tend to have x-linked
    diseases
  • example of x-linked disease more of problem for
    males is fragile X syndrome.

141
  • 3)polygenic influence
  • some traits reflect the influence of several
    genes, not just one
  • examples are height, weight, and intelligence

142
  • 4. Chromosome and gene-linked abnormalities
  • a. chromosome abnormalities

143
  • abnormal number of chromosomes
  • (Down syndrome
  • cause of MR and certain physical features
  • usually caused by extra copy of chromosome 21
  • round face, flattened skull, extra fold of skin
    on eyelids
  • retarded motor and mental abilities )

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  • sex-linked chromosome abnormalities
  • (mostly involve extra X or Y chromosome
  • or missing X chromosome in females
  • Klinefelters syndrome- males are tall and have
    enlarged breasts and extra X chromosome XXY

145
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • X chromosome constricted or sometime in pieces
  • results in lower level intelligence or learning
    disability

146
  • Turner Syndrome
  • in females missing X chromosome
  • X0 instead of XX
  • short height webbed neck skin math
    difficulties verbal ability usually good
  • XYY males with extra Y chromosome no reliable
    psychological characteristic pattern

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  • 5. Gene-linked abnormalities
  • defective genes
  • a)phenylketonuria (PKU) not process
    phenylalanine properly
  • recessive trait
  • easily detected in newborns
  • illustrates genotype/phenotype differences

148
  • b)sickle cell anemia
  • most often in African Americans
  • impairs red blood cells
  • RBC shaped like sickle or hook
  • cannot carry oxygen and dies quickly

149
  • c. other examples
  • cystic fibrosis,
  • diabetes,
  • hemophilia,
  • Huntington Disease,
  • spina bifida, and
  • Tay-Sachs Disease.

150
4. Heredity and Environment Interaction Features
  • A. Behavior genetics
  • seeks to discover influence of heredity and
    environment on individual differences in human
    traits and development
  • Uses study of twins and adopted children

151
  • twin study -
  • compares behavioral similarity of identical
    twins with that of fraternal twins
  • if behavior or trait is more similar in identical
    twins, can conclude trait has stronger genetic
    basis

152
  • adoption study
  • studies whether behavioral or psychological
    characteristics of adopted children are more
    similar to those of adopted parents or biological
    parents.

153
  • B. Heredity-environmental correlations
  • involve heredity-environment correlations or
    influence of genes on environments to which
    exposed
  • 3 types of heredity-environment correlations

154
  • B1. passive genotype-environment correlation
  • biological parents provide rearing environment
    for their children
  • (intelligent skilled readers provide environment
    that enhances reading skills)

155
  • B2. evocative genotype-environment correlation
  • childs characteristics elicit certain type of
    environmental stimulation
  • smiling children receive more social stimulation
    than children who dont smile

156
  • B3. active genotype -environment correlation
  • children seek out stimulating environments
  • example, outgoing children actively seek out
    social contexts to interact with people

157
  • C. Epigenetic view
  • development results from ongoing, mutual
    interchange between heredity and environment.
  • Example baby inherits genes from both parents
  • before birth, toxins, nutrition and stress can
    influence development and -?

158
  • make some genes stronger and other genes weaker
  • during infancy heredity and environment continue
    to act together to influence genetic activity as
    well as nervous system activity

159
  • D. Conclusions about heredity and environment
  • relative contribution of H and E is not additive
  • there is a no certain percentage contribution
    from H and a certain percentage from E
  • genetic influence occurs throughout life, not
    just at conception

160
  • emerging view
  • complex behaviors have a genetic loading
  • or tendency to act/think/feel in certain ways
  • environment is also complicated, including
    parenting style, family dynamics, school and
    neighborhood quality.

161
  • 5. Prenatal development
  • begins when sperm and egg join in process of
    fertilization

162
5A. Course of prenatal development
  • 3 periods
  • 5A1.
  • germinal period
  • 2 weeks following conception
  • creation of zygote
  • cell division and
  • attachment to wall of uterus

163
  • cell division process- mitosis
  • cell specialization
  • (blastocyst or inner mass of cells becomes the
    embryo
  • trophoblast or outer layer of cells provides
    nutrition and support
  • implantation (attach to uterine wall 10-14 days
    after conception.

164
5A2. embryonic period
  • 2-8 weeks after conception
  • cell differentiation intensifies
  • support systems develop and organs form

165
  • 3 layers of cells develop from blastocyst
  • endoderm or inner layer gives rise to digestive
    and respiratory systems
  • ectoderm or outer layer becomes the nervous
    system, sensory receptors and skin parts
  • mesoderm or middle layer becomes circulatory
    system, bones, muscles, excretory system and
    reproductive system

166
  • life support systems from trophoblast
  • amnion, umbilical cord and placenta
  • amnion is a bag or envelope containing a clear
    liquid controlling temperature and humidity
  • umbilical cord, 2 arteries and a vein connect the
    embryo to placenta
  • placenta, a disk-shaped group of tissues made up
    of small blood vessels connecting embryo to
    mother -?

167
  • very close but not joined
  • in placenta, small molecules such as oxygen,
    water, salt, digestive waste pass back and forth
  • Larger molecules cannot pass back of forth

168
  • 5A3. fetal period
  • 2-9 months after conception
  • at 3 months, fetus is about 3 inches long weighs
    3 oz
  • can move arms and legs,
  • open and close mouth,
  • can distinguish features such as face, forehead,
    eyelids, nose and chin -?

169
  • genitals identify fetus as male or female
  • 4th month, mom can feel baby move
  • 5th month, 12 inches, close to 1 lb,
  • skin structures form such as toe nails, and
    fingernails
  • 6th month, eyes and eyelids formed
  • layer of hair on head -?

170
  • grasping reflex and irregular breathing present
  • 7th month, 16 inches, 3 lbs,
  • considered able to survive outside mother
  • last 2 months fatty tissues develop
  • functions of heart and kidneys increase
  • gains height and weight at birth, average
    American baby 7 ½ lbs 20 inches.

171
5B. Prenatal Tests,
  • include ultrasound,
  • chorionic villus sampling,
  • amniocentesis,
  • maternal blood screening

172
5B1. ultrasound
  • usually at 7 weeks and other times
  • noninvasive
  • high frequency sound waves directed toward
    mothers abdomen
  • echoes from these sound waves transformed into
    visual representations of babys internal
    structures -?

173
  • can detect structural abnormalities such as
    microcephaly (very small brain).
  • 5B2. chorionic villus sampling
  • 10-12th week
  • screen for genetic defects and genetic
    abnormalities
  • tissue sample from placenta analyzed results in
    10 days

174
5B3. amniocentesis
  • 15-18 weeks
  • sample of amniotic fluid analyzed for chromosome
    or metabolic disorders
  • later tests more accurate
  • earlier tests more useful to plan pregnancy
    small risk of miscarriage

175
5B4. maternal blood screening
  • identifies elevated risk for birth defects such
    as spina bifida or Down Syndrome

176
5C. Infertility and Reproductive Technology
  • 10-15 couples experience difficulty conceiving a
    child after 12 months regular intercourse
  • cause may be associated with womans failure to
    ovulate,
  • blocked fallopian tubes
  • or mans lack of sperm or low-mobility sperm

177
  • surgery can correct some problems
  • Also hormone therapy is possible
  • in vitro fertilization may also be used (egg and
    sperm combined outside the other

178
5D. Hazards to Prenatal Development
  • 5D1. General Principles
  • 5D1a. teratogens
  • anything that could potentially cause birth
    defect or damage cognitive or behavioral
    outcomes
  • include drugs, incompatible blood types,
    environmental pollution, infectious diseases,
    nutrition problems, maternal stress or parental
    age

179
  • 3 characteristics of teratogens
  • higher more intense dosage has greater effect
  • type and severity of abnormality linked to
    genotype of mother and baby
  • time of exposure has different effects,
    depending on whether occur at certain points in
    developmental sequence

180
  • damage during germinal period can prevent
    implantation
  • exposure during embryonic period has higher risk
    of structural defect early in this period.

181
5D2. prescription and non-prescription drugs
  • examples include
  • antibiotics like streptomycin and tetracycline,
  • antidepressants,
  • hormones such as progestin and synthetic
    estrogen
  • nonprescription drugs such as diet pills and
    aspirin.

182
5D3. psychoactive drugs act on mothers nervous
system
  • alter states of consciousness,
  • modify perception and
  • change moods
  • Examples caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, cocaine,
    methamphetamine, marijuana and heroin.

183
  • caffeine results in small risk for spontaneous
    miscarriage and low birth weight
  • alcohol can result in fetal alcohol syndrome with
    facial deformities, defective limbs, likely
    cognitive deficiencies
  • nicotine can result in premature birth, low
    birthweight, fetal and neonatal death,
    respiratory problems and sudden infant death
    syndrome

184
  • cocaine use can result in reduced birth weight,
    length, and head circumference,
  • impaired motor performance,
  • lower arousal,
  • less effective self-regulation,
  • higher excitability at 1 month,
  • attention deficit and learning disability in
    school

185
  • methamphetamine is a stimulant
  • can speed up the nervous system, resulting in
    higher infant mortality, low birth weight,
    developmental and behavioral problems

186
  • marijuana use by mother can result in memory and
    information processing deficiencies
  • depressive symptoms and be associated with later
    drug use by the child

187
  • heroin can result in withdrawal symptoms such as
  • tremors, irritability, abnormal crying, disturbed
    sleep, and impaired motor control.

188
5D4. Incompatible blood types
  • differences in surface structures of red blood
    cells associated with different blood groups
    (A,B, O and AB) and
  • Rh factor if present, individual is Rh and if
    absent, individual is Rh-.

189
  • If Rh- woman conceives with Rh man,
  • babys blood type may be Rh.
  • Mothers immune system will produce antibodies
    that will attack the babys RBCs.
  • First baby will be ok later children
    increasingly at risk

190
  • serum (Rhogam) given to mom will prevent
    producing the antibodies
  • blood transfusion either before or after birth
    also possible.

191
5D5. maternal diseases
  • Viruses can cross placental barrier,
  • rubella or German measles causes highest risk in
    3-4th week of pregnancy
  • vaccine possible for mom

192
  • syphilis
  • more damage 4 mos after conception
  • damages organs after formation
  • eye and skin lesions, if present at birth cause
    problems in central nervous system and
    gastrointestinal tract

193
  • genital herpes,
  • baby infected if exposed to virus in moms birth
    canal or vagina
  • AIDS, sexually transmitted syndrome caused by
    virus that destroys bodys immune system
  • infection possible 3 ways, -?

194
  • A. during gestation across placenta,
  • B. during delivery if exposed to mothers blood,
  • C. after birth through breast feeding
  • effects for baby 1)infected and shows symptoms,
    2)infected and shows no symptoms, 3)not infected

195
5D6. Maternal diet and nutrition
  • developing baby depends on mom for nutrition from
    moms blood
  • total calories and intake of proteins, vitamins
    and minerals
  • if mom overweight, higher risk of still birth and
    neonatal death

196
  • folic acid or B-complex vitamin
  • lack linked to neural tube deficits leading to
    spina bifida, a potentially fatal defect in
    spinal cord development

197
5D7. Emotional states and stress
  • intense fears, anxieties and other emotions
  • increased adrenaline in mothers body restricts
    blood flow to uterus and lowers available oxygen
    for baby

198
5D8. maternal age
  • especially adolescence and 35 can lead to still
    birth and higher infant mortality
  • link to Down Syndrome
  • older mothers have higher risk for babies with
    low birth weight, premature birth and fetal death.

199
5D9. paternal factors
  • exposure to lead, radiation, pesticides and other
    chemicals
  • Can result in sperm abnormalities
  • diet low in Vitamin C can lead to increased birth
    defects and cancer
  • cocaine use can result in male-related
    infertility

200
  • older fathers can have children with increased
    risk of Down Syndrome, dwarfism and Marfan
    syndrome.

201
5D10. Environmental hazards
  • radiation,
  • toxic wastes, and
  • chemical pollution with potential effects on eggs
    and sperm

202
5E Prenatal care
  • involves regular schedule of visits for medical
    care,
  • screening for manageable conditions and treatable
    diseases
  • comprehensive educational, social and nutritional
    services.

203
6. Birth and Postpartum Period
  • 6A. Birth process 3 stages
  • 6A1a stage 1
  • uterine contractions
  • 15-20 minutes apart
  • last up to 1 minute
  • cervix stretches and opens -?

204
  • contraction rate increases to 2-5/minute
  • intensity increases
  • at end of stage 1 cervix opens to about 4 inches
  • lasts about 12-24 hours for first pregnancy 8
    hours for later births

205
6A1b stage 2
  • babys head moves into vagina
  • ends when baby is completely out
  • contractions come faster, about 1/minute
  • lasts 1 ½ hours to 45 minutes.

206
6A1c stage 3
  • afterbirth
  • placenta, umbilical cord and other tissues
    expelled, lasts a few minutes.

207
6A2 child birth setting and attendants
  • in US mostly in hospitals
  • also home delivery and free-standing birth
    centers
  • assistance usually from physicians
    (obstetricians), commonly males

208
  • in US fathers usually present
  • other cultures, men may be excluded
  • midwives common throughout the world, less common
    in US
  • doula a caregiver providing physical, emotional
    and educational support to the new parents

209
6A3. Methods of childbirth
  • a. medication can involve analgesia, anesthesia,
    and oxytocics
  • analgesia relieves pain,
  • examples tranquilizers, barbiturates and
    narcotics

210
  • anesthesia,
  • used late in first stage and while baby is coming
    out to block sensation or consciousness
  • epidural block numbs body from waist down

211
  • oxytosis,
  • synthetic hormone used to stimulate contractions
  • most common, pitocin
  • predicting drug effects difficult, depends on
    type of drug and dosage level.

212
6A3b natural and prepared childbirth
  • aims to reduce pain by decreasing fear through
    education
  • teaches breathing and relaxation strategies
  • Lamaze special breathing techniques to control
    pushing in final stages.

213
6A3c. other non-medication techniques
  • water birth,
  • massage
  • acupuncture.

214
6A3d. cesarean delivery
  • surgical delivery used if baby is turned so
    bottom would come out first
  • or baby is crosswise in uterus
  • Also if babys head is too large to move through
    pelvis opening
  • Or if complications exist or mother is bleeding
    vaginally.

215
6B. Transition from fetus to new born
  • stress for baby
  • if long delivery, possible decreased oxygen
    (anoxia)
  • can lead to brain damage
  • usually managed by increased levels of adrenaline
    and noradrenaline.

216
  • after birth,
  • umbilical cord is cut and baby can breathe
    independently.
  • Apgar scale is administered to measure
    neurological health signs at 1 minute and 5
    minutes after birth.

217
  • Apgar scale evaluates heart rate, breathing,
    muscle tone, skin color, and reflex irritability.
  • If total score is 7-10, baby considered to be in
    good condition
  • if 5, possible problems
  • if 3 or less, emergency medical attention is
    needed.

218
  • Low birth weight less than 3 lbs
  • extremely low birth weight less than 2 lbs.
  • Premature or preterm born 3 weeks or more before
    pregnancy reaches full term (35 or fewer weeks).

219
  • Small for date or gestational age
  • weight below normal, considering length of
    pregnancy
  • weigh less than 90 of all babies of same
    gestational age
  • may be preterm or full term.

220
  • Causes of low birth weight most but not all are
    preterm (66)
  • Consequences of low-birth weight
  • usually have more health and developmental
    problems than babies of average birth weight.
  • More likely to have attention deficit, learning
    disability and breathing problems.

221
  • Kangaroo care
  • hold baby so skin-to-skin contact
  • breast feeding on demand
  • helpful in treating preterm infants
  • often results in stabilizing heart beat, body
    temperature and breathing rate.

222
  • Massage therapy
  • stroking with palms of hands,
  • 3 times daily for about 15 minutes
  • seems to benefit preterm babies,
  • resulting in increased weight gain, discharge
    from hospital 3-6 days earlier than without
    massage therapy.

223
  • Bonding
  • special component of parent infant relationship
    forming connection,
  • especially physical bond between parents and
    children
  • extreme form of bonding hypothesis that close
    contact during first few days of life is
    required not supported

224
  • for some infant-mother pairs,
  • (preterm infants, adolescent mothers, and mothers
    in disadvantaged circumstances)
  • early close contact important in establishing
    improved interaction after leaving hospital.

225
  • Postpartum period
  • time after child birth
  • lasts about 6 weeks until mothers body has
    adjusted and returned to nearly pre - pregnant
    state
  • mothers body must adjust physically and
    psychologically to childbearing process
  • family-centered approach can be helpful

226
  • Physical adjustment
  • energy levels can be variable
  • hormone levels and production (estrogen and
    progesterone)drop after placenta is delivered and
  • remain low until ovaries start producing hormones
    again

227
  • menstrual flow resumes in 4-8 weeks if not breast
    feeding
  • if breast feeding, menstrual flow resumes in
    several months to a year
  • Involution uterus returns to pre-pregnant size,
  • usually in 5-6 weeks
  • drop in uterus weight from 2-3 lbs to 2-3 ½ ozs.

228
  • Conditioning exercises help mothers body return
    to pre-pregnant contours and strength
  • relaxation exercises also helpful during
    postpartum period.

229
  • Emotional and psychological adjustment
  • emotional highs and lows common in postpartum
    period
  • some womens emotions stabilize faster than
    others
  • about 70 of mothers experience some form of
    baby blues including feeling depressed, anxious
    and upset

230
  • may last from 2-3 days after birth through 1-2
    weeks
  • postpartum depression major depressive episode
    can occur at about 4 weeks after childbirth
  • Mothers have trouble coping with daily tasks
  • if not treated, can last for many months

231
  • Fathers also experience postpartum adjustment
    issues
  • may feel baby comes first and receives most of
    mothers attention
  • may feel baby has taken their place in mothers
    affections
  •  

232
  • parents should set aside special time for
    themselves to be together
  • helps if father participates in pre-birth classes
    and
  • is active participant in caring for the baby.

233
ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS?
  • BE SURE TO READ CHAPTER 3 IF YOU HAVE NOT ALREADY
    DONE SO

234
LIFESPAN CHAPTER 3 DISCUSSION
  • PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY

235
LIFESPAN CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE
DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY
  • 1. Physical growth and development in infancy
    patterns of growth and development
  • cephalocaudal patterns
  • sequences in which early growth occurs from top
    to bottom
  • physical growth and differentiation of features
    works from top to bottom

236
  • sensory and motor development also follows this
    pattern

237
  • proximodistal pattern
  • growth starts at center of body and moves toward
    the extremities
  • height and weight
  • at birth average north American baby 20 inches
    long and weighs 7 ½ lbs -?

238
  • first several days, lose 5-7 of body weight,
    before adjusting to feeding by sucking,
    swallowing and digesting
  • gain 5-6 oz per week
  • double birth weight by 4 mos and 3x birth weight
    by age 1

239
  • grow about 1 inch/month
  • 1 ½ birth length by age 1.
  • by 2 years, 26-32 lbs 32-35 inches tall

240
  • Brain
  • extensive brain development during infancy and
    later
  • protect babys head from falls and other
    injuries

241
  • shaken baby syndrome brain swelling and
    bleeding

242
  • brain development
  • does not mature uniformly during infancy
  • can be described in terms of sections or lobes
  • frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal -?

243
  • each section has a left and right counterpart
  • 2 halves of brain or hemispheres are not
    identical in anatomy or function.

244
  • lateralization
  • specialized function in one or the other
    hemisphere
  • specialization in hemispheres begins at birth
  • Example, greater electrical activity in left
    compared to right side when listening to speech
    sounds

245
  • language primarily processes on left side
  • complex functions require cooperation of left and
    right sides of the brain.

246
  • changes in brain cells or neurons
  • nerve cells made up of bundles of fibers for
    handling information
  • 2 types of fibers
  • dendrites carry information toward the cell body
  • axons carry information away from cell body
    (where nucleus and DNA are)

247
  • terminal buttons at ends of axons
  • release neurotransmitters or chemicals into the
    synapses or small gaps between neurons

248
  • neurons change in 2 important ways
  • a. myelination (covers n
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