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Topical Review: Colonial Era to 1800

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Title: Topical Review: Colonial Era to 1800


1
Topical Review Colonial Era to 1800
2
Political (Colonial Era 1763)
  • European Renaissance
  • The Reformation
  • Quest for Empire
  • Spanish
  • French
  • British
  • Dutch
  • Chesapeake Colonies
  • Great PuritanMigration

3
Political (Colonial Era 1763)
  • Colonial governments
  • How democratic?
  • How innovative?
  • Founding documents?
  • New England Confederation (1643-1654)
  • English Civil War
  • Proprietary and Restoration Colonies
  • Salutary Neglect
  • Trend towards centralization of Empire
  • Dominion of New England
  • Obstacles in America
  • Glorious Revolution in America
  • Georgia buffer colony

4
Economic (Colonial Era 1763)
  • Mercantilism
  • Expectations
  • Impact
  • Navigation Acts
  • Tobacco Culture of Chesapeake
  • Headright system
  • Indentured servitude/slavery
  • Economic diversity of New England
  • Cereal grain and livestock in Middle Colonies

5
Social/Cultural (Colonial Era 1763)
  • Regional distinctions and similarities
  • Environment economy and health (geographic
    determinism)
  • Religious backgrounds (cultural transference)
  • Democratic/deferential
  • Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)
  • Religious declension Halfway Covenant (1662)
  • Ethnic diversity
  • Enlightenment
  • Great Awakening

6
Military/Diplomatic (Colonial Era 1763)
  • Spanish Armada (1588)
  • Imperial Wars/North American Wars
  • King Williams War (1689-1697)
  • Queen Annes War (1702-1713)
  • King Georges War (1739-1748)
  • Indian Wars
  • Powhatan Massacre (1622) (347, 1/3rd die) (1644)
  • Pequot War (1637)
  • King Philips War (1675-1676) (1 in 20 die)
  • French and Indian War/Albany Plan of Union

7
Puritanism
  • John Calvin/Calvinism as inspiration
  • Doctrines
  • Reasons for Migration
  • Goals of Puritans
  • Great Migration
  • Values
  • Demise
  • Great Awakening
  • Revivalism/Itinerant Ministry
  • Impact
  • Successful?

8
The Enlightenment
  • Foundations in Scientific Revolution
  • Descartes and Reason
  • Intellectual underpinnings
  • Intellectual freedom
  • Locke and the tabula rasa
  • Natural law
  • Deism
  • Impact on America

9
Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to
England
  • Prior to 1763
  • Desire to centralize Empire
  • Governors
  • Proprietary Colonies
  • Trend to Royal Status by 1770s
  • Dominion of New England (1686-1689)
  • Board of Trade and Plantations (Privy Council)
  • Mercantilism
  • Failure to centralize (Salutary Neglect)
  • Distance
  • Global Nature
  • Problems at home and abroad (Wars for
    Empire/English Civil War/Glorious Revolution)
  • Frontier/rural conditions and foreign immigrants
    in America

10
Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to
England
  • II. By 1750
  • Colonists maturing politically, economically, and
    socially/culturally
  • Representative assemblies
  • 2 million people
  • Identity/unity?
  • Overall, Colonists still happy with English
    Empire
  • Some resentment toward second class citizenship
  • Some resentment of debt to British bankers

11
Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to
England
  • French and Indian War increases tensions
  • British concerns
  • American concerns
  • 1763
  • British expect to enforce mercantilism
  • British expect to centralize empire
  • British expect to raise revenue in America
  • Americans resist British expectations
  • Reasons
  • Methods
  • Colonial Unity

12
Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to
England
  • British Reaction
  • Parliamentary supremacy
  • Repeal of Stamp Act
  • Repeal of Townshend Acts (except Tea)
  • Punishment of Massachusetts
  • Rebellion is consequence of failure on part of
    colonists to obtain desired reform and on
    Britains failure to accept federalism and
    reality
  • Lexington and Concord
  • Second Continental Congress and Declaration of
    Independence

13
Colonial Expansion
  • Positives
  • West represents adventure, opportunity and
    freedom
  • Land is abundant landliberty/social mobility
  • Religious dissenters find tolerance and absence
    of church authority
  • Hard work (individualism and self reliance key to
    success)
  • Result America is more tolerant, democratic, and
    mobile

14
Colonial Expansion
  • Negatives
  • Poor transportation and communication
  • Life is hard, conditions are primitive
  • Indian menace
  • French hostilities
  • Speculators
  • East/West tension over representation, land
    policy, taxes, protection (Bacon, Leisler,
    Regulators, Paxton Boys)
  • Result unity is difficult

15
Colonial Expansion
  • British close frontier in 1763
  • Treaty of Paris
  • British motive
  • American reaction
  • During Revolution
  • Western tribes fight with Britain
  • Treaty of 1783 fixes border at Mississippi
  • Confederation Era
  • Western land policy major accomplishment of
    Articles
  • Land Ordinance of 1785
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

16
Colonial Expansion
  • Western states begin empowering more white males
  • Shayss Rebellion shows East/West tensions not
    solved
  • Government under Articles cannot
  • Force British out of forts (encourage Indian
    hostilities)
  • Get spain to sign treaty allowing access to
    Mississippi River or right of deposit at New
    Orleans
  • New Constitution creates more powerful federal
    government
  • Pinckney Treaty, 1795
  • Whiskey Rebellion, 1794

17
Democracy in America 1750-1776
  • How democratic were the colonies?
  • Democratic
  • Distance from England allows for autonomy and
    local control
  • New England town hall meetings
  • Colonial assemblies
  • American environment allowed for more mobility
    and democracy
  • Americans more tolerant
  • Impact of Great Awakening
  • Impact of the Enlightenment
  • American Revolution

18
Democracy in America 1750-1776
  • How democratic were the colonies?
  • Not very democratic
  • Patriarchy
  • Slavery
  • Poor are disfranchised
  • Deference, especially in South
  • South less democratic (ex. North Carolina)

19
Topical Review 1763-1800
20
Political (1763-1800)
  • Political expectations of mother country/British
    system of government
  • Political motives for Revolution
  • Writs/privacy
  • Admiralty courts/jury
  • Denial of right to tax without representation
  • Sugar, Stamp, Townshend, Tea
  • Republicanism/self government

21
Political (1763-1800)
  • Methods of American Resistance
  • Written letters, pamphlets, editorials,
    resolutions
  • Threats, intimidation, violence
  • Organizations
  • Sons/Daughters of Liberty Stamp Act
    CongressContinental Association Committees of
    Correspondence First and Second Continental
    Congresses
  • Boycott
  • Galloway plan/Olive Branch Petition
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Creation of state/federal governments
  • Process similarities radical/conservative
    victories

22
Political (1763-1800)
  • Government policy favors westward expansion
  • Shayss Rebellionsign
  • Federalist Era
  • Establishment of new government/precedents Bill
    of Rights Rise of Political parties Whiskey
    Rebellion Alien and Sedition Acts Kentucky and
    Virginia Resolutions
  • Rise of the two-party system (because domestic
    and foreign policy issues)
  • Judiciary Act 1789
  • Washingtons Farewell Address
  • Demise of the Federalists
  • Revolution of 1800

23
Economic (1763-1800)
  • Economic motives of mother country
  • Economic motives for Revolution
  • Economic problems during Confederation Era
  • Shayss Rebellion debt interstate rivalries
  • Class/economic/geographic divisions between
    federalists and anti-federalists
  • Economic Interpretation of the Constitution
    Beard
  • Hamiltons Program Four main parts/opposition
    response
  • Whiskey Rebellion
  • Cotton Gin

24
Social/Cultural (1763-1800)
  • How revolutionary was the Revolution?
  • Blacks women common men
  • How united/how American?
  • Literature during period
  • Deism
  • Meritocracy/natural aristocracy

25
The Constitution of 1787
  • Reasons for
  • No enforcement
  • Weak congress and military
  • Inability to amend
  • Debt/state rivalry
  • Who went to Philadelphia
  • Conservatives nationalists American leaders
    wealthy/elite
  • The Debate
  • Virginia Plan vs. New Jersey Plan Connecticut
    Plan/Great Compromise/Roger Sherman

26
The Constitution of 1787
  • The Document
  • Powers delegated
  • Powers denied states
  • Federalism
  • Separation of Powers
  • Checks and Balances
  • Republican government/virtue of people
  • Ratification debates
  • Federalists vs. Anti-federalists
  • The Federalist Papers
  • Bill of Rights

27
Democracy in America 1760s-1800
  • Does the Revolutionary Era greatly change
    America? (How revolutionary or radical?)
  • Democracy as concern for individual, natural
    rights and self-government
  • Yes
  • Radical patriots want more democracy at home and
    home rule
  • State constitutions reflect fear of centralized
    authority
  • Lower property requirements for voting (ex. Mass)
  • Increased religious freedom
  • Enlarge and empower lower branch of legislature

28
Democracy in America 1760s-1800
  • Appoint or elect more humble upper house (no
    blood ties natural aristocracy)
  • Weaken executives (or get rid of!)
  • Lower or abolish primogeniture and entail
  • Make titles illegal
  • Expand public education (esp. in NE)
  • Include bills of rights
  • Women vote in New Jersey
  • Northern abolition of slavery southern
    manumission
  • Radicals establish weak central government want
    local control, distrust distant authority
  • Articles
  • No executive or courts No tax or regulation of
    commerce Weak congress Weak military Article
    II
  • States are empowered

29
Democracy in America 1760s-1800
  • No America not more democratic after 1776
  • Radicals make no legal provisions for women, free
    blacks, or slaves
  • No alleviation of East/West tension
  • Counterrevolution? of 1787 checks radical
    revolution of 1776 (Beard)
  • Stronger federal government
  • Check of mob democracy protect interests of
    elite
  • But, all desire republican government
    virtue/more faith lies within the people
  • Democratic ratification process
  • Bill of Rights
  • Revolution of 1800

30
Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities
(1750-1800)
  • Women
  • Expanded role on frontier
  • Ratio in South still reflects gender imbalance
  • Legal code favors men everywhere
  • No vote no property ownership once married
  • Model traditional role in more established areas
  • Republican Motherhood (white, middle/upper
    class)
  • Overall more choices more options than English
    women
  • Remember Abigail Adams Judith Sargent Murray

31
Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities
(1750-1800)
  • Blacks
  • Slaveryultimate human degradation
  • 750,000 slaves
  • Only blacks/Indians
  • Legal in all colonies before 1776
  • Frowned upon by Quakers
  • Not economic necessity in North, so fewer
  • 1776 tobacco market unstable and egalitarianism
    raised questions
  • Willing manumission closing of African Slave
    Trade (1774 in RI all by 1786) Northern
    Abolition
  • No state in south will abolish
  • Few win freedom for fighting in Revolution as
    promised

32
Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities
(1750-1800)
  • Blacks
  • Slavery not used in Constitution
  • 3/5s Compromise
  • 1808 abolition of slave trade
  • Fugitive slave provision
  • Indians
  • Fought in imperial wars and Revolution
  • Capitalized on European rivalries offered trade
    and hunting lands
  • Iroquois British Algonquin French
  • Pontiacs Rebellion
  • Fear of land encroachment causes tribes to fight
    against Americans in 1776
  • After independence not citizens foreign
    entities encroachment continues

33
Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities
(1750-1800)
  • Non-Anglo immigrants
  • Scots, Scots-Irish, German, French Huguenots
  • Most settle in Middle Colonies or backcountry
  • Many disfranchised
  • Non-Protestant discrimination is high

34
Development of Black Culture in Slavery
  • General factors
  • West African heritage language, traditions,
    religion retain some practices
  • Congo Square in New Orleans Sunday meetings
    permitted (in other urban areas too)
  • Autonomy on larger plantations gather and
    sustain traditional practices
  • Rebels Stono (1739) Gabriel Prosser (1800), Nat
    Turner (1831), Denmark Vessy (1822), Amistad
    (1839)
  • blending influence with English, French, Spanish
    language, culture, religion

35
Development of Black Culture in Slavery
  • Family
  • Emphasis on informal family arrangements
  • Community on large plantations families aided by
    others, children cared for by all
  • Children raised primarily by mothers (breakup of
    family)
  • Broken up often keep contact, reunite after Civil
    War
  • Naming traditions of giving families different
    names than the imposed by slave owner

36
Development of Black Culture in Slavery
  • Music
  • Instruments brought from Africa (banjo, fiddle,
    mandolin, gourds, drums also clapping and free
    body expressions and dancing
  • Gospels, hymns, and spirituals evolve while
    working in field and expression of resistance and
    protest Creole or pidgin English
  • Picked up practices from white churches and urban
    settings
  • Blues and jazz evolved out of slave music

37
Development of Black Culture in Slavery
  • Oral Traditions
  • Heavy reliance developed spread by conjurers and
    shamans thought to have spiritual or magical
    powers
  • Prohibitions of teaching literacy
  • Large plantations, slaves able to meet especially
    in evening used to disseminate oral traditions
    and belief in liberation
  • Creole, pidgin English, Gullah dialect distinct
    language variations
  • Used folk tales and Bible to tech lessons about
    surviving under oppression

38
Development of Black Culture in Slavery
  • Religion
  • Some brought from Africa and practiced in America
  • Blending traditions (voodoo), with Christianity,
    especially where slaves attended white churches
  • Free black preachers, rebel leaders,
    abolitionists formed Society for the Propagation
    of the Gospel in Foreign Parts
  • Black churches begun in urban areas
  • Presented Christianity as demanding subservience
    and obedience, but interpreted as message of
    liberation
  • Understood Christ as ministering to the poor and
    oppressed not the rich and oppresive

39
Topical Review 1800-1860
40
Political (1800-1860)
  • Trend towards increasing democracy
  • Jeffersonian Jacksonian (symbol of common
    man/changes electoral politics)
  • Era of Good Feelings
  • Jacksonian/Antebellum Reform
  • Temperance prison/asylum education utopian
    communities women abolition Transcendentalism
  • Rebirth of two party system
  • Spoils System/nominating conventions/rotation
  • Nullification Crisis Webster-Hayne Debate
  • Manifest Destiny/Indian Removal/Trail of Tears
  • Increasing nationalism/increasing sectionalism
  • Reasons/examples/impact

41
Economic (1800-1860)
  • Violations of American shipping
  • Reasons/results
  • American reaction to War of 1812
  • Tariff (1816) Second BUS rise of
    manufacturing/decline of commerce
  • Overall prosperous why?
  • Expansion King Cotton population growth and
    urbanization in North increasing technology
    (coal, improved transportation canals,
    steamboats and rail at end of era, telegraph
  • Lowell, Waltham Mills putting out
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt 1842

42
Economic (1800-1860)
  • Jackson as anti-monopoly/special interest
  • American System (Clay, Whigs)
  • Tariffs of 1828,1832, 1833, 1846
  • Marshall court to 1835
  • Taney court pro states rights (Charles River
    Bridge v. Warren River Bridge)
  • Killing of the BUS
  • California Gold Rush
  • Economic Sectionalism
  • Panics 1837, 1857

43
Social/Cultural (1800-1860)
  • Rise of public schools and private universities
    instill American values
  • Literary nationalism and romanticism Irving,
    Cooper, Longfellow, Fireside poets
  • Transcendentalism
  • Individualism self-reliance non-conformity
    intuition
  • Know God through nature
  • Active in abolition and other reforms
  • Emerson, Thoreau
  • Intellectual Independence

44
Social/Cultural (1800-1860)
  • Second Great Awakening
  • Finney, Channing Unitarianism
  • Response to rationalism and deism
  • Perfectibility of man
  • Art is romantic too
  • Hudson River School reflects nature, noble
    savage natureawesome
  • Frederic Church, Audubon Society
  • Theater/minstrel shows popular
  • Rise of Mormons (1830, NY)
  • Joseph Smith, Killed in Nauvoo, IL
  • Brigham Young, Mormon Trek, 1847 (perfectibility)

45
Social/Cultural (1800-1860)
  • Nativism
  • Reaction to Irish and German immigration in
    1830s-50s
  • Know-Nothings (American Party)
  • Discrimination, especially against Irish
  • Urbanization slowly beginning poor conditions in
    cities

46
Civil War
  • Reasons for
  • Expansion led to tension over slavery expansion
  • States rights vs. Nationalism/federalism
  • Abolition movement led to tension over morality
    of slavery (Positive Good)
  • Economic and cultural divergence of North and
    South

47
Civil War
  • Key events leading to
  • Colonial economies, Declaration, Constitutional
    debates, political/economic and cultural
    sectionalism
  • Missouri Compromise 1820
  • Nullification Crisis 1832
  • Texas Annexation 1836-45
  • Mexican Cession 1848
  • Uncle Toms Cabin 1852, Slavery as it is (Weld),
    The Impending Crisis of the South (Helper)
  • Gadsden Purchase 1853/transcontinental
    railroad/Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854

48
Civil War
  • Key events leading to
  • Division of Democratic Party and rise of
    Republican party 1854-60 (sectional parties)
  • Bleeding Kansas/John Brown at Potawatomie
    Creek/Lecompton Constitution
  • Sumner/Brooks Affair
  • Dred Scott Decision 1857
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858
  • John Browns Raid 1859
  • Election of Lincoln 1860
  • Secession of South Carolina 1860, six others in
    early 1861, four others after Lincoln calls for
    75,000 volunteers in late 1861

49
Civil War
  • Key battles
  • Sumter border states Lincolns call for troops
  • Manassas
  • Shiloh
  • Antietam
  • Gettysburg
  • Atlanta
  • Wilderness-Appomattox
  • Trent Affair/British and French support
  • Emancipation Proclamation 1863

50
Topical Review 1875-1900
51
Political (1875-1900)
  • Republican domination (ex. Cleveland)
  • Lack of talent and integrity (Gilded Age,
    corruption/Grant and Credit Mobilier)
  • Controversial Election 1876/Compromise of
    1876/End of Reconstruction
  • Garfield Assassination
  • Pendleton Civil Service Reform 1883
  • Populist Party and platform
  • abolition of national banks, a graduated income
    tax, direct election of Senators, civil service
    reform, a working day of eight hours, Government
    control of all railroads, telegraphs, and
    telephones, free silver, federal storehouses for
    grain, the three Rs
  • Election of 1896 Democrats co-opt Populist
    platform and candidate

52
Economic (1875-1900)
  • Key is rising technology (see next topic)
  • Laissez-faire, ex. tariff (Republican,
    pro-business ascendancy)
  • Consolidation of businesses and farms
  • Rise of railroad industry (national economy)
  • Farmer discontent and revolt 1890s
  • Bland-Allison Act (Crime of 73)
  • Munn v. Illinois 1877/Wabash case 1886
  • Greenback Party 1878
  • Knights of Labor form in 1886/AFL in 1886
  • Standard Oil Trust forms 1882
  • Gold discovered in Alaska 1886
  • Rise of Farmers Alliance in 1886
  • Haymarket Riot 1886
  • Interstate Commerce Act/ICC 1887
  • McKinley Tariff 1890/Wilson-Gorman 1894/Dingley
    Tariff 1897

53
Economic (1875-1900)
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890, repealed 1893
  • Sherman Anti-trust Act 1890
  • 1895 U.S. v. E.C. Knight federal government
    cannot regulate big business Prevents government
    from directly regulating the economy until 1930s
  • Populist Party/Platform of 1892
  • Homestead Steel Strike 1892
  • Panic of 1873, 1893
  • Pullman Strike (and 1,400 others) 1894
  • Coxeys March 1894
  • Bryans Cross of Gold speech 1896

54
Industrial Revolution 1870s
  • Reasons For
  • Early Industrial Revolution of Antebellum Era
    causes rise of factory system and manufacturing
  • Transportation revolution and Civil War act as
    catalysts
  • Encouraged by government
  • Republican domination/laissez-faire favors but
    no regulation
  • Urbanization and immigration provide abundant and
    cheap labor
  • Technology (see list)
  • Change in business structures
  • Increased consolidation (horizontal and
    vertical)/trusts, holding companies
  • Professional management

55
Industrial Revolution 1870s
  • Results of
  • Economic growth
  • Economic industrial superpower
  • Increasing prosperity for most Americans,
    fortunes for some
  • Labor strife/organization
  • Reasons
  • Unions
  • Farmer discontent
  • Reasons for
  • Organization
  • Imperialism
  • Need for new markets and raw materials
  • World role/jingoism

56
Technology (1875-1900)
  • Typewriter 1875
  • Telephone 1875 (Bell)
  • Phonograph 1878
  • First electric current supplied in New York 1882
  • Dumbbell tenement 1879
  • Incandescent Light bulb 1879
  • Mechanical twine binder 1880
  • Brooklyn Bridge completed 1883
  • Westinghouse power land and transformer 1886
  • Adding machine 1889
  • Electric elevator 1889
  • Color photography 1890
  • Electric trolley 1892
  • Widespread use of earlier innovations telegraph,
    railroad (standard gauge, Pullman car,
    refrigerated car) Deeres plow McCormacks
    reaper barbed wire

57
Diplomatic (1875-1900)
  • Mahans Influence of Sea Power upon History 1890
  • Interest in Hawaii (1875-1898 annexed) Pearl
    Harbor 1887
  • Samoa Pago Pago
  • Wake and Midway Islands
  • Venezuelan Dispute 1895
  • U.S.S. Maine /de lome letter 1898
  • Spanish American War Cuba, Philippines, Puerto
    Rico 1898
  • Teller Amendment 1898, Platt Amendment 1901
  • Treaty of 1899
  • Emilio Aguinaldo defeated 1901
  • Open Door Notes 1899, 1900
  • Naval buildup begins 1883 continues in 1890s

58
Social/Cultural (1875-1900)
  • National Baseball League 1875
  • Red Cross 1881
  • Farmers Alliance/Grange 1886
  • Urbanization/Social Gospel Movement
  • Hull House, tenement house
  • Closing of the frontier (Turner, 1893) Oklahoma
  • Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia 1876
  • Salvation Army in US 1879
  • Statue of Liberty 1886 Lazaruss New Colossus
    1903
  • Washington Monument finished

59
Social/Cultural (1875-1900)
  • National Baseball League 1875
  • Red Cross 1881
  • Farmers Alliance/Grange 1886
  • Urbanization/Social Gospel Movement
  • Hull House, tenement house
  • Closing of the frontier (Turner, 1893) Oklahoma
  • Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia 1876
  • Salvation Army in US 1879
  • Statue of Liberty 1886 Lazaruss New Colossus
    1903
  • Washington Monument finished 1884
  • WCTU 1873
  • Anti-Saloon League 1895-1895
  • Public Libraries open in New York and Boston 1895

60
Literary (1875-1900)
  • REALISM
  • Twain Tom Sawyer 1875, Life on the Mississippi
    1876, Huckleberry Finn 1884
  • Helen Hunt Jackson A Century of Dishonor 1881
  • Henry James The American, 1877 Portrait of a
    Lady, 1881 The Bostonians, 1886
  • Henry Adams Democracy, 1880
  • Edward Bellamy Looking Backward 1888
  • Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives 1890
  • Mahan The Influence of Sea Power upon History
    1890
  • F.J.Turner The Significance of the Frontier on
    American History 1893
  • Stephen Crane The Red Badge of Courage 1895

61
Immigration (1875-1900)
  • New Immigrants
  • Southern and Eastern Europe
  • Italy the Balkans Russia
  • Catholic, Jewish
  • Cannot easily assimilate
  • The Orient (Angel Island)
  • Work on railroads of West
  • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
  • Gentlemens Agreement 1907
  • Ellis Island 1892

62
Women (1875-1925)
  • 1869 Wyoming is first to allow woman suffrage,
    Colorado 1893 Utah, Idaho 1896
  • 1869 AWSA and NWSA begin
  • AWSAStone NWSAStanton and Anthony
  • 1890 NAWSA
  • Literacy drives, conventions, parades, state by
    state campaign, speeches
  • 1890s Ida B. Wells campaigns against lynching
    in South (A Red Record 1895)
  • 1896 National Association of Colored Women
  • 1900-1917 Progressives join call for female
    suffrage to advance their goals

63
Women (1875-1925)
  • 1900s women (Gilman) attack traditional
    marriage call for economic independence
  • 1903 National Womens Trade Union formed
  • 1909 NAACP involves black women
  • 1912 Alice Paul returns from England calls for
    ERA
  • 1912 Paul starts NWP
  • 1915 Catt becomes president of NAWSA
  • 1919 Congress passes the 19th Amendment
  • 1920 19th Amendment ratified
  • 1920 NAWSA becomes League of Women Voters
  • 1925 first birth control information center
    opens (Sanger)

64
Blacks (1875-1900)
  • Reconstruction Governments and gains for free
    blacks role in government (Hiram Revels)
  • Crop lien and sharecropping
  • Civil Rights Act 1875
  • Civil Rights Cases 1883
  • Compromise of 1877 ends Reconstruction
  • Tuskegee Opens 1881
  • Segregation declared legal in Mississippi 1888
    (de jure Jim Crow)
  • Increase of lynching (1889-1899187) Wells
  • Atlanta Compromise 1895
  • Grandfather clause Louisiana 1895
  • Plessy v. Ferguson 1896

65
American Indians (1875-1900)
  • Sioux Wars
  • Little Big Horn 1876
  • Geronimo Surrenders 1886 (Apache)
  • Dawes Act 1887
  • Indian schoolsEnglish language 1887
  • Wounded Knee 1890 (Last Indian War)

66
Protest 1875-1925
  • Blacks
  • Segregation/lynching/Jim Crow and Plessy
  • Booker T. Washington and DuBois/Garvey/Harlem
    Renaissance
  • Populists and Progressives not committed
  • Labor and Farmers
  • Organizations
  • Grievances
  • Failure in 1890s followed recovery until after
    WWI
  • Women
  • Rise of suffragettes (goals and strategies)
  • Obstacles (internal and external)
  • 19th Amendment and impact
  • American Indians
  • Reservation Policy
  • Indian Resistance
  • Dawes Act and assimilation
  • Citizens after World War I (1924)

67
US Intervention in WWI
  • Isolationist tradition ends because of
  • A.Wilsonian idealism
  • 1.Democracy
  • 2.Moral Diplomacy
  • 3. 14 points include- self determination,
    freedom on sea, league- world peace
  • B. Violations of American neutrality
  • 1.British
  • 2.German- loss of American lives
  • 3. Unrestricted Submarine-warfare 1917
  • C.Allied propaganda
  • D. US economic interests
  • 1.Loans
  • 2. Supplies

68
1920-1925 Black History
  • Niagra Movement 1906
  • Race riots Texas, Atlanta 1906 Illinois 1908
  • NAACP formed 1909
  • Grandfather Clause adopted in 5 states 1910
  • KKK reorganized in Ga. 1915
  • Assoc. for Negro life History 1915
  • Garvey into Universal negro Improvement Assoc.
    1916
  • Race riots St. Louis 1917
  • Red Summer race riots 1918
  • Natl Liberty Cong. Of Colored Americans (asks
    for anti lynch laws-1918)
  • 70 blacks lynched 1919 Wilson refuses to sign
    anti-lynching legislation
  • ½ million blacks join the UNIA1922
  • Rosewood massacre 1923 (central Florida)
  • KKK up to 5 mil. 1925

69
1900-1925 Labor History
  • United Mine Workers strike 1902
  • National Women trade Union League started 1903
  • Intl Workers of the world 1905
  • Intl Ladies Garment Workers Union Strike 1909
  • Fire at Triangle Shirtwaist Co. (NY) 1911
  • Lawrence textile Strike 1912
  • War Labor Policies Board created 1918 (no strike
    pledge)
  • AFL strikes Steel Industry 1919
  • Boston Police Strike 1919
  • Coal Strike 1919
  • Palmer Raids- IWW 1919

70
Cultural- Social 1900-1925
  • Pan American expo 1901
  • Wrights Flight- Kitty Hawk NC 1903
  • La. Purchase expo 1904
  • Red Cross chartered 1905
  • 1st Model T 1909
  • Titanic sinks 1912
  • Daylight savings time adopted 1918
  • Regular Air Mail began 1918
  • United Artists established (Chaplin Fairbanks
    Pickford) 1919
  • Red scare began 1919 (Palmer Raids)
  • Harlem Renaissance 1920
  • Scopes Monkey Trial 1925

71
1900-1925 Immigrant history
  • 1906 Cali. segregates Asian kids in Schools
  • 1906 Japanese Immigration disallowed (gentlemens
    agreement)
  • 1913 Cali. bars Jap. Americans from owning
    property
  • 1917 Wilson vetoes act requiring literacy test
    for immigrant voters
  • 1920 Congress over-rides veto on Quota
    legislation
  • 1921 Emergency Quota Act
  • 1924 National Origins Act

72
1920s cont.
  • New consumer goods cars, radios, refrigerators,
    vacuums, advertising dem. of goods.
  • Blacks jazz Age Harlem Renaissance , they were
    the first fired after WW1, and KKK was reborn,
    Garveys Black Pride- (blacks back to Africa)
  • Red Scare- Sacco and Vanzetti
  • Isolationism reject role in WW1 league, want to
    protect America, insist on debt payment (Dawes
    Plan)
  • Washington naval Conf. disarm
  • Kellogg Briand- no war
  • Immigration Act- natl Origins
  • Commercial Entertainment- sports, Hollywood

73
1930s
  • 20th and 22st amendments
  • 1929 crashgt depression
  • Hoover- Moratorium debt, volunteerism- too little
    too late
  • FDR New deal 3Rs
  • 1st (1933) Bank Holiday AAA, PWA/CCC, NIRA,
    TVA
  • Fireside chats
  • 2nd (1935) Court Schemes WPA, Wagner (CIO
    forms), Soc. Security
  • Blacks first fired after WW1. Harlem Riotgt FEPC
    1941
  • Isolationism continues- preoccupied with debt/
    problems at home
  • Reciprocal trade Agreement- Free Trade
  • 1936 Sit ins at Flint GM plant creation of
    the UAW under Reuther

74
1930s cont.
  • Nye Committee/ Neutrality legislation, embargo
    (1935) cash carry (1937)
  • Appeasement (tow. Agg.)
  • Preparedness def. 1938 def. After Blitz
    Natl Defense Adv. Comm. 1940 Campaign limits
    FDRs ability to help Br. Until Wilkie approves
    1.Destroyer Deal 2. Selective Service ActLend
    lease has public support 1/ 41
  • Atlantic Charter in 8/ 41 (after Ger. USSR)
  • Pearl Harbor 1941
  • Indian reorg. Act
  • Big band EraSwing

75
1940s
  • Democrats in control in WH
  • WW2 Supplies Troops
  • Pearl harbor- Midway- Island hopping Hiroshima,
    Guadalcanal, Iwo Jima
  • N. African Italy
  • D day, 6/6/44
  • Bulge
  • V-E, V-J

76
1940s cont
  • Conferences Casa Blanca- uncond., Teheran-
    China, Yalta, Potsdam
  • Nuremberg Trials
  • Iron Curtain Increased
  • Korean War
  • Berlin Blockade
  • During above 3 1946, TD, M plan, Containment
    Policy, NATO increase 1949, arms race increases
    in 1949

77
1940s cont.
  • Support for freedom in Vietnam, Indochina,( Ho
    Chi Minh Communist nationalist
  • Fall of Chiang Kai-shek in China to Maos red
    China
  • Israel created (U.N)
  • America accepts global role(short of war)
  • See decrease in League/ App. As mistakes
  • Hear/see Soviet threat
  • Understand need for global econ. Need for raw
    materials and markets to keep the US economy
    prosperous.

78
1950s
  • Korean War
  • Alger Hiss/Rosenbergs
  • McCarthyism/2nd Red Scare/decline of McCarthy _at_
    Army hearings
  • Eisenhowers Dynamic Conservatism/Corporate
    Commonwealth (cooperation between interest
    groups)/not friendly towards strikes
  • AFL-CIO merge 1955
  • Interstate Highway ActFlight to suburbs
    (complacent, conformist, consumerism tvs and
    cars)

79
1950s
  • Massive Retaliation and the Domino Theory
  • No rescue at Dienbienphu support for Diem after
    Geneva Accords
  • Eisenhower Doctrine
  • Suez Canal Crisis
  • U-2 Spy plane (1960)
  • Sputnik 1957
  • Brown Decision
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott rise of SCLC
  • Little Rock Crisis 1957
  • Civil Rights Act 1957

80
1950s
  • Beat Generation Kerouac and Ginsberg
  • Elvis

81
1960s
  • Flexible response/détente
  • Bay of Pigs
  • Cuban Missile Crisis/Nuclear Test Ban
  • 2nd Berlin CrisisWall
  • Increase in money to Diem Diem Falls Gulf of
    Tonkin Resolution Operation Rolling
    Thunderincrease of ground troops Tet Offensive
    Vietnamization
  • Commission on Status of Women, 1961/Equal Pay Act
  • New Frontier
  • Peace Corps

82
1960s
  • Alliance for Progress
  • Great SocietyWar on Poverty (Education-VISTA
    Employment Medicare Head Start)
  • Civil Rights Act 1964, 1968 Voting Rights Act
    1965 24th Amendment 1964 Affirmative Action
    (1965-blacks 1967-women)
  • Sit-in movement/SNCC
  • Freedom Rides
  • Freedom/marches Birmingham 1963 DC 1963 Selma
    1965
  • Voter registration drives Freedom Summer (1964)

83
1960s
  • Assassinations JFK, 1963 Maclom X 1965 Martin
    Luther King, Jr. 1968 RFK 1968
  • Black Panthers (Carmichael, Newton, Seale, Brown)
  • Race Riots 1967-1968
  • Chicago Riot _at_ DNC
  • United Farm Workers/Chavez-1962
  • Feminine Mystique Friedan 1963
  • NOW 1963 Libbers and bra-burners ERA
    reintroduced in 1970

84
1960s
  • Anti-war movement New Left (SDS)
    Counterculture
  • Beatles, Dylan, etc./Woodstock
  • Immigration and Naturalization Act 1965
  • Land on Moon 1969
  • Détente/SALT I talks begin
  • Nixon and New Federalism (revenue sharing)
  • 6 day war in Middle East 1967

85
1970s
  • EPA established 1970
  • SALT I talks 1970
  • My Lai Massacre/Cambodia Invasion
  • Kent State Massacre broadens antiwar movement
  • American troop withdrawal March 1973
  • South Vietnam falls 1975
  • Election of 1972 Nixon v. McGovern silent
    majority
  • Watergate 1972-1974
  • China Visit 1972

86
1970s
  • Roe v. Wade 1973
  • SALT I 1972
  • OPEC Embargo/energy crisis 1973
  • Nixon Resigns 1974 Ford pardons
  • War Powers Act 1973
  • 1976 Election Carter (non-Washington man)
  • Creates cabinet Departments of Education and
    Health and Human Services
  • Human rights foreign policy
  • Camp David Accords

87
1970s
  • Iranian Hostage Crisis
  • SALT II 1979 (USSR invades Afghanistan/Olympics)
  • Bakke v. University of California 1978

88
1980s
  • Election of 1980/Reagan Revolution Are you
    better off than you were four years ago (used in
    84 too)
  • California governor national pride
  • End of hostage crisis (32 minutes into presidency)

89
1980s
  • Assassination attempt March 30
  • Reaganomics/tax cuts/deregulation/rollback of
    liberalism of 1960s and 70s/maintains core New
    Deal safeguards
  • Milton Friedman Free to Choose/Supply-side
  • Reformed SS solvent for later years
  • results in 16 million new jobs and reduced
    inflation

90
1980s
  • Air traffic controllers strike 1981 (11,359)
  • increased deficit military spending outspend
    Soviets/Evil Empire/SDI Star Wars
  • War on Drugs
  • A Nation at Risk
  • 1st female to Supreme Court (Rehnquist and Scalia
    too)

91
1980s
  • Tear down that wall 1989
  • Reagan Doctrine support freedom fighters in
    Afghanistan/Nicaragua/El Salvador
  • Iran-Contra Scandal
  • Election of 1988 George W. Bush
  • no new taxes

92
1990s
  • Manuel Noriega/Panama
  • Desert Storm/Desert Shield
  • Collapse of USSR 1991
  • START I
  • Begins NAFTA talks
  • Election of 1992 Clinton 1st Baby Boomer
    president

93
1990s
  • Clinton years see economic expansion
  • FMLA 1993
  • dont ask dont tell homosexuals allowed in
    military
  • NAFTA 1993
  • Brady Bill 5-day waiting period for handguns
  • Earned Income Tax Credit
  • Healthcare reform (nationalized) fails
  • Contract with America 1994
  • Increased minimum wage
  • Defense of Marriage Act

94
2000s
  • Bush v. Gore 2000
  • September 11
  • War on Terror/Afghanistan/Iraq
  • No Child Left Behind

95
Cultural 1920-1970
  • Mass entertainment 1920s
  • Collegiate sports growth
  • Film Chaplin, Bow, Valentino
  • Sportsboxing Dempsey, baseball Ruth
  • Lindberghs flight 1927
  • Gershwin- composer (popular)

96
Cultural 1920-1970 cont.
  • Artists Okeefe, Cassatt, Hopper, 1930s
  • Lind. Baby kidnapped 1932
  • Chicago world fair 1933
  • Film Stars of the 1930s Bogart, Temple
  • Sports Stars of 1930s Joe Lewis, Lou Gehrig
  • 1937 A. Earhearts last flight

97
Cultural 1920-1970 cont.
  • 1937 Golden Gate bridge
  • 1938 H. Hughes flies _at_ world in record time
  • 1939Gone With the Wind, and the Wizard of Oz
  • Film and music stars of the 1940s Nat King Cole,
    Duke Ellington, Joe DiMaggio, Ty Cobb
  • 1941 New York worlds fair
  • 1943 Casablanca
  • 1943 Penicillin introduced
  • 1943 Jitterbug, bebop, zoot suit
  • 1943 Frank Lloyd Wright famous architect
  • Stars of the 1950s M. Monroe, Sugar Ray Leonard,
    Rocky Marciano, Arnold Palmer, Elvis

98
Cultural 1920-1970 cont.
  • 1950 US (6 of worlds population) Owns 60 of
    all cars, 58 phones, 45 radios
  • 1951 Color TV introduced
  • 1955 National Review
  • 1954 Polio Vaccine
  • 1957 Beatnik movement (Kerouac) starts in
    California and spreads
  • 1960s heroes Vince Lombardi, J. Nicklaus, Mickey
    Mantle, The Beatles, Cassius Clay, Billie J.
    King, B. Streisand, K. Hepburn
  • 1960 85m TV sets
  • 1961 John Birch Society increasingly active

99
Cultural 1920-1970 cont.
  • 1962 environmental movement gains momentum
    (Silent Spring)
  • 1963 Andy Warhol (NY Guggenheim museum and pop
    art)
  • 1964 Hoffa found guilty ( for tampering, fraud,
    conspiracy) disappears in 1975
  • 1966 Mini skirts, twiggy twist
  • 1968-71 Campus unrest spreads (U of M U of Cal
    Kent State)
  • Monterey Pop Festival (1967) Woodstock (1968) -
    Hippies

100
Economic 1920-1970
  • Roaring Twenties increase of commercial
    entertainment advertising and credit new
    technology radio, appliances, cars
  • 1921 Melon as Secretary of Treasury tax cuts
    high tariffs laissez-faire deregulation
  • 1922 stock market boom
  • October 29, 1929 Black Tuesday
  • 1925 McNary-Haugen farm relief defeated
  • 1931 Moratorium on debt payment
  • 1932 Bonus March Hoover moves left (RFC, too
    little too late FDR campaigns on the 3 Rs)

101
Economic 1920-1970
  • 1933 First New Deal (100 days)
  • Bank Holiday (relief)Emergency Banking Act
    (relief)
  • CCC (relief), NIRA (recovery), AAA (recovery),
    FDIC (reform), TVA (Reform), FERA (relief
    priming the pump), HOLC (relief) SEC (reform)
  • 1934 increase of strikes
  • 1935 critics from R and L
  • 1935 2nd New Deal moves Left WPA (relief), REA
    (reform), NLRA (Wagner) (reform), and SS (reform)
  • 1936 AAA and NIRA unconstitutional
  • 1937 loses court packing but Court moves left
  • 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act 2nd AAA

102
Economic 1920-1970
  • Winter 37/38 recession (attempted to balance
    budget)
  • ND d/n end Depression or unemployment, transform
    capitalism except labor end poverty or
    redistribute wealth d/n address racial or female
    inequality (ex.FEPC)
  • Importance (1) new institutions that expand role
    of governmentminimum assistance to poor and
    unemployed protect rights of Labor stabilize
    the banking system building low-income housing
    regulate financial markets subsidizing
    agricultural production
  • (2) new political coalition for Democrats
  • (3) New Deal liberalism inspires and shapes Great
    Society

103
Economic 1920-1970
  • 1939-45 US manufacturing ½ of worlds
    manufactured goods supplies 25 of British
    military needs1945-47 demobilization
  • 1945-1960 Economic growth and consumerism
  • 1940s-50s population shift to sunbelt/suburbaniza
    tion
  • 1947 Taft-Hartley
  • 1948 Fair Deal expansion of social
    welfare/Keynesian Economics
  • 1953 Government lifts all wage controls
  • 1953 Eisenhower's Dynamic Conservatism stop
    momentum of New Deal
  • 1959 Ike invokes Taft-Hartley to halt steel
    strike

104
Economic 1920-1970
  • 1961 New Frontier blocked by conservative
    coalition NASA increased minimum wage
  • 1963 LBJs Great Society War on Poverty
    increases deficits
  • STAGFLATION
  • 1969 Nixons New Federalism 30billion back to
    states (decline of economy, unemployment,
    inflation, GNP, trade deficits) raises taxes and
    interest rates does not work

105
Political 1920-1970
  • 1920s Republican domination
  • 1932 FDR elected
  • 1933 20th and 21st Amendments
  • 1935 Long assassinated
  • 1936, 40 FDR reelected
  • 1940 Smith Act
  • 1941 OPA WPB established
  • 1944 FDR reelected
  • 1950 McCarran Act
  • 1951 22nd Amendment

106
Political 1920-1970
  • 1952, 1956 IKE (re)elected
  • 1960 JFK
  • 1961 23rd Amendment
  • 1962 Engel v. Vitale
  • 1963 LBJ
  • 1963 Abbington v. Schempp
  • 1963 Gideon v. Wainwright
  • 1964 LBJ reelected (Goldwater) Warren Report
    24th Amendment Tonkin Resolution
  • 1964 Escobedo v. Illinois
  • 1966 Miranda v. Arizona

107
Political 1920-1970
  • 1967 25th Amendment
  • 1968 Nixon elected/New Federalism (RFK riots
    at Chicago) AIP and Wallace
  • SDS and the Weathermen and the New Left
  • 1968 as a turning point
  • Political
  • Social/cultural
  • Vietnam

108
Political1945-1950
  • Truman / Fair Deal
  • Improved housing (success Housing Act, 1949)
  • Full employment
  • Higher minimum wage (success)
  • Better farm price supports
  • New TVAs
  • Extension of Social Security (success, Social
    Security Act, 1950)
  • Do nothing Congress Republicans/Dixiecrats
    (Thurmond)
  • Loyalty program
  • Alger Hiss
  • Whittaker Chambers, Witness
  • Cold War/Korean War
  • NATO/UN/Marshall Plan/Truman Doctrine/NSC-68/Natio
    nal Security Act CIA NSC (1947)
  • Point Four

109
Economic1945-1950
  • Postwar recession 1946-47 due to 33 postwar
    inflation
  • Strikes 1946 4.6 million workers strike
  • Taft-Hartley
  • Employment Act (1946)
  • government policy to promote maximum employment,
    production, and purchasing power
  • Servicemens Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights)
    and Veterans Administration (VA) (1944)

110
Social/Cultural1945-1950
  • increased movement 30 million/year divided
    families
  • Dr. Spocks The Common Sense Book of Baby and
    Child Care (1945)
  • Migration to the sunbelt jobs, better climate
    (air conditioning), lower taxes
  • 1963 CA becomes more populous than NY
  • Suburbanization
  • Baby boom graying of America, strains on
    Social Security
  • Red Scare McCarthyism/HUAC/Nixon
  • Gunnar Myrdal An American Dilemma (1944)
  • Jackie Robinson 1947
  • Truman administration report To Secure These
    Rights end of segregation in federal civil
    service and armed forces (1948)

111
Political1950s
  • Eisenhower/Dynamic Conservatism
  • Army-McCarthy Hearings (1954)
  • Operation Wetback (1954) 1 million Mexican
    illegal immigrants returned in 1954
  • Interstate Highway Act (1956)
  • National Defense Education Act (1957)
  • new look foreign policy rollback, massive
    retailation
  • 1954 Dienbienphu Ike gives aid to South
  • Eisenhower Doctrine Middle East
  • Use of CIA to initiate coups
  • NASA (1957)

112
Economic 1950s
  • Landrum-Griffen (1959)
  • First computers (1948)
  • Expansion of aerospace 1957 Boeings 707
  • 1956 white collar outnumber blue collar
  • Union membership peaked in 1954 at 35
  • Women enter workforce in unprecedented numbers
  • McDonalds (1949) Disneyland (1955)
  • Advertising/consumerism

113
Social/Cultural 1950s
  • Television Leave it to Beaver Ozzie and
    Harriet all Americans by 1960s
  • Sports represent population shift NY Giants to
    SF Brooklyn Dodgers to LA
  • Elvis
  • Marilyn Monroe
  • Playboy (1955)
  • National Review (1955)
  • Riesmans The Lonely Crowd (1950)
  • William Whyte The Organizational Man (1950)
  • Sloan Wilson The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit
    (1955)
  • John Kenneth Galbraith The Affluent Society
    (1958)

114
Social/Cultural 1950s
  • Beat Generation Kerouac On the Road, Ginsberg
    Howl
  • Salingers Catcher and the Rye
  • McCarthyism/ witch-hunts The Crucible
  • Gunnar Myrdal An American Dilemma (1944)
  • Jackie Robinson 1947
  • 1955 Rosa Parks/Montgomery Bus Boycotts
  • Brown v. Board (1954) NAACP/Marshall
  • Little Rock Crisis (1957) Orval Fabus
  • Civil Rights Act 1957 (Civil Rights Commission)
  • SCLC (1957)

115
Social/Cultural 1960s
  • Greensboro Sit-ins (1960)
  • SNCC (1960)
  • Friedans Feminine Mystique (1963)
  • Freedom Riders
  • James Merideth/University of Mississippi Kennedy
    uses troops to send to class
  • Birmingham, AL/Bull Connor
  • March on Washington (1963)
  • Medgar Evars (1963) Mississippi
  • Birmingham Baptist Church explosion (1963)
    killed four black girls

116
Social/Cultural 1960s
  • Civil Rights Act 1964
  • Twenty-fourth Amendment
  • Voting Rights Act 1965
  • Civil Rights Act 1968
  • Selma Marches (1965)
  • Black Power (Panthers, SNCC, Nation of Islam)
  • SDS/Port Huron Statement/Berkeley Free Speech
    Movement New Left (weathermen radical)
  • Hawks vs. doves 1968
  • Assassinations X (1965) RFK, Dr. King (1968)

117
Social/Cultural 1960s
  • sexual revolution free love counterculture
  • Stonewall Riots (1969)
  • Carsons Silent Spring (1962)

118
Political 1960s
  • 1960 Nixon/Kennedy Debates Kennedy elected
  • Ike warns of industrial-military complex (1961)
  • New Frontier ask not
  • Peace Corps
  • Medical reform
  • Education reform
  • Tax cut
  • Land on moon by 1970 (1969)

119
Political 1960s
  • Flexible response/McNamara Green
    Berets/advisers to Vietnam (1961)
  • Told South Vietnamese it was their war
  • Bay of Pigs(1961)
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) détente/peaceful
    coexistence
  • Alliance for Progress (Marshall Plan for Latin
    America)
  • Berlin Wall (1961-1989)
  • Kennedy Assassination (1963)

120
Political 1960s
  • Johnsons Great Society (1964) War on Poverty
  • Department of Transportation and Department of
    Housing and Urban Development
  • National Endowments for the Arts and Humanities
  • Education Head Start/Upward Bound
  • Medicare/Medicaid
  • Immigration and Nationality Act 1965
  • Escalation of Vietnam (1965) THIS NEEDS TO BE
    FINISHED BAILEY pp.938

121
The Jacksonian Period 1824-48 The Big Picture
  • Political politics more representative of
    common man expansion of democracy
  • Universal white manhood suffrage
  • Elections of 1824, 1828, 1832, 1836, 1840, 1844
    increased voter turnout
  • South Carolina Exposition (Calhoun)
    Nullification Crisis Webster-Hayne Debates
    (States rights vs. Federal power)
  • Electoral college direct election
  • Death of king caucus rise of national
    nominating conventions (Anti-Masonic Party)
  • Spoils system, rotation in office
  • Jacksons use of the veto (King Andrew I)

122
The Jacksonian Period 1824-48 The Big Picture
  • Political
  • Martin Van Buren Harrison Tyler Polk
  • Missouri Compromise and sectional tension over
    expansion of slavery Wilmot Proviso Texas
  • End of Era of Good Feelings return of the
    two-party system (Democrats and Whigs)
  • Workingmens Party
  • Social/Cultural reform displays democratic
    ideals
  • Indian Removal (IRA 1830 Cherokee Worchester
    Treaty of New Echota 1835 Trail of Tears)
  • Second Great Awakening and Jacksonian reform
  • Abolition
  • Prison
  • Asylum
  • Utopian communities

123
The Jacksonian Period 1824-48 The Big Picture
  • Second Great Awakening and Jacksonian reform
  • Abolition positive good argument
  • Prison
  • Asylum
  • Utopian communities
  • Temprance
  • Education (Mann and McGuffey Troy Female
    Academy, Mount Holyoke and Oberlin)
  • Womens suffrage
  • Mormonism/Millerites
  • Transcendentalism
  • Hudson River School (Art)
  • Burned Over District/circuit riders
  • Nativism
  • Health and sexual prudery as healthy Dr.
    Sylvester Graham
  • Turners Rebellion

124
The Jacksonian Period 1824-48 The Big Picture
  • Black Hawk War Seminole War
  • The cult of domesticity Goodeys Ladys Book
    Lowell Girls as exception
  • Economic make economy more fair for common man
  • Tariff of 1828 (Abominations) 1832
    (Nullification) 1833 (Compromise) 1846
  • The SBUS and Biddle and Clay Pet banks Specie
    Circular Panic of 1837 Independent Treasury
    (1840 abolished 1841 returned 1846)
  • Lowell Textile Mills Waltham System
  • American System and internal improvements
    Maysville Road Veto
  • Turnpikes and canals early railroads in East
    (BO) Erie Canal Cumberland Road
  • McCormicks Reaper Deeres plow interchangeable
    parts
  • Rise of Pacific markets (China, Japan and Clipper
    ships) Polk and CA
  • Marshall Court until 1836 Charles River Bridge
    v. Warren River Bridge (1837)
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt
  • Market Revolution economic sectionalism cotton
    gin

125
The Jacksonian Period 1824-48 The Big Picture
  • Foreign Policy
  • Manifest Destiny and domestic expansion
  • Webster Ashburton
  • Texas Oregon
  • Mexican War
  • Sectional tension over expansion of slavery

126
Reconstruction
  • Traditional historiography sordid
  • Modern historiography unsuccessful but laudable
  • Began during CW as how to reunite
  • 1863 Lincolns Ten Percent Plan
  • 1864 Wade-Davis pocket vetoed
  • April 1865 Congress out of session Johnson
    issued plan
  • Presidential Reconstruction (1865-1867) (Johnson)
  • Black Codes infuriate N. Republicans

127
Reconstruction
  • December 1865 Congress reconvenes
  • Radical Republicans Sumner and Stevens call for
    abrogation of Johnson governments
  • Call for new gover
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