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Biodiesel 101

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Biodiesel 101 Biofuels Moving Indiana Forward Merrillville, Indiana April 28, 2008 Presented by Hoon Ge Summary of Topics Making Biodiesel (Catalyst ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biodiesel 101


1
Biodiesel 101
  • BiofuelsMoving Indiana Forward
  • Merrillville, Indiana April 28, 2008
  • Presented by Hoon Ge

2
Summary of Topics
  • General info on biodiesel
  • Emissions
  • OEM stance on biodiesel
  • 2007 Engines
  • Biodiesel Supply Demand
  • BQ 9000 Fuel Quality
  • ULSD and Biodiesel benefits compatibility
  • Filter plugging sources
  • Good fuel housekeeping
  • Useful informational resources

3
Machinery Exhibit 1900 Worlds Fair
  • Rudolph Diesel demonstrated his compression
    ignition engine, which at the request of the
    French Government, ran on peanut oil.

www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/1900fair.html
- Jeffrey Howe
4
History of Biodiesel
  • Vegetable oils were used in diesel engines until
    the 1920's when engines began using diesel fuel

5
Biodiesel Defined
  • Biodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl
    esters of long chain fatty acids derived from
    vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100,
    and meeting the requirements of ASTM D 6751.
  • Biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel
    meeting ASTM D 6751 with petroleum-based diesel
    fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume
    percent of biodiesel.

6
Making Biodiesel
  • (Catalyst)
  • 100 pounds 10 pounds 10 pounds
    100 pounds
  • Triglyceride Alcohol Glycerin
    Mono-Alkyl Esters
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    _________
  • Soy oil Methanol
    Biodiesel
  • - Raw Vegetable Oil is NOT Biodiesel!
  • - Other biomass products arent Biodiesel
  • - Must meet ASTM D 6751

7
Biodiesel Raw Materials
  • Oil or Fat Alcohol
  • Soybean Methanol (common)
  • Corn Ethanol
  • Canola
  • Cottonseed Catalyst
  • Sunflower Sodium hydroxide
  • Beef tallow Potassium hydroxide
  • Pork lard
  • Used cooking oils

8
Biodiesel Attributes
  • High Cetane (avg. over 50)
  • Ultra Low Sulfur (avg. 2 ppm)
  • High Lubricity, even in blends as low at 1-2
  • High Energy Balance (3.2 to 1)
  • Low Agriculture Inputs Soybeans
  • 78 Life Cycle CO2 Reduction
  • Renewable, Sustainable
  • Domestically Produced
  • Reduces HC, PM, CO in existing diesel engines
  • Reduces NOx in boilers and home heating

9
Biodiesel ASTM D6751
  • Property ASTM
    Method Limits Units
  • Calcium Magnesium, combined EN 14538
    5 max ppm (ug/g)
  • Flash Point (closed cup) D 93
    93 min.
    Degrees C
  • Alcohol Control (One of the following must be
    met)
  • Methanol Content EN14110 0.2 Max
    volume
  • Flash Point D93 130 Min Degrees
  • Water Sediment D 2709 0.05 max. vol.
  • Kinematic Viscosity, 40 C D 445 1.9 - 6.0
    mm2/sec.
  • Sulfated Ash D 874 0.02 max. mass
  • Sulfur
  • S 15 Grade D 5453 0.0015 max. (15)
    mass (ppm)
  • S 500 Grade D 5453 0.05 max. (500)
    mass (ppm)
  • Copper Strip Corrosion D 130 No. 3 max.
  • Cetane D 613 47 min.
  • Cloud Point D 2500 Report Degrees C
  • Carbon Residue 100 sample D 4530 0.05 max.
    mass
  • Acid Number D 664 0.50 max. mg KOH/g
  • Free Glycerin D 6584 0.020 max. mass

10
Materials Compatibility
  • B100 may adversely affect some elastomers such as
    natural or nitrile rubbers over time.
  • Most elastomers used after 1993 are compatible
    with B100 (Viton/Teflon).
  • Blends (B20) effect is less or non-existent.
  • Normal monitoring of hoses and gaskets for leaks
    is sufficient with B20.
  • Consult with your parts supplier or
  • mechanical engineering partners.

11
Materials Compatibility
  • Biodiesel and biodiesel blends will form high
    sediment levels when in contact with the
    following metals
  • -Brass, Bronze, Copper, Lead, Tin and
  • Zinc
  • Biodiesel is compatible with
  • - Stainless Steel, Aluminum

12
Emissions
13
EPA HD Emissions Averages
14
Biodiesel and Global Warming
  • Closed Carbon Cycle CO2 Used to Grow Feedstock
    is Put Back Into Air
  • 78 Life Cycle Decrease In CO2
  • Energy Balance 3.24 to 1
  • Compression Ignition Platform 30 to 40 More
    Efficient Than Spark Ignition

15
Biodiesel Position with OEMs
  • Original Equipment Manufacturers
  • B100 Must Meet ASTM D 6751
  • Most OEM HQs have B20 experience
  • Wont void warrantee
  • Problems caused by the fuel are the
    responsibility of the fuel supplier
  • Want to see additional experience in the field
  • Higher blends OKd based on experience of OEM and
    their technology

16
2007 Engines
17
Engines Produced in 2007
  • EPA regulations require reduced sulfur in diesel
    fuel for engines built in 2007
  • 80 of highway diesel fuel must be ULSD (lt 15ppm
    sulfur) beginning june1, 2006
  • Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters
  • can eliminate 99 of solid particles
  • (soot metals) and eliminate
  • gt90 of semi-volatile
  • hydrocarbons.
  • Source EPA

18
Diesel Particle Filters (DPF)
  • Diesel particle filters (DPF) are found in all
    2007 model year diesel vehicles.
  • What possible advantages or disadvantages may
    result from using biodiesel blends in these
    engines?
  • The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
    has conducted a study in order to define these
    effects on DPFs.

19
Indicators of DPF Performance
  • Filter regeneration rate increased significantly
    when using blends as low as B5. Lower
    particulate temperature and less particulate
    input contributed.

Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particle Filter
Performance. National Renewable Energy
Laboratory, March 2006.
20
BiodieselSupply and Demand
21
Demand for Crude1 barrel (bbl) 42 gallons
(U.S.)
  • Globally about 80,000,000 bbl/day
  • Over 16,000,000 bbl of crude oil processedevery
    day in the US (650,000,000 gal/day)
  • 800,000,000 gal/day total product demand
  • 360,000,000 gal/day gasoline
  • 140,000,000 gal/day distillate
  • 68,000,000 gal/day jet fuel
  • Over 5 billion gallons of distillate fuel oil are
    imported each year
  • 150 U.S. refineries with capacities ranging from
    15 mbbl/day (600,000 gallons/day) to over 500
    mbbl/day (21,000,000 gallons/day and operate at
    90 capacity

22
Biodiesel Demand
23
If Every Trucker Used B2
The industry would utilize 761 million gallons of
B100 annually.
24
If Everyone Used B2
  • If every body using diesel fuels (on and off
    road) and home heating oil used 2 biodiesel then
    we would use 1.2 billion gallons of biodiesel
    each year.

25
Fuel Availability
  • Fuel available through direct shipment from over
    1,956 petroleum distributors nationwide
  • Over 1,234 retail filling stations nationwide
  • 648 locations are semi-truck accessible
  • Movement towards biodiesel at the terminal over
    158 terminals nationwide

26
  • Blending is occurring at over 40 terminals
    nationwide.
  • DOE has supported this effort.

27
Biodiesel Production Capacity
28
Production Locations (1/25/08)
29
Biodiesel Plants Under Construction and Expansion
(9/7/07)
30
Production Capacity by State (9/7/07)
31
BQ-9000Fuel Quality of Biodiesel
32
Fuel Quality
  • Fuel quality is of the utmost concern and
    importance to the biodiesel industry.
  • ASTM D 6751 is the specification for biodiesel
    fuels irrespective of the feedstock source and/or
    processing method.
  • National Quality Program (BQ-9000) Launched for
    Biodiesel Marketers and Producers
  • Look for BQ-9000 Certified Marketers Biodiesels
    Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval
  • Assures cradle-to-grave fuel quality

33
BQ-9000 Quality Assurance Program
Specifies requirements for a quality assurance
program where an organization needs to
demonstrate its ability to provide product that
meets ASTM D 6751 and applicable regulatory
requirements, and to address quality assurance
through the effective application of the
program HELPS ENSURE THAT END-USER IS GETTING
HIGH-QUALITY BIODIESEL!!
34
ALWAYS BUY PRODUCT FROM BQ-9000 CERTIFIED
PRODUCERS OR MARKETERS!!!
35
BQ-9000 Information Through the NBB
www.bq-9000.org
www.biodiesel.org www.nbb.org
Find information on the requirements for the
program and a list of accredited
producers/marketers on the NBB website.
36
Biodiesel and ULSDBenefits and Compatibility
37
Benefits Biodiesel and ULSD
  • Compatible with the compression ignition platform
    and with diesel fuel itself
  • Greatly enhances lubricity of ULSD
  • Compatible with 2007 diesel engine catalysts
  • Aids with ULSD conductivity issues
  • Reduces harmful emissions
  • Power and performance virtually unchanged
  • Seamless transparent with existing petroleum
    infrastructure, (liquid not gaseous)
  • Promotes national energy security
  • Renewable, non-toxic, green blend stock option

38
Properties of ULSD Biodiesel Blends
39
Lubricity
40
ULSD Lubricity
  • Sulfur compounds are natural lubricants in
    diesel.
  • ULSD regulations are causing major concerns with
    diesel engine performance.
  • ASTM lubricity requirement effective Jan 1, 2005
    for diesel fuels.
  • ASTM D 6079
  • High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) Wear
    Scar
  • Maximum 520 micrometers

41
Biodiesel Adds Significant Lubricity to ULSD
The average lubricity of Biodiesel blends compare
to lubricity additives.
42
Lubricity
Effects of Biodiesel on the Lubricity of Diesel
fuel.
43
Cold Flow Properties
44
CFPP Testing of ULSD Bio Blends
45
CFPP Testing of ULSD B2 blends with No 1 ULSD
46
Filter PluggingSources
47
Paraffin Wax
  • The material on these filters was solid until
    touched or warmed to room temperature, then it
    melted. Laboratory analysis showed this material
    was in fact paraffin/hydrocarbon in nature. The
    high level of paraffin material could be from the
    way ULSD is processed.
  • When the temperature of the fuel is at or below
    its cloud point, paraffin material will
    precipitate out and collect on the bottom of the
    tank.
  • As a point of note, when the heavy paraffin's are
    disturbed from the filters, they liquefy. The
    minor ingredients associated with biodiesel will
    not liquefy and require heat to go back into
    solution. Paraffin build-up does not come from
    biodiesel fuel.

48
Aromatic compound
Olefin Compound
H2
C6H6
C6H12
Cyclic, double bonds
Straight, double bond
n-Paraffin Compound
H2
C6H14
Straight, single bonds
Structures taken from www.chemfinder.com
49
Microbial Growth
  • Several filters showed high content of live
    microbial organisms or a build-up of dead
    microbial material. The filters with microbial
    contamination often had an odor different from
    the normal fuel smell.
  • MEG Corp believes that the lack of sulfur in
    biodiesel and ULSD aids in the build-up of such
    organisms since sulfur is a key component of many
    biocides and is a natural inhibitor of bacterial
    and fungal growth.

50
Bacteria
  • Breakdown all grades of liquid fuel.
  • Cause corrosion of metals, especially iron and
    steel.
  • Different species can survive with oxygen
    (aerobic) or without oxygen (anaerobic).
  • Plug fuel-system filters and lines, cause fuel
    gauge malfunctions, damage pumps and injectors,
    and feed on tank linings, hoses and coatings to
    obtain additional nourishment.

51
Bacteria
  • Grow better in warm climates because they are
    living organisms.
  • Climates does not just mean the temperature of
    the storage structure, but also heated fuel
    returns, which means it is warm all year long.
  • Usually present in high quantities.
  • Favorable conditions mean they can double their
    population every 20 minutes.

52
Bacteria
  • The level of contamination is hard to determine
    visually
  • 2 MILLION bacteria per milliliter have no effect
    on fuel clarity!
  • Or in other words
  • 8 Billion bacteria per gallon have no effect on
    fuel clarity!

53
Fungus
  • Hard to detect.
  • Fewer in number and less evenly distributed in
    the fluid than bacteria.
  • Tend to grow on solid surfaces.
  • - Build up on filters and in piping.
  • - Once established, the biomass will grow
    faster than a bacterial biomass.
  • Yeast are unicellular fungi.

54
Fungus
  • Larger than bacteria and do not reproduce as
    rapidly.
  • However, if only bacteria are killed suddenly
    (bactericide) there may be a rapid fungal bloom
    that is nearly impossible to control.
  • Can grow over a wide range of temperatures.
  • Grow quicker in summer with the higher ambient
    temperature, increased airborne contaminants and
    higher fluid temperature.

55
Where Do They Come From?
  • Air
  • Contains airborne microorganisms, yeast and
    mold spores, and dirt particles that can enter
    through tank vents.
  • Water
  • Water, unless sterilized, can contain a
    variety microorganisms.

56
Treatment and Prevention
  • Biocides
  • -Three major groups Fuel soluble, Water
    soluble, and Universally soluble.
  • -Need to be EPA registered and compatible with
    the lubricant.
  • Preventing Fuel Contamination
  • - Preventing contamination from air and water
    requires proper tank maintenance and cleaning

57
Icing of the filter
  • When there is excess free water in fuel, it can
    form ice on the filter and cause filter plugging
    in cold temps. When MEG Corp received filters
    which had been plugged but were clean and new by
    the time MEG Corp received them, it was concluded
    that the cause was likely icing which had since
    dissipated.
  • Since the temperatures of engines are warm, any
    moisture picked up within the engine can be
    brought back to the fuel lines. This moisture
    can freeze overnight in low ambient temperatures.

58
Oxidation
  • When MEG Corp received filters with a black and
    shiny surface but no microbial growth odor or gel
    or sediment, it was concluded they may be plugged
    by oxidation build-up.
  • Because many newer engines run at higher
    temperatures, there may be a black asphaltene
    type material collecting on the filter.
  • This phenomenon has been seen all around the
    country, often in newer engines.

59
Engines
  • Hot Fuel Return

New Technology delivers the unused fuel from the
engine block back to the fuel tank much
faster This hot fuel will cause degradation and
oxidation of the fuel, which in turn will plug
filters.
Hot
Hot
Coking Fuel
60
Monoglyceride Build-up
  • One filter tested positive for a concentration of
    saturated monoglyceride material.
  • Monoglyceride is one substance that can
    precipitate out of fuel if the glycerin levels
    are too high in the biodiesel used in the blend.

61
Quality Control
  • In 2006
  • 41 of B100 samples tested passed the D6751
    specification
  • In 2007
  • 89.6 of B100 samples tested passed the D6751
    specification
  • 100 of BQ-9000 certified fuel
  • Past all ASTM D6751 specifications

62
Troubleshooting Checklist
  • Paraffin Wax Temperature at or below cloud
    point
  • Microbial Growth Exposure to air and water
  • Icing of Filter Excess water in tank
  • Oxidation Hot fuel return to fuel tank
  • Monoglyceride Build Up Off specification of
    Total Free Glycerin

63
Tips forBiodiesel Handling
64
Tips for Biodiesel Handling
  • Buy biodiesel that meets ASTM D 6751. Buying
    from a BQ-9000 Accredited Producer/Marketer will
    help ensure quality.
  • If buying blended biodiesel, buy it pre-blended
    from the supplier.
  • Fuel tanks should be kept as full as possible to
    reduce the amount of air and water entering the
    tank.

65
Tips for Biodiesel Handling
  • Storage in on-site tanks should be limited to
    less than 6 months. The storage container should
    be clean, dry, and dark.
  • Copper, brass, lead, tin and zinc should not be
    used to store biodiesel.
  • Equipment with biodiesel blends in the fuel
    system should not be stored for more than 6
    months.

66
Tips for Biodiesel Handling
  • In the winter months, its important to use
    appropriate additives to ensure good
    winter-weather operability.
  • If any biodiesel is spilled, it is important to
    clean it up quickly. Pure biodiesel may remove
    paint from equipment.

67
Tips for Biodiesel Handling
  • When switching from diesel fuel to biodiesel
    blend, it may be necessary to change the fuel
    filter an extra time or two.
  • One outcome of improper handling of biodiesel may
    be microbial contamination.

68
Useful InformationResources
69
Educational Resources
  • BEN Biodiesel Education Network
  • Web-based resource specifically for petroleum
    marketers
  • Partnership between NBB/PMAA
  • www.pmaa.org
  • www.biodiesel.org

70
NBB Resources www.biodiesel.org
  • Technical Library
  • Biodiesel Bulletin
  • Informational Resources
  • Technical Resources
  • Educational Videos Available
  • On-line Database Spec Sheets

71
Other Biodiesel Resources
  • www.bbibiofuels.com
  • Biodiesel Magazine
  • A MUST HAVE magazine
  • Biodiesel Industry Directory On-Line

72
Biodiesel Help-line
  • Established to
  • Provide triage for fuel problems
  • problems not adequately addressed by
    distributors/producers
  • Diagnose/analyze/assist with problems from
  • customers
  • fleets
  • fuel distributors
  • Provide assistance through chemical analysis
  • Through the use of third party Lab
  • Help provide assistance to users to ensure the
    image/integrity of Biodiesel is maintained.

73
Contact Information
  • The National Biodiesel Helpline is
  • For when you cannot get help elsewhere.
  • Not meant for general guidance issues.
  • You should always begin by asking your fuel
    supplier, they will most likely be able to answer
    your question more accurately.

800-929-3437 952-473-0182
74
Questions
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