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Paper Manufacturing from Pulp to Market By: Mubarak A

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Paper Manufacturing from Pulp to Market By: Mubarak A. AlKhater CEO, Saudi Paper Group Date: 6 December 2009 AICHE, 6 Dec 2009 Le Meridian, Khobar, KSA – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Paper Manufacturing from Pulp to Market By: Mubarak A


1
Paper Manufacturing from Pulp to Market
  • By Mubarak A. AlKhater
  • CEO, Saudi Paper Group
  • Date 6 December 2009

AICHE, 6 Dec 2009 Le Meridian, Khobar, KSA
2
Corporate Introduction
  • Saudi Paper Group was established in 1989 in
    Dammam, KSA with production starting in 1992
  • Public Joint Stock Company, with operations
    covering Middle East North Africa
  • Main business units Paper Recycling, Paper
    manufacturing and converting (Paper, aluminimum
    foil, plastics packaging)
  • Markets served are global

3
Operations
Existing Mill
Existing Converting Plant
Existing Collection Plants
4
Consumer Products
5
TISSUE MANUFACTURING
a brief introduction
6
WHAT IS PULP?
  • Pulp is a cellulose fiber material, produced by
    chemical or mechanical means, from which paper
    and paperboard are manufactured. Sources of
    cellulose fiber include wood, cotton, straw,
    jute, bagasse, bamboo, hemp and reeds.
  • Pulp is a suspension of cellulose fibers in
    water.

7
TYPES OF PULP
  • Forest of the world contains a great number of
    species,which may be divided into two groups
  • 1. Coniferous trees (usually called SOFTWOOD)
  • Softwood cellulose fibres measure from about 2
    to 4 millimeters (0.08 to 0.16 inch) in length.
  • 2. Deciduos trees (usually called HARDWOOD)
  • Hardwood cellulose fibres measure from about 0.5
    to 1.5 millimeters (0.02 to 0.06 inch) in length.
  • The greater length of softwood fibers contributes
    strength to paper while the shorter hardwood
    fibers fill in the sheet and give opacity and
    smooth surface.

8
TISSUE PAPER MACHINE
  • A machine for manufacturing paper, such as
    tissue paper, includes a twin-wire former made up
    of a rotary forming roll and a pair of endless
    fabrics, each of which may be a wire or felt,
    lapped around the rotary forming roll to provide
    twin-wire web formation therewith. At the
    location where these endless fabrics travel
    beyond the forming roll they diverge from each
    other to define between themselves a diverging
    space where one of the endless fabrics has an
    upwardly directed surface on which the web is
    carried beyond the forming roll. This latter
    endless fabric carries the web to a press section
    where this latter endless fabric travels with the
    web through a first press nip of the press
    section defined between an inner press roll
    situated within the loop of the latter endless
    fabric and an outer press roll situated outside
    of the latter loop.

9
TISSUE PAPER MACHINE contd
  • This outer press roll is lapped by an additional
    endless fabric structure so that the web is
    situated at the first press nip between the
    latter additional fabric structure and the
    endless fabric which carries the web away from
    the forming roll. The web travels with the
    additional fabric structure around the outer
    press roll, to become detached from the endless
    fabric which carries the web away from the
    forming roll, and this outer press roll
    cooperates with a drying cylinder of a drying
    section of the paper machine to define therewith
    at least a second press nip.

10
TYPICAL TISSUE MACHINE FLOW DIAGRAM
CL BOX
Constant level box and supply pulp with uniform
pressure to refiner
Cy 0.2
Cy 4.0
SW REFINED PULP CHEST
SILO
Cy controller
CLOSED LEVEL BOX
Cy 4.5
SOFT WOOD PULPER
HIGH DENSITY CLEANER
Separate heavy impurities ie stone,metal,rope..
REFINER
Over flow
FAN PUMP
Fibre brushing to achieve strength
Stock recirculated water are mixed
Disintegrating purchased pulp
Cy 4.5
Cy 1
Cy 4.5
M/C CHEST
Final stage screening , separate shives and
other large size particles from pulp slurry
BLEND CHEST
BASIS WEIGHT VALVE
PRESSURE SCREEN
CL BOX
Blending fibers by ratio
Stock tank to keep m/c run stable
Precision control of pulp flow
HW PULP CHEST
LOW DENSITY CENTRY CLEANERS
Removing light dense particle sand,dirt,
ink,specks by centry fugal force
Cy 4
HARD WOOD PULPER
Cy controller
Cy 4.5
DE FLAKER
M/C REFINER
HD CLEANER
Fibre separation without cutting damaging
HEAD BOX
Pressurised device that delivers uniform flow
across deckle
HOOD
Blow hot air
Tissue formation crescent former
Yankee
WIRE PART
Cy 41
Evaporate remaining water in paper web by heat
transfer
Felt section
Cy 94
SPR
POPE REEL
Cy 20
Suction press roll equiped with suction box to
remove water by mechanical energy ( nip load )
Dried paper wounds on spool that rotates against
a drum
11
TYPES OF TISSUE MACHINE
  • 1. TWIN WIRE MACHINE
  • Paper machine in which pulp slurry is injected
    between two forming wires, and water is drained
    from both sides of the paper web.
  • 2. CRESCENT FORMER MACHINE
  • The sheet is formed between a forming wire and
    felt that wrap a solid forming roll. When the
    drainage is completed, the formed sheet is
    already on the felt. The felt carries the sheet
    directly to the pressure roll and the Yankee
    dryer. This eliminates the pick-up function that
    other machine concepts require.

12
TISSUE MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Stock Preparation
Approach System
Sheet Forming
Drying
Pressing
Reeling
Winding
13
DE-INKING PLANT
  • A brief introduction

14
WHAT IS DE-INKING?
  • De-inking of pulp fibers is essentially a
    laundering or cleaning process where the ink is
    considered to be the dirt. Chemicals along with
    the heat and mechanical energy are used during
    the re-pulping stage to dislodge the ink
    particles from the fibers and disperse them in
    the stock suspension. The ink particles are then
    separated from the so-called grey stock by a
    series of flotation or washing steps, or by
    applying both separation techniques.

15
DE-INKING PLANT PROCESS
Pre-Flotation
Coarse Screening
High Density Cleaning
Pulping
Coarse Screening
High Density Cleaning
Pre-Flotation
Coarse Screening
High Density Cleaning
Pre-Flotation
Coarse Screening
High Density Cleaning
Pre-Flotation
Coarse Screening
High Density Cleaning
Pre-Flotation
Coarse Screening
High Density Cleaning
Pre-Flotation
Coarse Screening
High Density Cleaning
Pre-Flotation
Coarse Screening
High Density Cleaning
Pre-Flotation
Coarse Screening
High Density Cleaning
Pre-Flotation
Coarse Screening
High Density Cleaning
Pre-Flotation
Coarse Screening
High Density Cleaning
Cleaning
Fine Screening
Washing
Thickening
Cleaning
Fine Screening
Cleaning
Washing
Fine Screening
Cleaning
Thickening
Washing
Fine Screening
Cleaning
Thickening
Washing
Fine Screening
Cleaning
Thickening
Washing
Fine Screening
Cleaning
Thickening
Washing
Fine Screening
Cleaning
Thickening
Washing
Fine Screening
Cleaning
Dispersing
Post Flotation
Washing
Dispersing
Post Flotation
Dispersing
Washing
Post Flotation
Dispersing
Washing
Post Flotation
Dispersing
Water Clarification
16
DE-INKING PLANT STAGES
  • 1. PULPING
  • Pulper is the brain of the de-inking system.
  • Its function is to defiber the paper and to
    detach the ink
  • particles from the fibers, while keeping the
    contraries large
  • enough to be removed by the cleaners and
    screens.
  • 2. HIGH DENSITY CLEANING
  • The high density cleaner cleans pulp suspensions
    of sorted
  • and unsorted wastepaper with consistencies up
    to 4.
  • It eliminates heavy impurities such as bolts,
    nuts, nails, staples,
  • glass splinters, etc.

17
DE-INKING PLANT STAGES
  • 3. SCREENING
  • Stock screening operation is required to remove
    oversized troublesome and unwanted particles from
    good papermaking fibers. The major types of stock
    screens are vibratory, gravity centrifugal and
    pressure screens (centrifugal or centripetal).
    They all depend on some form of perforated
    barrier to pass acceptable fiber and reject the
    unwanted material. It is the size of the
    perforations (usually hole or slots) that
    determine the minimum size of debris that will be
    removed.
  • All screens are equipped with some type of
    mechanism to continuously or intermittently clean
    the openings in the perforated barrier.
    Otherwise, the plate would rapidly plug up.
  • Methods of cleaning employed include shaking and
    vibration, hydraulic sweeping action,
    back-flushing, or most common, pulsing the flow
    through the openings with various moving foils,
    paddles, and bumps. The most important
    consideration for stable, efficient operation is
    to maintain flow and consistency near optimum
    levels.

18
SCREENING
19
DE-INKING PLANT STAGES
  • 4. FLOATATION
  • At the heart of the floatation process is the
  • floatation cell, of which several designs are
    available.
  • Here, air in the form of small bubbles is
    blended with
  • the grey stock. The air bubbles become
    attached to
  • ink and dirt particles, causing them to rise to
    the cell
  • surface where they are removed as a dirt-laden
    froth.
  • Depending on the level of dirt in the stock a
    series of
  • floatation cells are required for efficient ink
    removal.
  • The froth is subsequently cleaned in a secondary
    stage
  • to recover good fiber.

20
DE-INKING PLANT STAGES
  • 5. CLEANING
  • The centrifugal cleaners removes unwanted
    particles from pulp and paper stock by a
    combination of centrifugal force and fluid shear.
    Therefore, it separates both on the basis of
    density differences and particle shape. All
    centrifugal cleaners work on the principle of a
    vortex generated by a pressure drop to develop
    centrifugal action. The power source is the feed
    pump.

21
DE-INKING PLANT STAGES
  • 6. WASHING
  • Washing basically is water extraction. The
    dispersed ink especially those that are broken
    down into very fine particles is subsequently
    separated from the pulp by
  • multi-stage dilution/ thickening washing
    sequence. The separation of ink in the washing
    process corresponds to a stock thickening
    process, whether accomplished by
  • washing equipment or by screens.
  • If the ink particles are extremely small,
  • the amount removed is theoretically
  • proportional to the amount of water
  • removed.

22
DE-INKING PLANT STAGES
  • 7. BLEACHING
  • Bleaching refers to a number of processes
    intended to increase the brightness of pulp,
    reduce color reversion, increase purity of
    cellulose and to preserve the fiber strength at
    the same time. It involves contacting/treating
    unbleached cellulose material under controlled
    conditions of stock pH, consistency,
    Temperature, retention time and concentration of
    bleaching chemical. Bleaching is achieved through
    a continuous sequence of process stages utilizing
    different chemicals and conditions in each stage,
    usually with washing between stages. The entire
    bleaching process must be carried out in such a
    way that strength characteristics and other
    papermaking properties are preserved.
  • 8. DISPERSING
  • Even after all cleaning and screenings steps,
    there will be some ink specks and other
    contaminants remaining in the stock. Disperger is
    used to break up and finely distribute these
    contaminants and loosen particles of difficult
    inks which are still attached to the fibers.

23
DE-INKING PLANT STAGES
  • 9. WATER CLARIFICATION
  • In wastewater treatment operations, the
    processes of coagulation and flocculation are
    employed to separate suspended solids from
    water.  Although the terms coagulation and
    flocculation are often used interchangeably, or
    the single term "flocculation" is used to
    describe both they are, in fact, two distinct
    processes.  Knowing their differences can lead to
    a better understanding of the clarification and
    dewatering operations of wastewater treatment.
  • Finely dispersed solids (colloids) suspended in
    wastewaters
  • are stabilized by negative electric charges on
    their surfaces,
  • causing them to repel each other.  Since this
    prevents these
  • charged particles from colliding to form larger
    masses, called
  • flocs, they do not settle.  To assist in the
    removal of colloidal
  • particles from suspension, chemical coagulation
    and flocculation
  • are required.  These processes, usually done in
    sequence, are a
  • combination of physical and chemical procedures.
    Chemicals are
  • mixed with wastewater to promote the aggregation
    of the suspended
  • solids into particles large enough to settle or
    be removed.

24
Tissue Industry Market Overview
Global Demand-Supply Forecast Source RISI
Outlook for World Tissue Business Forecast 2009
  • Legend
  • Consumption Capacities in MT 000
  • Net Trade in MT000 ( ve Exports, -ve Imports)

25
Tissue Industry Market Overview Contd
Near Middle East Source RISI 2009
Turkey Consumption 2007 225 2011 315 2016
470 Prod 2007 238 Mill Cap 08 359 (13) Net
Trade 2007 33
Syria Consumption 2007 49 2011 64 2016 92 Pod
2007 27 Mill Cap 08 65 (5) Net Trade 2007 -18
Iraq Consumption 2007 12 2011 17 2016 26 Prod
2007 x Mill Cap 08 x Net Trade 2007 -10
Lebanon Consumption 2007 36 2011 45 2016
60 Prod 2007 37 Mill Cap 08 60 (6) Net Trade
2007 3
Iran Consumption 2007 53 2011 70 2016
105 Prod 2007 29 Mill Cap 08 30 (3) Net Trade
2007 -19
Jordan Consumption 2007 18 2011 23 2016
32 Prod 2007 39 Mill Cap 08 96 (4) Net Trade
2007 23
GCC Consumption 2007 198 2011 265 2016
380 Prod 2007 152 Mill Cap 08 257 (11) Net
Trade 2007 -33
Near Middle East Consumption 2007 712 2011
941 2016 1,342 Prod 2007 607 Mill Cap 2008
975 (48) Net Trade 2007 -52
  • Legend
  • Consumption in MT 000
  • Mill Capacities are rated capacities
  • PM4 for SPMC is not included

26
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