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The Inside Story about Nutrition and Health Unit 2 Nutrition

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The Inside Story about Nutrition and Health Unit 2 Nutrition and Overall Health The health and fitness of the human body depend on a variety of interrelated factors ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Inside Story about Nutrition and Health Unit 2 Nutrition


1
The Inside Story about Nutrition and Health
  • Unit 2

2
Nutrition and Overall Health
  • The health and fitness of the human body depend
    on a variety of interrelated factors
  • Genetic traits
  • Environmental factors
  • Lifestyle factors
  • Health care
  • Diet

3
Conditions that Contribute to Death
4
Nutritional State of the Nation
  • Nutritional deficiency diseases such as rickets
    and pellagra were once common

5
Nutritional State of the Nation
  • Today, life-style related chronic diseases are
    the major causes of death
  • Heart diseases
  • Cancers
  • Diabetes
  • Stroke
  • Alzheimers disease

6
Key Terms
  • Diabetes (diabetes mellitus)
  • Disease characterized by abnormal glucose
    utilization and elevated blood glucose levels
  • Type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Blood pressure inside blood vessel walls, greater
    than 140/90 mmHg

7
Key Terms
  • Stroke (cerebral vascular accident)
  • Occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures
    or becomes blocked, cutting off blood supply to a
    portion of the brain
  • Associated with hardening of the arteries

8
Key Terms
  • Alzheimers disease
  • Brain disease most common form of dementia
  • Causes memory loss of recent events, and loss of
    more distant memories over 5-10 years
  • Eventually produces profound intellectual
    decline, dementia, and personal helplessness

9
Leading Causes of Death in US
10
Shared Dietary Risk Factors
  • Dietary risk factors for many diseases are
    associated with development of chronic
    inflammation and oxidative stress
  • Examples
  • Heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimers disease,
    osteoporosis, cancer, other chronic diseases

11
Key Terms
  • Osteoporosis
  • Condition in which bones become fragile and
    susceptible to fracture due to a loss of calcium
    and other minerals

12
Key Terms
  • Inflammation
  • First response of the bodys immune system to
    infectious agents, toxins, or irritants
  • Biologically active substances promote oxidation
    and other reactions to counteract the infection,
    toxin, or irritant
  • Chronic inflammation
  • Low-grade inflammation lasting weeks to years
  • Damages lipids, cells, and tissues

13
Key Terms
  • Oxidative stress
  • Condition that occurs when cells are exposed to
    more oxidizing molecules (such as free radicals)
    than to antioxidant molecules that neutralize
    them
  • Over time oxidative stress causes damage to
    lipids, DNA, cells and tissues
  • Increases the risk of heart disease, type 2
    diabetes, cancer, and other diseases

14
Key Terms
  • Free radicals (oxidizing agents)
  • Chemical substances (often oxygen-based) that are
    missing electrons, which makes them reactive and
    prone to oxidizing nearby molecules by stealing
    electrons from them
  • Can damage lipids, proteins, DNA, cells, and
    tissues by altering their chemical structures and
    functions

15
Key Terms
  • Antioxidants
  • Chemical substances that prevent or repair damage
    to cells caused by oxidizing agents such as
    pollutants, ozone, smoke, and reactive oxygen
  • Oxidation reactions are normal parts of cellular
    processes
  • Vitamins C and E, and certain phytochemicals
    function as antioxidants

16
Diseases/Disorders Linked to Diet
17
Chronic Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
  • Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are
    sustained by irritants present in the body
  • Excess body fat
  • High intakes of saturated and trans fats
  • Damage can be reduced by
  • Loss of excess body fat
  • Eating foods containing omega-3 fatty acids and
    antioxidants

18
Foods, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress
19
Nutrient-Gene Interactions
  • Sulforaphane (in cabbages) inactivates a gene
    that encourages cancer development
  • About half of US population is genetically
    susceptible to cholesterol in the diet
  • Omega-3 fatty acids may lower risk of Alzheimers
    disease in genetically susceptible adults

20
The Importance of Food Choices
  • Americans tend to choose energy-dense,
    nutrient-poor foods, including processed foods
    that pose great risks to health
  • High in saturated fat, salt, sugar
  • Low in fiber, vegetables, fruits

21
All-American Food Choices
22
Diet and Diseases of Western Civilization
  • Chronic diseases prevalent in the US and other
    Western countries have roots in dietary changes
    over past centuries
  • 40,000 years ago Humans survived by hunting and
    gathering, with periods of famine
  • Now Foods are processed, gathering food is not
    strenuous, feasts are not followed by famine

23
Hunter-Gatherers
24
Food Then and Now
25
Our Bodies Havent Changed
  • Survival mechanisms for early humans
  • Stimulate hunger despite excess body fat stores
  • Conserve sodium
  • Preference for sweet foods
  • Digestive system works best with high fiber
  • Not adapted to Western diets

26
Changing Diets and Disease Rates
  • Disease rates change as countries adopt Western
    diets
  • Japanese have the longest life expectancy
  • When Japanese adopt a Western diet
  • Life expectancy goes down
  • Heart disease and cancer rates go up

27
Typical Japanese Foods
28
Japanese Men Diet and Diabetes
29
The Power of Prevention
  • High animal-fat diets and lifestyle behaviors
    that promote chronic disease can be avoided or
    changed
  • Currently, risk factors for heart disease such as
    obesity and diabetes are increasing

30
Improving the American Diet
31
What Should We Eat?
  • MyPyramid Food Guide
  • Lean meat, fish, and dried beans prepared without
    added fat
  • Vegetables without butter or margarine
  • Fruits with no added sugar
  • Milk products with no fat
  • Dark-green and orange-colored vegetables
  • Whole grains

32
MyPyramid.gov
33
Tracking the American Diet
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