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Forensic Anthropology What can it tell us? Vocabulary

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Forensic Anthropology What can it tell us? Vocabulary Anthropology the scientific study of the origins and behavior as well as the physical, social, and cultural ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Forensic Anthropology What can it tell us? Vocabulary


1
Forensic Anthropology
  • What can it tell us?

2
Vocabulary
  • Anthropology the scientific study of the
    origins and behavior as well as the physical,
    social, and cultural development of humans
  • Epiphysis the presence of a visible line that
    marks the place where cartilage is being replaced
    by bone
  • Forensic anthropology the study of physical
    anthropology as it applies to human skeletal
    remains in a legal setting
  • Joints locations where bones meet
  • Mitochondrial DNA DNA found in the mitochondria
    that is inherited only through the mother
  • Ossification the process that replaces soft
    cartilage with hard bone by the deposition of
    minerals

3
Vocabulary
  • Osteobiography the physical record of a
    persons life as told by his or her bones
  • Osteoblast a type of cell capable of migrating
    and depositing new bone
  • Osteoclast a bone cell involved in the breaking
    down of bone and removal of wastes
  • Osteocyte an osteoblast that becomes trapped in
    the construction of bone a living bone cell
  • Osteoporosis weakening of bone that may happen
    due to lack of calcium in the diet
  • Skeletal trauma analysis the investigation of
    bones and the marks on them to uncover a
    potential cause of death

4
What will we cover?
  • How bone is formed
  • Distinguish between male and female skeletal
    remains based on skull, jaw, brow ridge, pelvis,
    and femur
  • Describe how bones contain a record of injuries
    and disease
  • Describe how a persons approximate age could be
    determined by examining his or her bones
  • Explain the differences in facial structures
    among different races
  • Describe the role of mitochondrial DNA in bone
    identification

5
History
  • 1800s scientists began using skull measurements
    to differentiate human bodies
  • 1897 Luetgert murder case man killed his wife
    and boiled down her remains
  • Fragments of skull, finger and arm found
  • 1932 FBI opened first crime lab helping
    identify human remains
  • 1939 William Krogman published Guide to the
    Identification of Human Skeletal Material

6
History Contd
  • WWII remains of soldiers identified using
    anthropological means
  • Recently new mitochondrial DNA techniques have
    identified Romanov family skeletal remains

7
Development of Bone
  • Bones originate from osteoblasts
  • Begin in fetus as soft cartilage
  • Osteoblasts harden (ossificate) during first few
    weeks of life to become bone

8
Development of Bone
  • All of our lives bone is deposited, broken down
    and replaced
  • Osteocytes cells that form basic framework for
    new bone

9
Development of Bone Functions of Osteoclasts
  • Osteoclasts
  • Specialized to dissolve and shape bone as you age
  • Also help maintain homeostasis of calcium
  • Dissolve bone when calcium is needed and release
    into blood
  • Can lead to osteoporosis
  • When bone is injured secrete enzymes that
    dissolve broken bone so new bone can be laid down

10
Number of Bones
  • Children 450
  • Children have bones that eventually suture
    together
  • Adult 206 after all bones have fully developed

11
How Bones Connect
  • Joints locations where bones meet
  • Three types of connective tissue
  • Cartilage wraps ends of bones for protection
    and to keep from scraping
  • Ligaments bands of tissue that connect two or
    more bones
  • Tendons connect muscle to bone

12
Aging of Bone
  • What can bone tell us?
  • Children build bones faster and bones grow in
    size
  • After 30 years process starts to reverse and
    bones deteriorate faster than built
  • Can be slowed by exercise
  • of bones and their condition can tell a
    persons age, health, and calcium in food

13
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14
Osteobiography
  • The story of a life as told by bones
  • Things we can see
  • Loss of bone density, poor teeth, signs of
    arthritis
  • Previous fractures, artificial joints, and pins
  • Right-handed vs. left-handed
  • Physical labor

15
Surface of Bones
  • Males vs. Females
  • Males appearance usually thicker, rougher,
    bumpy
  • Due to muscle connections, bigger body size
  • Females smoother (gracile) and less knobby
    (robust)

16
Skulls Bones to Know
  • Maxilla
  • Mandible
  • Zygomatic bone
  • Vomer bone
  • Frontal bone
  • Nasal bone
  • Orbit (eye socket)
  • Sphenoid bone
  • Sutures (between skull bones)

17
Skulls Male vs. Female Frontal View
18
Skulls Male vs. Female Side View
19
Male Vs. Female Skull
20
Pelvis Anatomy
  • Bones to Know
  • Ilium
  • Ischium
  • Pubis
  • Sacrum
  • Coccyx
  • Pubic symphysis
  • Obturator Foramen

21
Pelvis Male vs. Female
  • Things to consider
  • Sub-pubic angle
  • Length, width, shape, angle of sacrum
  • Width of ileum
  • Angle of sciatic notch

22
Pelvis Male vs. Female
23
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24
Pelvis Male vs. Female
  • Other differences in female pelvis
  • Often weighs less
  • Surface engraved with scars after female has
    given birth
  • Can be detected most at pubic symphysis
  • Thigh Bone Femur
  • Angle of femur to pelvis is greater in females
    and straighter in males
  • Male femur is thicker than female femur

25
Distinguishing Age
  • Bones dont reach maturity at the same time To
    help tell their age
  • suture marks
  • presence or absence of cartilage

26
Suture Marks
  • Zigzag areas where bones of the skull meet
  • In babies, some is soft tissue that is gradually
    ossified
  • Suture marks slowly fade to give smoother
    appearance as bones age

27
Suture Marks Contd
  • Coronal Suture
  • closed by age 50
  • Lamboidal Suture
  • begins closing at 21
  • accelerates at 26
  • closed by 30

28
Cartilaginous Lines
  • Epiphysis line that forms as cartilage is
    replaced by bone
  • Also called Epiphyseal plate
  • Line disappears as bone completes growth
  • Presence or absence of this can approximate age

29
Long Bones
  • When head of a long bone has fused with shaft
    completely indication of age
  • Each bone takes different amount of time

30
Long Bones Chart
31
Long Bones Chart 2
32
Estimating Height
  • Measuring long bones like femur or humerus can
    help estimate height
  • Databases established that use mathematical
    relationships
  • Different tables for males, females, and races
  • Example
  • A femur measuring 49 cm belonging to an African
    American male is found.
  • Calculation 2.10(length of femur)72.22 cm
  • 2.10(49) 72.22 175.12 cm or
  • 69 inches (59)

33
Distinguishing Race
  • This is losing its significance in differences
  • Two biggest differences are in skull and femur
  • Shape of eye sockets
  • Absence or presence of nasal spine
  • Nasal index width of nasal opening X 100
  • height of nasal opening
  • Prognathism projection of upper jaw (maxilla)
    beyond the lower jaw (mandible)
  • Width of face
  • Angulation of jaw and face

34
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35
Distinguishing Race
36
Other things bones can tell
  • Left or right-handed
  • Diet and nutritional dairy, esp. vit D and
    calcium
  • Diseases or genetic disorders
  • Osteoporosis, arthritis, scoliosis, osteogenesis
    imperfecta
  • Type of work or sports based on bone structure
  • Previous injuries such as fractures
  • Surgical implants artificial joints, pins
  • Childbirth

37
Facial Reconstruction
  • Theoretically possible to build a face from
    skeleton up using clay
  • Related to size and shape of muscles and tissues
    that overlay bones
  • Specific markers on face are used
  • Reconstruction attempted on
  • Johann Sebastian Bach
  • King Tut
  • Same techniques used to age missing persons
  • http//science.howstuffworks.com/body-farm.htm

38
Reconstruction of Bach
39
DNA Evidence
  • Mitochondrial DNA degrades much, much, much
    slower
  • Can be extracted from bones and compared to
    living relatives on mothers side of family

40
Skeletal Trauma Analysis
  • Forensic scientists trained to recognize marks
    made by weathering and animals
  • A knife wound on rib leaves a mark that might
    look similar to rodent chew marks
  • Goal is to tell the difference in marks made by
    patterns in weapons, and marks made by weathering
  • Forensic anthropologists try to determine cause
    of death and weapon

41
Skeletal Trauma Analysis
  • Sharp-force and blunt-force trauma, gunshot, and
    knife wounds all have distinctive patterns
  • Living bone flexible compared to old and brittle
    bone
  • Bones break differently when living versus when
    old
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