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Ways of the World

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Empires and Encounters 1450 1750 European Empires in the Americas Maritime Expansion Spaniards in Caribbean, then on to Aztec and Inca empires Portuguese in Brazil ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ways of the World


1
Module 2 Empires and Encounters 14501750
2
  • European Empires in the Americas
  • Maritime Expansion
  • Spaniards in Caribbean, then on to Aztec and Inca
    empires
  • Portuguese in Brazil
  • British, French, and Dutch colonies in North
    America
  • Europeans controlled most of the Americas by the
    mid-nineteenth century
  • The European Advantage
  • geography European Atlantic states were well
    positioned
  • need Chinese and Indians didnt have much
    incentive to go beyond Indian Ocean markets
  • marginality Europeans were aware of their
    precarious position in Eurasian commerce and
    wanted to change it
  • Rivalry interstate rivalry drove rulers to
    compete
  • Merchants growing merchant class in Europe
  • Wealth and status opportunities for impoverished
    nobles
  • Religion Christianitys crusading zeal
    persecuted minorities
  • European states and trading companies mobilized
    resources well
  • seafaring technology
  • iron, gunpowder weapons, and horses

3
  • European Empires in the Americas
  • The Great Dying demographic collapse of Native
    Americans
  • pre-Columbian Western Hemisphere had population
    of 60 million80 million
  • no immunity to Old World diseases
  • Europeans brought European and African diseases
  • mortality rate of up to 90 percent among Native
    American populations
  • native population nearly vanished in the
    Caribbean
  • Central Mexico population dropped from 10/20
    million to around 1 million by 1650
  • similar mortality in North America
  • The Columbian Exchange
  • massive native mortality created a labor shortage
    in the Americas
  • migrant Europeans and African slaves created
    entirely new societies
  • American food crops (e.g., corn, potatoes and
    cassava) spread widely worldwide
  • potatoes especially allowed enormous population
    growth
  • corn and sweet potatoes were important in China
    and Africa
  • exchange with the Americas reshaped the world
    economy
  • importation of millions of African slaves to the
    Americas
  • network of communication, migration, trade,
    transfer of plants and animals
  • (including microbes) is called the Columbian
    exchange

4
  • Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas
  • Europeans established wholly new societies.
  • all were shaped by mercantilismtheory that
    governments should encourage exports and
    accumulate bullion to serve their countries
  • colonies should provide closed markets for the
    mother countrys manufactured goods
  • In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas
  • the most wealthy, urbanized, and populous regions
    of the Western Hemisphere
  • within a century, the Spaniards established major
    cities, universities, and a religious and
    bureaucratic infrastructure
  • economic basis commercial agriculture and
    mining (gold and silver)
  • rise of a distinctive social order replicated
    some of the Spanish class hierarchy
  • accommodated Indians, Africans, and racially
    mixed people
  • Spaniards were at the top, wanted a large measure
    of self government from Spanish Crown
  • emergence of mestizo (mixed-race) population
  • gross abuse and exploitation of the Indians
  • more racial fluidity than in North America
  • Colonies of Sugar in high demand in Europe
  • lowland Brazil and the Caribbean developed a
    different society export based economy
  • Arabs introduced large-scale sugar production to
    the Mediterranean
  • Europeans transferred it to Atlantic islands
    (Canaries, Azores, Madeira) and Americas
  • Portuguese on Brazilian coast dominated the world
    sugar market 15701670

5
  • Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas
  • Europeans Settler Colonies in North America
  • different sort of colonial society emerged in
    British colonies of NewEngland, New York, and
    Pennsylvania
  • British got the unpromising lands in N. America
    but British society was changing more rapidly
  • many British colonists were trying to escape
    elements of European society
  • British settlers were more numerous by 1750,
    they outnumbered Spaniards in New
  • World by five to one
  • by 1776, 90 percent of population of North
    American colonies was European
  • Indians were killed off by disease and military
    policy
  • small-scale farming didnt need slaves
  • England was mostly Protestant didnt proselytize
    like the Catholics
  • British colonies developed traditions of local
    self-government
  • Britain didnt impose an elaborate bureaucracy
    like Spain
  • British civil war (seventeenth century distracted
    government from involvement in the colonies
  • North America gradually became dominant, more
    developed than South America

6
  • The Steppes and Siberia The Making of a Russian
    Empire
  • Experiencing the Russian Empire
  • conquest was made possible by modern weapons and
    organization
  • conquest brought devastating epidemics,
    especially in remote areas of Siberia
  • locals had no immunity to smallpox and measles
  • pressure to convert to Christianity
  • large-scale settlement of Russians in the new
    lands, where they outnumbered the
  • native population (e.g., in Siberia)
  • discouragement of pastoralism, nomadic lifestyle/
    many natives were Russified
  • Russians and Empire
  • with imperial expansion, Russians became a
    smaller proportion of population
  • rich agricultural lands, furs, and minerals help
    make Russia a great power by 18thC
  • became an Asian power as well as a European one
  • long-term Russian identity problem expansion
    made Russia a very militarized state
  • reinforced autocracy
  • colonization experience was different from the
    Americas
  • conquest of territories with which Russia had
    long interacted
  • conquest took place at the same time as
    development of the Russian state
  • the Russian Empire remained intact until 1991

7
  • Asian Empires
  • Making China an Empire
  • Qing dynasty (16441912) launched enormous
    imperial expansion to the north west
  • nomads of the north and west were very familiar
    to the Chinese
  • 80-year-long Chinese conquest (1680 1760)
    motivated by security fears
  • China evolved into a Central Asian empire
  • conquered territory was ruled separately from
    rest of China through Court of Colonial Affairs
  • considerable use of local elites to govern
  • officials often imitated Chinese ways but
    government did not try to assimilate conquered
    peoples
  • little Chinese settlement in the conquered
    regions
  • Russian and Chinese rule impoverished Central
    Asia, turned it into a backward region
  • Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire
  • Mughals united much of India between 1526 and
    1707
  • Mughal Empires most important divide was
    religious
  • Emperor Akbar (r. 15561605) attempted
    accommodation of the Hindu majority
  • brought many Hindus into the political-military
    elite
  • imposed a policy of toleration
  • abolished payment of jizya by non- Muslims

8
  • Asian Empires
  • Muslims, Christians, and the Ottoman Empire
  • the Ottoman Empire was the Islamic worlds most
    important empire in the early modern period
  • long conflict (15341639) between Sunni Ottomans
    and Shia Safavids
  • the Ottoman Empire was the site of a significant
    cross-cultural encounter
  • in Anatolia, most of the conquered Christians
    converted to Islam
  • in the Balkans, Christian subjects mostly
    remained Christian, many Christians welcomed
    Ottoman conquest
  • Ottoman taxed less and were less oppressive
  • Christian churches received considerable autonomy
  • Balkan elites were accepted among the Ottoman
    elite without conversion
  • Jewish refugees from Spain had more opportunities
    in the Ottoman Empire
  • devshirme tribute of boys paid by Christian
    Balkan communities
  • boys were converted to Islam, trained to serve
    the state
  • the devshirme was a means of upward social
    mobility
  • 7. the Ottoman state threatened Christendom

9
  • Reflections Countering Eurocentrism . . . or
    Reflecting It?
  • Western European empires still receive more
    discussion space because they were different and
    more significant than the others
  • they were something wholly new in human history
  • they had a much greater impact on the people they
    incorporated

10
  • Considering the Evidence
  • Documents State Building in the Early Modern Era
  • Visual Sources The Conquest of Mexico Through
    Aztec Eyes

11
Chapter 14 Empires and Encounters14501750
  • Map 14.1 European Colonial Empires in the
    Americas (p. 627)
  • Map 14.2 The Russian Empire (p. 640)
  • Map 14.3 The Ottoman Empire (p. 647)
  • SPOTMAP Chinas Qing Dynasty Empire (p. 644)
  • SPOTMAP The Mughal Empire (p. 645)
  • Visual Source 14.1 Disaster Foretold (p. 665)
  • Visual Source 14.2 Moctezuma and Cortés (p. 666)
  • Visual Source 14.3 The Massacre of the Nobles (p.
    668)
  • Visual Source 14.4 The Spanish Retreat from
    Tenochtitlán (p. 669)
  • Visual Source 14.5 Smallpox Disease and Defeat
    (p. 670)

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