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History of the Sudan: What Led Up to the Genocide in Darfur

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History of the Sudan: What Led Up to the Genocide in Darfur By Reid Rosenberg, Katie LaBarre, Charlie Carroll, Laura O Friel and Sandrine Fimbi – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of the Sudan: What Led Up to the Genocide in Darfur


1
History of the Sudan What Led Up to the Genocide
in Darfur
By Reid Rosenberg, Katie LaBarre, Charlie
Carroll, Laura OFriel and Sandrine Fimbi
2
Ancient History of Kush
  • Kingdom in northern Sudan from
  • 11th century BC to 4th century AD
  • Province of Egyptian Pharaohs
  • until 8th century BC
  • 23 BC- Northern region a
  • Roman province, after Egypt is conquered
    by Romans

3
Christian Nubia
  • 350 AD- Christian invasion from Ethiopia
  • 6th Century AD-
  • Three Christian Kingdoms of Nubia
  • 9th-10th Century AD
  • -Peak of prosperity
  • -Isolation from Muslim
  • dominated Middle East

4
Muslim Domination
  • 16th century AD- Kingdom of Sennar
  • Black Muslims known as the Funj begin Sultanate
  • 19th century AD- Internal corruption and discord
    weakens Sennar
  • 1822 AD- Defeat of Sultanate
  • Ruled by Ottoman Turks and Egyptians

5
Darfur Arab vs. African
  • Dar Furindependent Sultanate (c.1600-1916)
  • 1600-1700 Fur identity
  • Traces roots to Arab pastMohammed
  • The Arabs of Dar Fur are Bedouin Arabs who trace
    their lineage directly to Mohammed. In their
    view, they see themselves as more Arab than the
    Riverian Arabs of lighter skin tone.
  • Riverian Arabs treat Bedouin Arabs as second
    class citizens.
  • Nilocentrismthree Sudans
  • LabelsArabs and Africans
  • Response to Turco-Egyptian state (1821-84)
  • From the viewpoint of Dar Fur, the distinction
    between Arab and African had not yet
    arisen (de Waal, 2005)

6
Arabs and Islam
  • IslamCame from the west.
  • Hakuraland awarded by Fur sultanate in exchange
    for loyalty (de Waal, 2005)
  • Southern, Baggara (cattle-men) received these.
    The Rizegat were a main Baggara tribe who
    received a great portion of the Hakura.
  • Northern Abbala (camel-men) nomads became
    subjects of Dar Fur and they received no land or
    Hakura
  • The Janjaweed (who later became Arab militias)
    were mostly made up of Abbala i.e. their clans
    were poorer because they did not have land.

7
1820 - 1870s
  • 1820 Northern Sudan was unified by Ottoman
    Turks and Egyptian forces, Turkiyah government
  • Egypt was a rising economic and military power
    under the Khedive Muhammed Ali so took advantage
    of its place on the Nile and near the Sudan for
    natural resources, slave trade
  • 1870s European slave trade caused an economic
    crisis in the south, which caused widespread
    poverty and paved the way for the rise of the
    Mahdists

8
Mahdism
  • Muslims believe in a Mahdi, a redeemer who will
    come to the world unannounced as a prophet to
    redeem the world
  • Muhammad Ahmad claimed to be the Mahdi in the
    1830s and gained followers
  • Capitalizing on the discontent resulting from
    Anglo-Egyptian rule, he declared a jihad against
    Egyptian rule and started a nationalist revolt
    that peaked at the siege of Khartoum (the capital
    of Sudan) in 1885

9
Independence Part I
  • The Mahdi raised an army of followers (Ansar)
    and led a successful revolt against Ottoman rule
    in 1881
  • Khartoum was held by the British (Col. George
    Gordon), the Mahdi and his Ansar began a siege of
    the city in 1884
  • Khartoum finally fell to the Mahdists in 1885,
    the Mahdiyya (Mahdist government) took over. The
    Mahdi died in 1885 but a successor, the Khalifa
    took over his government

10
Independence Part II
  • In 1895, England started to make plans for the
    reconquest of the Sudan
  • 1898 Battle of Omdurman (near Khartoum) between
    Horatio Kitcheners English army and the Ansar
    dervishes
  • In 5 hours, 11,000 Ansar were killed, compared to
    40 English (400 wounded)
  • The Mahdiyya was clearly ended, England took
    control again

11
Foreign Rule
  • From 1898 on, England and Egypt were in charge of
    the Sudan (this was a strange relationship
    because England was the dominant world power and
    it ruled Egypt, which was a dominant power in
    Africa)
  • They divided the country into 2 distinct zones
    (north and south)
  • Northern Sudan Main languages were Arabic and
    English, Muslim population
  • Southern Main languages were African and
    English, Christian population (missionaries)

12
British Conquest 1916Darfur
  • Darfur finally incorporated into Sudan
  • Native Administration established to create new
    tribal hierarchy. It also contributed to
    tidying up the confusion of ethnic identities
    (de Waal 2005). Definitions of tribes.
  • Hakuras become Dars
  • Ethnic territory where dominant ethnicity had
    control
  • Hakuras were racially and culturally mixed almost
    entirely by 1970s

13
Unification
  • 1946 England decided to reverse its policy of
    dividing the coutry and unify it into one country
  • Southerners felt betrayed
  • New govts language was Arabic, but the
    southerners had not been trained in that language
    (or much English)
  • South not as politically organized, so it was not
    as well represented in new govt.

14
Independence
  • 1945 formation of political parties. The
    National Unionist Party, headed by Al-Azhari, was
    the political faction of one of the most powerful
    Muslim sects in the country at the time, the
    Khatmiyah brotherhood. This party wanted union to
    Egypt and was facing the opposition of the Umma
    Party of the Ansar, who favored sole independence
  • 1953 British and Egyptians grant Sudanese-self
    government for 3 years.
  • 1956 Independence proclaimed on January 1, after
    unanimous vote of senate.

15
Summary/General Trends
  • The Mahdists had a big effect on keeping the
    British out from 1885-1898, although it was a
    primarily Muslim movement centered from the
    north.
  • Colonizing powers divided the Sudan into 2
    regions North and South. They had different
    languages, governments, etc.
  • The powers then unified the country without
    consulting the Southerners. Many Southerners
    dont recognize the Sudan as a legitimate state

16
Government Supported Islamic Groups
  • Muslim Brotherhood
  • 1930s originates in Egypt as a nationalist
    movement during decolonization
  • -goal of institutionalizing Islamic Law, Muslim
    values, restoring a global Caliphate,
    anti-colonial, anti-Zionist, contains armed wings
  • Other radical movements, some using violence,
    have been partially inspired by them in later
    years (Bin Laden)
  • National Islamic Front (NIF)
  • 1960s Founded by Hassan Al-Turabi
  • -government official under Nimeiri and
    Al-Bashir
  • - strongly promotes nationalism through Sharia
    (Islamic law)
  • 1983 September Laws
  • Sharia National Law
  • - great opposition to this in South who are
    largely NOT Muslims
  • 1990s led by President Al-Bashir
  • who funds militias that perpetrate genocide in
    South

17
National Democratic Alliance
  • umbrella group for opposition parties
  • 1993 Formation of NDA as opposition force to
    NIF/Al-Bashir Government
  • Current Goal Overthrow of Bashir regime and
    replace with democratic government
  • 1. Sudan Peoples Liberation Army/Movement
    (SPLA/M)
  • 1980s Founded by John Garang
  • - From Sudanese military unit that defected to
    rebel side
  • - Promotes democratic reform, against imposition
    of Islamic law nationally
  • 2005 Garang becomes Vice-President of Sudan and
    administrative head of South after Comprehensive
    Peace Agreement
  • -Killed same year in helicopter crash, provoked
    riots throughout the country because of suspicion
    of assassination

18
National Democratic Alliance
  • 2. Sudan Liberation Army/Movement (SLA/M)
  • Darfur Liberation Front
  • -Wanted secession from Sudan
  • 2003 Changed goal and name
  • New Goal greater autonomy, democracy,
  • distribution of resources throughout all Sudan
  • 3. Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)
  • 1993 Islamic dissidents within the IMF meet
    secretly to plan reform
  • 2000 Publish The Black Book Imbalance of Power
    and Wealth in the Sudan
  • -focuses on the disproportionate distribution of
    power in Sudan
  • Goal Overthrow Bashir,
  • Reform of law so that Sharia applies only to
    Muslims
  • Current Suspicions of leadership by exiled
    Al-Turabi (he denies)

SLA/M and JEM merge in 2006
19
Major People In Modern History
  • Al-Turabi Founder of NIF
  • -Government positions under Nimeiri and Al-
    Bashir
  • -previously pro-Sharia, suspicions of now
    heading JEM
  • Nimeiri Semi-Dictator from 1969-1986, who rose
    to power in coup detat
  • -gradually enforced strict Islamic Law to
    retain political support
  • Al-Bashir President of Sudan since another
    military coup in 1989
  • -Head of NIF, supports Islamization and Sharia
    Law
  • -his current regime funds militants such as the
    Janjaweed and turns blind eye to genocide in
    South
  • John Garang Founder of SPLA/M
  • -Insistance on keeping one Sudan instead of
    secession of Darfur caused divisions within the
    rebel groups during the 1990s
  • -Appointed Vice-President in 2005 after peace
    talks with Khartoum,
  • killed same year in helicopter crash

20
National Democratic Alliance
  • 2. Sudan Liberation Army/Movement (SLA/M)
  • Darfur Liberation Front
  • -Wanted secession from Sudan
  • 2003 Changed goal and name
  • New Goal greater autonomy, democracy,
  • distribution of resources throughout all Sudan
  • 3. Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)
  • 1993 Islamic dissidents within the IMF meet
    secretly to plan reform
  • 2000 Publish The Black Book Imbalance of Power
    and Wealth in the Sudan
  • -focuses on the disproportionate distribution of
    power in Sudan
  • Goal Overthrow Bashir,
  • Reform of law so that Sharia applies only to
    Muslims
  • Current Suspicions of leadership by exiled
    Al-Turabi (he denies)

SLA/M and JEM merge in 2006
21
Sudan and Libya
  • Old relationship (long before colonization)
  • Very amicable until Qaddafi seized power in Libya
    in 1969.
  • Qaddafi failed attempts to unify Egypt, Sudan and
    Libya, then Chad, Sudan, and Libya, under a
    common Islamic state.
  • Coup detat sponsored by Qaddafi against Numeiry
    in 1976 failed. Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Sudan
    unite against Libya.

22
Sudan and Libya
  • 1989 Bashir coup detat. Relations warmed up
    between Sudan and Libya. Possibility of
    unification of Chad, Libya, and Sudan once again
    discussed.
  • Bashir and Qaddafi fell out. Qaddafi then accused
    of supporting the southern rebels and also,
    later, the Darfur rebels.
  • Nevertheless, Qaddafi tried to use his influence
    to resolve the Chad-Sudan conflict with the
    February 2006 Tripoli Agreement, which was signed
    by Libya, Sudan, and Chad. The tensions between
    Chad and Sudan result from the fact that each of
    the two countries believes that the other has a
    hand in destabilizing the civil order in its
    territory.

23
Sudan-Chad Conflict
  • Starting in September 2005, some Janjaweed began
    to cross over the Chadian border presumably to
    follow the Darfuri who succeeded in escaping, but
    in fact attacking Chadian population and stealing
    food.
  • Around the same period, the UFDC (United Front
    for Democratic Change) rebels, who are based in
    Darfur, started some attacks on Chadian soil.
    This Chadian rebel group is, according to the
    Chadian government, backed by Sudan.
  • On December 23, 2005, Chad declared state of
    belligerency with Sudan

24
Sudan-Chad Conflict
  • Sudan denied Chadian accusations of backing the
    UFDC and claimed Darfur rebels are backed by
    Chad.
  • Tentative peace agreement reached in Tripoli on
    February 8, 2006, but neither rebels nor
    Janjaweeds invited at the meeting.
  • Janjaweeds and UFDC continue attacking and
    massacring the Chadian population.
  • Bilateral relations between the two countries
    severed first in April 2006, and have been on and
    off since.

25
Why do Chad and Libya Matter?
  • Chad is important to the resolution of the Darfur
    conflict not only because it is neighboring
    Darfur, but mostly because it supporting the
    Darfuri rebels as Sudan is supporting the Chadian
    rebels. This war of tit for tat must be solved
    first to have lasting peace in the region. For
    more information on that dynamic, click here.
  • It is essential to have Libya on board for peace
    in Darfur because Libya is the big power of the
    region, and Qaddafi is known for his love of
    interfering in the internal affairs of other
    countries. Also Libya has been providing arms to
    Darfuri and Southerner rebels, contributing to
    the instability in the region.

26
Musa Hilal
  • Powerful leader of Janjaweed, member of Um Julal
    clan of Rizeigat tribe
  • Pride in position as government agent to fight
    rebels and organize militias
  • Arab Supremacist
  • Hilal issued a directive in 2004 to military
    intelligence agencies to change the demography
    of Darfur and empty it of African tribes.

27
Origins of Janjaweed History of the Rizeigat
  • Janjaweed developed from tribal and economic
    conflicts involving the Abbala Rizeigat
  • Began with Sheikh Hilal Mohamed Abdalla of the Um
    Julal
  • Moved to Aamo to ally himself with Ereigat who
    are they? and bring in Arabs from Chad to
    develop a following

28
Origins of Janjaweed History of the Rizeigat
  • Great drought of 1984-85 Pastoral lands
    devastated and Rizeigat migrate south to
    farmlands of Fur and Tunjur they are only given
    poor land
  • 1985 Fall of Nimeiri Libyan Islamist exiles
    flood into Darfur with weapons
  • By 1990, weapons become easily available and
    crime increases

29
Arab Supremacy
  • 1981 Darfurian Arabs demand more representation
    and control
  • The Tajamu al Arabi organization, also known as
    the Arab Gathering creates militant Arab
    supremacy movement that pushes for Arab
    representation in government and majority rule in
    Darfur
  • Prior to Darfurian governor elections, the Arab
    gathering had published and sent a letter to the
    government threatening more Arab representation.
    They published the Quraish Manifesto after
    election of Fur governor, which preached the
    supremacy of the Abbala and Baggara Arabs as pure
    Muslim descendants of Mohamed and called Arabs to
    action against Africans.
  • Hilal receives arms from Ibn Omar, leader of
    Chadian opposition front (CDR) sympathetic to his
    cause
  • 1989 conference Warring Fur and Janjaweed
    militias disarmed at conference

30
Darfur
  • 1987-89First conflict in Darfur between Fur
    militias and the Abbala Arabs Janjawiid
  • Native Administration CouncilNAC
  • Recreated by Sudanese government to find
    solutions between groups
  • Could not find solutions. Renewed conflict in
    1994
  • Gave land to certain ethnic groups as means of
    reinforcing central authority

31
Government Backing of the Militias and Arab Rule
  • Militia used by government in two ways 1) tool
    of military control and 2) to mask ethnic
    conflict
  • 1991, SPLA enters Darfur and Militias used by
    government for first time
  • 1994 Ali al Haj, the Arab Minister of Federal
    Affairs, divides Darfur into three regions. More
    leadership positions go to Arabs, while non-Arabs
    made into minorities

32
The Masalit Conflict
  • Governmental leaders known as Amirs arm
    themselves and persecute the Masalits, a non-Arab
    Darfurian tribe
  • 1999 General Mohamed al Dabi from Sudanese Army
    sent to Darfur by Bashir in Khartoum to train
    youth militia, worsening militarization of the
    conflict
  • For first time militia leaders are paid by
    government
  • 2000 Arab becomes North Darfur governor and
    support for Janjaweed increases
  • 2001 SLA growing and Arabs recruit for Janjaweed
    with promises of benefits
  • October 2002 1st offensive against non-Arab
    civilians. Sudanese government ignores this and
    never punishes Janjaweed

33
Reflections and Analysis
  • Riverine Arabs believed that the Bedouin Arabs in
    Darfur were less Arab than themselves, even
    though the Bedouins trace lineage directly to
    Mohammed. Thus, they tried to arabize Darfuris
    and promoted Arabized Darfuris to prominent
    government posts.
  • African versus Arabs is way too simplified to
    understand this conflict
  • SPLA influenced Africans and SLA which used to
    be Darfur Liberation Army.
  • Visualization of conflicta Westerner would
    imagine this as a conflict between light skinned
    Arabs and dark skinned Africans. Americans
    especially imagine aggressive Arabs as terrorists
    and black Africans as an oppressed people. When
    the two are combined, Westerners see
    light-skinned, dominant terrorists oppressing
    poor black people. This is not the case, both
    sides share a nearly identical skin tone. The
    term genocide further polarizes two sides by
    making them believe that the conflict is all
    about race, and if one side does not defend
    itself, the other will wipe them out causing more
    people to pick up arms. This escalates the
    violence.

34
References
  • (2006, June 22). Chad Armed Groups Maraud along
    Sudan Border. Retrieved November 17, 2006, from
    Human Rights Watch Web site http//www.hrw.org/en
    glish/docs/2006/06/21/chad13603.htm
  • (2006, November 15). Chad/Sudan End Militia
    Attacks on Civilians. Retrieved November 15,
    2006, from Human Rights Watch Web site
    http//hrw.org/english/docs/2006/11/15/darfur14609
    .htm
  • (2006, June 28). Chad/Sudan Sowing the Seeds of
    Darfur. Retrieved November 15, 2006, from Amnesty
    International Web site http//web.amnesty.org/lib
    rary/Index/ENGAFR200062006
  • Hennig, R (2005, September 7). Eritrea, Chad
    Accused of Aiding Sudan Rebels. Afrol News
    Online, Retrieved November 19, 2006, from
    http//www.afrol.com/articles/13898
  • Holliway, R (2006). Sudan/Darfur/Chad. Retrieved
    November 27, 2006, from CountryWatch Web site
    http//www.countrywatch.com/facts/facts_default.as
    px?typetexttopicSESDC
  • (1991). Libya. Retrieved November 19, 2006, Web
    site http//countrystudies.us/sudan/77.htm
  • (2006, November 22). Mubarak, Gaddafi, and
    Al-Bashir Discussed Means for Achieving Peace in
    Darfur through an International Effort. Retrieved
    November 30, 2006, from Egypt State Information
    Service Web site http//www.sis.gov.eg/En/EgyptOn
    line/Politics/000007/0201000000000000006952.htm
  • Reuters, (November 20, 2006). West's Oil Greed
    behind UN Darfur Push Gaddafi. Retrieved
    November 30, 2006, from TradeArabia Business News
    Information Web site http//www.tradearabia.com/t
    anews/newsdetails_snINTNEWS_article114756.html
  • (2006). Sudan-Chad Peace Deal. Retrieved
    November 19, 2006, from Arab Media Watch Web
    site http//www.arabmediawatch.com/amw/CountryBac
    kgrounds/Sudan/SudanChadPeaceDeal/tabid/224/Defaul
    t.aspx.
  • Flint, Julie De Waal, Alex. (2005). Darfur A
    Short History of a Long War. New York Zed Books.
  • de Waal, A. (2005). Who Are The Darfurians? Arab
    and African Identities, Violence and External
    Engagements. African Affairs, 104/415 , 181-205,
    Retrieved November, 2006 from JSTOR database
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