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Islamic Finance: Sukuk

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In the name of Allah, Most Gracious Most Merciful Islamic Finance: Sukuk Shihama (Musharakah Certificates) and Srh (Government Investment Certificates GIC ) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Islamic Finance: Sukuk


1
Islamic Finance Sukuk
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious Most Merciful
  • Shihama (Musharakah Certificates) and Srh
    (Government Investment Certificates GIC)

Dr. Eltegani Abdel Gadir Ahmed
Adviser President Higher Consultative
committee for Government Securities, MOF
Khartoum August, 2008
2
Welcome
  • Purpose
  • Introducing Islamic Finance Sukuk (define,
    explain)
  • Mechanism
  • Usage (Utilization)
  • Features and Advantage

3
Conventional Intermediary
Loans

Loans
Banking

Conventional
Interest

Interest
Difference between received interest Paid
interest Profit
4
Islamic Finance Financial Intermediary

Murabaha
Investors

Equipment
Rub al Mal
Islamic Banking (Mudarib)
Istisnaa
Salam
Depositors
Money
mudarabah
Musharaka
Liabilities
?Assets
5
Islamic Modes of Finance
Sales
Partnership
Ijara
Musharakah
Murabaha
Istisnaa
Salam
Mudarabah
6
  • Two Financial papers based on Islamic modes of
    Finance.
  • Shihama is based on Musharakah.
  • Srh (Government Investment Certificates) GIC
    based on Mudarabah, Ijarah, Murabahaetc.

7
  • The Higher Consultative Committee for Government
    Securities (Committee)
  • Due to success in the first generation of Sukuk
    (Shihama), the Committee is established. It
    consists of complementary membership, including
    Ministry of Finance, Central Bank of Sudan (CBS),
    Khartoum Stock Exchange (KSE), Universities. All
    parties participated in issuing Sukuk are
    represented in the Committee.

8
  • Mission
  • Promote, develop and innovate Financial
    Instruments that meet modern economic needs.
  • Activities of the Committee is supervised by the
    Higher Shariah Board.

9
  • Issuance of Sukuk depends on four parties
  • Investors (provider of capital money)
  • Mudarib (SPV) Agent (Wakil) - manager
  • Ministry of Finance National Economy MoF
    (fiancée)
  • Khartoum Stock Exchange (platform for selling and
    buying Sukuk negotiation.

10
Shihama
  • financial pool is established consists of the
    ownership of the government in certain companies.
  • The pool will be divided into financial papers
    (Sukuk).
  • Sukuk will be sold to the investors.
  • Profit is computed based on the financial
    performance of the companies.
  • Shihama provides cash finance to the MoF
  • Practically it is financing current expenditure

11
  • Musharakah (Definition)
  • Al Sharikah (partnership) means a contract made
    by two or more parties pertaining to capital and
    work (management) for the purpose of making
    profit.
  • Al Sharika al Masrafiyyah (Banking partnership or
    Almusharkah) a finance method derived from the
    partnership contract that is known in Islamic
    jurisprudence, in which the bank participates
    with one of his clients or more.
  • Musharakah capital the total amount contributed
    by partners in a Musharakah contract.
  • Profit is shared on a pro-rata basis or as agreed
    while loss is born strictly on pro-rata basis.
  • A management fee could be charged by the manager
    party.

12
  • Features
  • Matches with Shariah requirements
  • Cash, un-inflationary finance
  • Helps in managing supply of money, open market
    operations
  • Mobilization of funds outside the banking system
  • Used as collateral

13
  • Srh
  • It is a financial document with nominal value in
    Sudanese pound (SDG), gives its holder the right
    to participate in financing the Government (MoF)
    through certain modes of finance, for the purpose
    to generate profit

14
Mechanism 1) Investors (Rab al Mal) 2) Sudan
Financial Services Co. (sfs) - Mudarib 3) MoF (
User of the finance) 4) KSE Relationship between
1) 2) is based on Mudarabah contract and
between 2) 3) is based on certain contracts
i.e. Ijara, Murabaha, Istisnaa. The majority is
for Ijara to make the Sukuk negotiable KSE is the
platform where Sukuk are sold and bought in the
secondary market
15
  • Mudarabah
  • Is a partnership in which one party provides the
    money (capital), while the other party provides
    the professional, managerial and technical
    know-how for starting and/or operating a business
    enterprise or project. The profit is shared in a
    pre-agreed ratio.

16
  • Istisna
  • Is an agreement meeting the clients need for an
    item, equipment, building, or project, which
    needs to be constructed, manufactured, fabricated
    or assembled.
  • Istisna, is a contract in term of which a person
    buys on the spot something that is to be
    manufactured which the seller undertakes to
    provide after manufacturing same using materials
    of his own according to designated Specifications
    against a determined price.
  • Ijarah
  • (lease of objects) is the selling of a defined
    benefit (usufruct) against a specific
    consideration for a fixed period.

17
Murabaha Murabaha belongs to the class of
contracts in Islamic jurisprudence, called trust
sales (Bia amana).It has been recently developed
to act as the major financing mode in Islamic
banks in place of the forbidden interest- rate
financing.
18
Brokers and Mudarib
Investors
Money
Brokers
Underwriter

sfs
Money
Fees
19
Investors (Rab al Mal
Money (Liquidation)
Mudarabah Contract
Suppliers Contractors
?Equipment
contract
Equipment, goods
Profit
Money
20
  • Procedures
  • Need for finance is Determined by the MoF with
    co-ordination with ministries
  • MoF needs will be transferred to sfs (Mudarib)
  • Money generated from investors will be used by
    Mudarib to provide the required commodities
  • Contracts between MoF and sfs will be signed to
    give the MoF the right to use and own the
    commodities
  • Periodical payments by MoF
  • At maturity the Fund will be liquidated by
    selling the remaining assets and the payment of
    debt if any

21
  • Features and Advantages
  • Matches with Islamic principles, with close
    supervision of the Higher Shariah Board
  • Sovereign risk
  • High profitability, short intervals for profit
    distribution
  • Un-inflationary, provide finance with real assets
  • Stabile finance ranging between mid to long -
    term
  • Finance the development (Maintaining the golden
    Rule Balance for financing development and
    realizing profit
  • helps in flourishing KSE
  • Could be used to develop States
  • Open Market operations

22
  • Absorbs Inflation in Advance
  • Supply of money goods services
  • (stable economy)
  • Supply of moneylt goods services (inflationary
    economy)
  • Solution
  • 1) Add to goods services or
  • 2) Decrease the supply of money
  • 3) both 1) 2)
  • Srh provides capital goods, goods and services
    which add to goods services side.

23
What is needed?
  • Underwriters (Primary market)
  • Market-Maker (Secondary marker)

24
  • Taxation
  • No Tax is Levied (Attraction of Investment )
  • Is it advisable?
  • - Very high rate of profit
  • - Reduction of profit

25
Praise be to Allah, the Lord and Sustainer Of
the Worlds
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