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Three Sudanic States Ghana Mali Songhai


Three Sudanic States Ghana Mali Songhai Ghana Empire Ghana Empire It is believed to be the first of many empires that would rise in that part of Africa. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Three Sudanic States Ghana Mali Songhai

Three Sudanic StatesGhanaMaliSonghai
(No Transcript)
Ghana Empire
Ghana Empire
  • It is believed to be the first of many
    empires that would rise in that part of Africa.
  • It first began in the eighth century, when a
    dramatic shift in the economy of the Sahel area
    south of the Sahara allowed more centralized
    states to form.

Ghana Land of Gold
  • The introduction of the camel, which preceded
    Arabs and Islam by several centuries, brought
    about a gradual revolution in trade, and for the
    first time, the extensive gold, ivory, and salt
    resources of the region could be sent north and
    east to population centers in North Africa, the
    Middle East and Europe in exchange for
    manufactured goods.

Decline of Ghana
  • Ghana's preeminence faded toward the end of the
    eleventh century, when its power was broken by a
    long struggle with the Almoravids led by Abdullah
    ibn Yasin.
  • The Almoravid Muslim Empire

Mali Empire
  • The Mali Empire was a medieval West African state
    of the Mandinka from c. 1235 to c. 1610.
  • The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and
    became renowned for the wealth of its rulers,
    especially Mansa Musa I.
  • The Mali Empire had many profound cultural
    influences on West Africa allowing the spread of
    its language, laws and customs along the Niger

  • Mali emerged against the back-drop of a declining
    of Ghana under the dynamic leadership of Sundiata
    of the Keita clan.
  • But the region he took over had a past rich in
    trade and powerful rulers.

Mansa Musa
  • In the 13th year of his reign (1324), he set out
    on his famous pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • It was this pilgrimage that awakened the world to
    the stupendous wealth of Mali.
  • Traveling from his capital of Niani on the Upper
    Niger River to Cairo, Mansa Musa was accompanied
    by a caravan consisting of 60,000 men.
  • He also brought with him 80 camels loaded with
    300 pounds of gold each.

Mali was an Islamic Empire
  • Islamic Mosque at Djenne

Islamic University in Mali
  • The Muslim city of Timbuktu was a center of
    learning and scholarship.

City of Gao
  • Gao would become the capital of Songhai Empire

Songhai Empire
  • The Songhai Empire was a pre-colonial African
    state centered in eastern Mali.
  • From the early 15th to the late 16th century,
    Songhai was one of the largest African empires in
  • This empire bore the same name as its leading
    ethnic group, the Songhai.
  • Its capital was the city of Gao, where a small
    Songhai state had existed since the 11th century.
  • Its base of power was on the bend of the Niger

Sunni Ali
  • When Sunni Ali came to power, Songhai was a small
    kingdom in the western Sudan.
  • But during his twenty-eight-year reign, it grew
    into the largest, most powerful empire in West
    Africa. Painting by Leo Dillon.

Muhammed Ture/Askia the Great
  • Under Askia the Great's rule, education in the
    Songhai Empire, especially Timbuktu, flourished.
  • He built a university in Timbuktu for students.
  • Djenne also became a center of learning.

Decline of Sonhai
  • But in 1591 Morocco invaded Songhai.
  • Although the invaders were not very numerous,
    perhaps 4,000 men, they were armed with firearms,
    not yet seen in West Africa, and thus possessed
    an enormous advantage over their more
    traditionally equipped foes.
  • Ahmad al-Mansur (1549-1603)