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Art & Architecture of the Middle East and North Africa

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Art & Architecture of the Middle East and North Africa By Michelle Peck Williams REVIEW of the Middle East Canaan/Israel/Palestine The Hebrews/Israelites/Jews Judaism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Art & Architecture of the Middle East and North Africa


1
Art Architecture of the Middle East and North
Africa
  • By Michelle Peck Williams

2
REVIEW of the Middle East
  • Canaan/Israel/Palestine
  • The Hebrews/Israelites/Jews
  • Judaism
  • Monotheism
  • Abraham (2000 BC?)
  • Jerusalem
  • Torah (Old Testament to Christians)
  • Graven Image concept
  • Christianity
  • Jesus (4BC?)
  • Builds on Judaism but adds Jesus teachings,
    belief in Jesus as Messiah
  • Romans
  • Expel Jews, destroy temple in 70 AD
  • Persecute Christians but convert in 300s

3
History of Islam
  • 7th Century AD
  • Religion of Islam started by Muhammad, in what is
    now Saudi Arabia. Muslims are followers,
    Islam is the religion.
  • 8th Century AD on
  • Islamic empire spreads throughout the Middle
    East, North Africa, Spain, Pakistan, India,
    Bangladesh, Indonesia, etc.
  • 1453
  • Ottoman Turks (Muslims) take over Constantinople
    the Byzantine Empire, renaming it Istanbul.
  • 1492
  • Christians Ferdinand and Isabella defeat and kick
    out all the Muslims in Spain.

4
Art
  • Strict rules about graven images meant you
    could NOT make a picture of statue of God, a holy
    person, etc.
  • Muhammads face is usually not shown.
  • Books can show historical images but they are
    not for praying to.
  • Some rules relaxed later in some places, like
    Iran (Persians).
  • So, instead, Islamic art focused on REPETITION,
    using
  • Geometric patterns
  • Arabesques
  • Calligraphy

5
Geometric patterns
6
Arabesques (curved designs)
7
Calligraphy Fancy Writing
8
Islamic Architecture
  • Mosque place of worship

9
Many mosques feature columns, domes and arches.
10
Islamic architecture often uses an atrium plan.
11
Minarets are the towers where the muezzin calls
people to prayer.
12
Inside, mosques are carpeted and you must remove
your shoes.
13
Famous Mosques
  • The Kaaba, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

14
Famous Mosques
  • Medina

15
Famous Mosques
  • The Dome of the Rock, in Jerusalem, Israel

16
More Dome of the Rock
17
Dome of the Rock Interior
18
Famous Mosques
  • The Great Mosque of Cordoba in Spain

19
Other Famous Architecture
  • The Taj Mahal in India
  • Its a tomb, but it looks like a Mosque.
  • Built by Shah Jahan, a Muslim ruler of India in
    the 1600s.

20
Other Famous Architecture
  • The Alhambra in Spain
  • Its a palace (house).

21
More Alhambra
22
More Alhambra
23
More Alhambra
24
More Alhambra
25
Water
  • Because they were a desert culture, the early
    Muslims valued water highly, and often
    incorporated it into architectural design.
  • Water is used for washing before prayers, 5 times
    a day.

26
Arabic Science Math
  • To create such beautiful art works, Arabic
    geometry and math became very advanced.
  • They invented algebra.
  • Arabic numerals are still used today (0, 1, 2,
    3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).
  • They were the first to create hospitals with
    quarantine, the compass, lenses, and the first to
    create distilled alcohol as an anesthetic.
  • Arab libraries contained math science books
    from all over the world, and helped start the
    Renaissance in Europe.

27
Your PROJECT
  • Create an Islamic-style Geometric Kaleidoscope
    design.
  • It must have RADIAL BALANCE.
  • You must color the whole thing with RADIAL
    BALANCE with 3 or more colors to get full credit.

28
Islamic Exit Slips
  • Explain ONE way the BELIEFS of Islam influence
    the ART.
  • B. Explain ONE way you used Islamic style to
    create your design.
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