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Prophet Muhammad Islam Brief History and Teachings

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Title: Prophet Muhammad Islam Brief History and Teachings


1
Prophet Muhammad Islam Brief History and
Teachings
2
Arabia in 600 AD
  • Populated by various Arabic-speaking people
  • Bedouin - organized in tribes
  • Caravan meerchants and agriculturalists, living
    either in oases in the north, or in the more
    fertile and thickly settled areas to the south
  • Intense tribal loyalties warfare
  • Arab culture revered oral story telling
  • Majority of Arabs followed polytheistic religions
    worshipped idols
  • Few tribes followed Judaism, Christianity or
    Zoroastrianism
  • City of Mecca was a religious trade center
  • Rich mixtures of culture
  • Ka'aba - temple founded by Abraham
  • Yearly pilgrimage to site
  • Much social injustice economic disparity

3
Muhammad (570 632)
  • Born at Mecca into the Quraysh tribe
  • Orphaned at an early age raised by uncle
  • Illiterate but very articulate well liked
  • Became a successful merchant traveled north
  • Married older wealthy widow at 25 - Khadijah
  • Saw a crisis in Arab society
  • 610 AD.the divine call
  • Visited while meditating in cave by the Archangel
    Gabriel who commanded him to recite verses sent
    by God
  • Revelations continued for the next 22 years
  • Revelations collected in the Quran
  • Revelations directly related to the needs of the
    Arab people
  • First memorized the verses passed them to his
    wife close relatives
  • Small band of followers would memorize the
    recitations
  • First converts wife, cousin Ali, kinsman Abu
    Bakr
  • Starts preaching in 612
  • New recruits mainly from slaves and lower classes
  • Night journey to Jerusalem

4
Muhammad
  • 612-622 AD - in Mecca preaching and gaining
    followers
  • Seen as a trouble maker for attacking the
    establishment
  • Attempts to assasinate him
  • AD 622 the Hejira to Medina
  • Request to resolve dispute between rival tribes
  • With followers moved to neighboring city of
    Medina
  • Year 622 as the start of the Muslim calendar
  • 622-630 AD---in Medina
  • Becomes leader of city
  • Develops concept of Ummah - community
  • Mecca and Medina in conflict
  • Unites the surrounding tribes
  • 630 Mecca captured without fight
  • Cleansed the Kaaba of idols
  • 632 first Hajj or pilgrimage
  • By his death in 632, Muhammad had united the
    entire Arabian peninsula

5
  • MECCAN PERIOD
  • To establish Oneness of God
  • Warner
  • Giver of Glad Tidings
  • Day of God
  • MEDINAN PERIOD
  • Social Order
  • Law Justice
  • Equity
  • Ummah

6
Religion of Muhammad
  • Islam is the religion of submission or surrender
    to Allah
  • Simple and uncompromising faith in oneness of God
  • Muhammad did not believe he was preaching a new
    religion
  • Did not reject Judaism and Christianity
  • Sent by God in order to complete and perfect
    those teachings
  • Accepted Abraham, Moses and Jesus as prophets
  • Muhammad is the messenger of God
  • Last in a long line of prophets
  • Chosen by God to preach repentance and submission
    to God
  • Judgment Day Allah rewards the faithful with a
    paradise filled with eternal pleasure
  • Warns of the inevitable apocalypse end of the
    world
  • Humanity will be forced to atone for sins
  • Images of heaven (oasis) hell (desert)
  • Belief in Predestination
  • Whatever happens, good and evil, proceeds from
    divine will

7
Quran - Koran
  • Means Recitation
  • Recitation Communicating directly with God
  • Provides a guide for living as a Muslim
  • Revelations from God delivered through the angel
    Gabriel to Mohammed over 22 years
  • Revelations came from a heavenly book containing
    Gods wisdom
  • Mother of the Book
  • Final uncorrupted revelation of God
  • Contains 114 suras verses
  • Arranged by the length of sura
  • Contents Theological dogma, ceremonial
    regulations, laws related to social, civil and
    criminal behavior
  • Themes Oneness of Allah, his attributes, the
    ethical duties of man, and coming retribution
  • Quran must remain in Arabic
  • Translations not authentic

8
Writing of the Quran
  • None of Quran was written during Muhammads life
  • Still an oral scripture
  • Words of the Prophet at first memorized written
    on parchment or clay by followers
  • Zayd ibn Thabit one of Muhammeds secretaries
  • Began gathering the verses of the Quran soon
    after his death
  • Interviewed closest associates
  • Sorted into a type of order
  • Uthman (644-656) Third Caliph created an
    official and final version
  • Committee charged with compiling Quran in 651
  • Wanted to avoid controversy
  • Collect and authenticate verses
  • Strict criteria for authenticity
  • 2 eyewitnesses had to testify that each verses
    had been recorded in the presence of Muhammad
  • Then verified with companions of Muhammad
  • Approved verses amassed into single text
  • Uthman then ordered all other texts destroyed
  • Quran not altered since

9
Legacy of Muhammad
  • Concept of Ummah Community of Allah
  • First attempt to create a social organization out
    of faith instead of tribal relationships
  • Vision of social justice for all
  • Weak vulnerable should be protected treated
    with respect
  • Prophet, lawgiver, religious leader, chief judge,
    commander of the army and civil head of state
  • Inspiration as role model for living divinely
    inspired life
  • By studying details of his external life Muslims
    stove to acquire his interior attitude of perfect
    surrender to God

10
Islam
  • Islam is open to all who accept its tenets
  • Prohibition against idolatry or graven images
  • Islam has no organized hierarchy
  • No religious authority, clerical elite or
    priesthood to act as intermediary
  • Mullahs (teachers) occupy positions of authority
    because of their knowledge of the Quran
  • Sunna or Hadith - written collection of Arab oral
    traditions concerning life of Muhammad
  • Address issues not specifically covered in the
    Quran
  • Sharia Islamic Law
  • Three sources Quran, Sunna and Ijtihad
    analytic reasoning to cover locally raised issues
  • Quran prohibits alcohol and gambling
  • Jihad Call for Holy War against infidels????
  • Quran insists that there be no coercion in
    matters of faith

11
The Five Pillars of Faith
  • 1. Profession of Faith - Shahadah
  • There is no God but Allah (God), and
  • Muhammad is His Prophet.
  • First and last words heard
  • Most repeated words by Muslims
  • Person a Muslim once profession is repeated
  • 2. Prayer Salat
  • Direction toward Mecca
  • 5 times a day Call of Muezzin
  • Dawn, midday, mid-afternoon, sunset
    nightfall
  • Create sense of solidarity and social equality
  • Body posture essential
  • Must use Arabic
  • Friday noon prayer is only mandatory public
    prayer for all adult males
  • 3. Charity Zakat purification
  • Compassion for the poor
  • 2.5 of wealth expected

12
The Five Pillars of Faith
  • 4. Fasting - Sawm
  • Ramadan based on lunar calendar different
    each year
  • Daylight hours during month of Ramadan
  • 5. Pilgrimage to Kaaba in Mecca Hajj
  • All those who can afford and physically fit
  • Ideal of equality unity among believers
  • Unites cultures and ideas

13
Women in Islam
  • Under Arabian pre-Islamic law of status, women
    had virtually no rights
  • No limitations were set on men's rights to marry
    or to obtain a divorce.
  • Islamic law provided women with new legal rights
  • Reforms affected marriage, divorce, and
    inheritance
  • Islamic law restricted the polygamy
  • Women could obtain a divorce
  • Women could inherit and keep their own property
  • Marriage was no longer viewed as a "status" but
    rather as a "contract"
  • Law doesn't require women to wear veils

14
Islam After Muhammad
  • Shiites Only descendants of Fatima or her
    husband Ali should succeed Mohammed
  • Death of Imam Hussein (son of Ali) most
    celebrated event in Shiite calendar
  • Sunnis any follower of Islam should be eligible
    to lead
  • Division political religious
  • Never settled to this day
  • Series of Caliphs governed the Islamic State

15
Struggle for Succession
  • Number of conflicting parties sought to succeed
    Muhammad
  • Companions belonged to Muhammads tribe or had
    accepted mission early
  • Legitimists heir must belong to family of
    Muhammad
  • Ali paternal cousin, husband of daughter Fatima
    one of first believers
  • Aristocracy of Quraysh Umayyads
  • Held reigns of power wealth in pre-Islamic days
  • Companions triumphed with selection of abu-Bakr
  • Rashidun - Four righteous caliphs (632-661 AD)
  • All were close associates and relatives of
    Muhammad
  • Abu Bakr (632-634) Father-in-law of Muhammad and
    one of first believers
  • Umar (634-644) main military genius who carried
    Islam forward from the Arabian peninsula
  • Uthman (644-656) - empire fell into a civil war
    called the Fitna
  • In 656 Uthman is assassinated by followers of Ali
  • Ali  (656-661) Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin
  • Many refused to accept Ali as a leader
  • Killed by assassin
  • Umayyad dynasty claims the caliphate Damascus
    capital
  • Abbasid dynasty 754 seizes caliphate
  • al Mansur (754-775) builds new capital at Baghdad

16
Conquest Expansion
  • Expansion of Islamic empire against Byzantine
    Sassanid (Persian) empires
  • Abu-Bakr Orders jihad (holy struggle) against
    the "infidel" Christian or Byzantine Empire north
    of Arabia
  • Damascus becomes capital
  • Umar
  • 637 Defeated great Persian Sassanid army
  • 639 Conquers Alexandria base of Byzantine
    navy
  • 643 Arabs to border of India
  • Tariq ibn Zaid crossed from North Africa
    (Morocco) into Spain in 711
  • Expansion stopped in France in 732 Charles
    Martel
  • Military victories
  • Justice not fanaticism
  • No longer making war with other Arabs
  • Use of cavalry and camels
  • Remarkable mobility
  • High morale from religious enthusiasm
  • Conquered peoples more open to Islam
  • Reduced heavy burden of taxation
  • No persecution of Faiths

17
The Spread of Islam
18
Islamic Unity
  • Arabic became language of business, government
    literature
  • Uniform enforcement of law contributed to growth
    of united culture
  • Vast trade network extended from India to the
    Mediterranean

19
Rich Cultural Achievements
  • Many Islamic centers of culture and science
  • Baghdad
  • Cairo
  • Damascus
  • Cordoba
  • Alexandria
  • Scholarship
  • Produced notable scientists, astronomers,
    mathematicians, doctors and philosophers
  • Importance of reading the Qur'an produced a
    comparatively high level of literacy in the
    general populace
  • Heirs to Hellenistic Learning
  • Maintained Classical learning
  • Translation of Greek texts - Aristotle
  • Medicine
  • Architecture
  • Mosques, Palaces Minarets
  • Art
  • Geometric patterns, calligraphy, metal work

20
Science Medicine
  • Muslim scientists
  • Saw no contradiction between religion and laws
    governing natural world
  • Scientific method born
  • Utilized Classical Greek medical texts
  • Alchemy beginnings of chemistry
  • Muslim medicine
  • Advanced techniques ideas
  • Theory that disease born through air
    born organisms
  • Study of anatomy
  • Vascular cancer surgery
  • Study of light, lenses physiology of
    eye led to camera
  • Use of anesthetics
  • Pharmacies
  • Hospitals separate disease in
    different wards

21
Pioneers of Medicine
  • Razi (865 925) Rhazes in the West
  • Authored more than 100 books on medicine
  • First to diagnose and treat smallpox
  • Ibn Sina (980 1037) Known as Avicenna
  • Contributions in philosophy, music, mathematics,
    geography literature
  • Utilized experimentation observation
  • wrote Canon of Medicine encyclopedia
    of medicine
  • Study of infectious disease
  • Main medical text for 6 centuries
  • Printed extensively throughout the West

22
Mathematics
  • Introduced Arabic numerals originally from
    India
  • Replaced Roman numerals
  • Included the zero made for complex calculations
  • Perfected use of decimals and fractions
  • Invented Algebra

23
Trade
  • Seaborne Trade developed from Persian Gulf
  • Began to sail to China to trade
  • Traveled to Russia and Central Asia by land
  • Able to travel from Europe to Asia
  • Silk, furs, gold and precious stones, spices, and
    slaves
  • Orange tree, sugar, and paper

24
An Ever Advancing Civilization
  • Abraham Infancy/Family
  • Moses Toddlerhood/Tribe
  • Jesus Childhood/Love
  • Muhammad Adolescence/Nation

25
Where are Muslims Today?
26
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