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Chapter 9 Teams Lavallee et al. (2004) Sport Psychology: Contemporary Themes (Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke) In social psychology, the heyday of experimental ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Teams

Lavallee et al. (2004) Sport Psychology
Contemporary Themes (Palgrave Macmillan,
Introduction, History and Development
  • In social psychology, the heyday of experimental
    intragroup research ended by the 1980s
  • Primary topics included role differentiation,
    group structures and performance, social
    influence, communication and decision-making
  • Defining a Team
  • Two or more interdependent individuals who
    influence one another through social interaction
  • Along with Interaction, teams defined by -
    Structure Cohesiveness Social Identity Common
  • Team tasks Additive, Disjunctive, Conjunctive,
    Complementary, Discretionary
  • Primary distinction - Interactive vs. Co-active

Introduction, History and Development
  • Individual performance in teams
  • Dynamogism or social facilitation (Triplett,
  • Social loafing (Ringelmann, 1913)
  • Team dynamics
  • Team cohesion (Carron, 1988)
  • Task vs social cohesion
  • Team maturity
  • Team identity

Introduction, History and Development
  • Teams in context
  • Home vs Away
  • Home advantage may disappear later in
  • Dependent on various factors (e.g. crowd size,
    noise, type of sport, evaluation)
  • Team roles
  • Leadership roles
  • Playing position
  • Coaching styles
  • Role conflict role ambiguity

Theories and Models
  • Individual performance in teams
  • Social Facilitation
  • Various explanations, including Zajoncs drive
    theory (mere presence), Cottrell (evaluation)
    Baron (conflict)
  • Social Loafing
  • Competing theories, including Latanes social
    impact theory
  • Integration
  • Harkins Szymanski (1987) Mullen Baumeister
    (1987) - both phenomena are related
  • Karau Williams (2001) - collective effort model
  • Based on VIE theory, individual effort maximised
    with high personal involvement, evaluation,
    valued and well defined goals, unified team,
    collective efficacy

Theories and Models
  • Team dynamics
  • Defining
  • Task cohesion (group integration) Social
    cohesion (individual attraction)
  • More recently - perceptions of group integration
    (task / social) and individual attractions to the
    group (task / social)
  • Cota et al (1995) - also include normative
    values, position on team
  • Antecedents
  • 4 sets of factors contribute to a highly cohesive
    team - situational, personal, leadership and team
  • Need to consider not only team success but also
    individual perceptions
  • Conflicting research - cohesion may predict
    success but so may conflict
  • Task cohesion best predicts success not social

Theories and Models
  • Consequences
  • Need to consider not only team success but also
    individual perceptions
  • Conflicting research - cohesion may predict
    success but so may conflict
  • Task cohesion best predicts success not social
  • Team maturity
  • Stage model (forming, storming, norming,
    performing) (Tuckman, 1965)
  • More latterly, cycles of change (Arrow, 1997)

Theories and Models
  • Teams in Context
  • Home bias research largely atheoretical
  • More recently, explained with reference to
    self-attention and evaluation
  • Crowd density (not size) - collective effort model

Theories and Models
  • Team Roles
  • Contingency models of leadership, including
  • Fiedlers Contingency Model (situational control)
  • Vroom and Yettons Normative Model (decision
  • Hersey Blanchards Situational leadership
    Theory (maturity of followers)
  • Houses Path-Goal Theory (motivation)
  • Chelladurais Multidimensional Model (sport
  • Behaviour required of coach depends on sport,
    goals and environment
  • Actual behaviour depends on ability, knowledge
    and interpersonal skill
  • Preferred behaviour depends on characteristics of
    followers and situation

Theories and Models
  • Smith Smolls Medianational Model
  • Relationship between coach behaviour, players
    perceptions and player response
  • Effects mediated by individual differences
    (gender, age, anxiety, confidence, etc) and
    situational factors (sport, competition, team
    success, cohesion)
  • Role Episode Model in Sport (Kahn et al)
  • Contextual and personal factors determine the
    relationship between role ambiguity and
  • Dynamic interplay between role sender
    (coach/captain) and focal person (athlete)

Methods and Measures
  • Individual performance in teams
  • Audiences inactive or reactive
  • Co-actors (players) and regulators (officials)
    interactive or non-interactive
  • Team dynamics
  • Sport speciific scales include SCQ - 7 item TCQ
    - 13 item MCSI - 4 factors
  • Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) most
  • 18 items, measuring 4 dimensions
  • Attraction to the group (social) ATG-social
  • Attraction to the group (task) ATG-task
  • Group integration (social) GI-social
  • Group integration (task) GI-task

Methods and Measures
  • Teams in context
  • Input measures include audience characteristics,
    venue, sport type, stage of competition, team
  • Outcome measures include score configuration,
    assertiveness, aggression, fouling,
    sport-specific statistics
  • Team roles
  • Various measures of coach behaviour include
  • Coaching Decision Style Questionnaire (CDSQ,
    based on Vroom Yettons decision tree)
  • Coach Behaviour Description Questionnaire (CBDQ
    20 items, 8 categories - training, initiation,
    interpersonal team operations, social behaviour,
    representation behaviour, organised
    communication, recognition, general excitement)

Methods and Measures
  • Team roles cont.
  • Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS 40 items, 5
    subscales - training instruction, autocratic
    behaviour, democratic behaviour, social support,
    positive feedback)
  • LSS administered in 2 forms (My coach is I
    prefer my coach to .)
  • Individual differences (gender, age) reflect in
    preferred styles
  • Coaching Behaviour Assessment System (CBAS, 12
    categories, 2 groups - reactive behaviour and
    spontaneous behaviour)
  • Childrens self-esteem shown to relate to
    preferred coaching styles
  • Arizona State Univ. Observation Instrument
    (ASUOI, 13 categories)

Practical Issues and Interventions
  • Coaching
  • Greater focus now on coach education not direct
  • Coach must constantly monitor team dynamics to
    ensure effective communication and conflict
  • Coach Development
  • Gould et al (1990) - US coaches still relied more
    on hands-on experience than sport science support
  • NCF / Sport England etc. - coach education
  • Smoll and Smith (1998) - Coach Effectiveness
  • Orientation to winning
  • Feedback reinforcement
  • Establishment of social norms
  • Decision-making
  • Self-reflection / Monitoring
  • Gender and coaching

Practical Issues and Interventions
  • Team Building
  • Now seen as essential in many team individual
    sports, to
  • Satisfy belonging needs, Enhance loyalty
    Harness support
  • Provides stress buffers and feedback on
  • Gives the edge over less together teams
  • Often uncritically adopted despite potential
  • May be useful in helping a team develop, identify
    goals and clarify team identity but must be
    managed carefully to avoid comfort zone

Case Study
  • A close colleague of yours, Jimmy Nelson, has
    been in contact. He has been elected as
    coach/manager for his local amateur soccer team
    for the coming season and he has a few concerns.
    Jimmy is an ex-player with the team who has
    managed the youth team for two years with some
    success. The club as a whole has enjoyed a very
    good reputation over the years, winning the
    championship two seasons ago and losing in the
    final last year. The nucleus of the team is made
    up of seasoned campaigners who have been there
    and done that several times and Jimmy believes
    that they may be past their prime. Although there
    are no very clear signs of major problems, he
    felt that the league performance tailed off
    towards the end of the season and the team
    surrendered a two goal lead in the final to lose
    3-2. There are several good young players in the
    reserve team but the older players do not make
    them feel particularly welcome and there are
    rumours that some of the injuries picked up in
    pre-season training may have been caused
    maliciously. The captain is one of the
    established players, although injury sidelined
    him for most of last season and you are unsure if
    he should be reappointed. In training it would
    seem that there are two camps, and with the team
    about to head off on a team building long
    weekend at an army camp, Jimmy wants to meet to
    discuss how he should handle matters.

Case Study
  • Questions
  • With reference to the Theories and Models section
    in Chapter 9, how would you interpret what is
    happening in this case study?
  • With reference to Methods and Measures, what
    techniques would you employ to help understand
    and quantify the issues?
  • With reference to Practical Issues and
    Interventions, how would you deal with this

Study Questions
  • How may social loafing and social facilitation
    influence individual behaviour in team sports?
  • Critically evaluate the relationship between
    cohesion and success in team sports
  • Home advantage - does it exist and if so, when,
    where and why?
  • Discuss the contribution of contingency
    leadership models to our understanding of
    successful coaching in sport
  • Assess the effectiveness of team building as an
    applied technique for enhancing team performance

Further Reading
  • Bray, S.R. (1999) The Home Advantage from an
    Individual Team Perspective, Journal of Applied
    Sport Psychology, 11, 116-25
  • Carron, A.V. Hausenblas, H.A. (1998) Group
    Dynamics in Sport (2nd ed.). Morgantown, WV
    Fitness Info. Technology
  • Chelladurai, P. Doherty, A.J. (1998) Styles of
    Decision-Making in Coaching, in J.M. Williams
    (ed) Applied Sport Psychology Personal Growth to
    Peak Performance (3rd ed., pp. 115-26). Mountain
    View, CA Mayfield
  • Karau, S. J. Williams, K. D. (2001)
    Understanding Individual Motivation in Groups,
    in M. E. Turner (ed) Groups at Work Advances in
    Theory and Research (pp. 113-41). Mahwah, NJ
  • Paskevich, D.M., et al (2001) Group cohesion in
    Sport and Exercise, in R.N. Singer, H.A.
    Hausenblas and C.M. Janelle (eds) Handbook of
    Sport Psychology (2nd ed., pp. 472-94). New York
  • Smoll, F.E. Smith, R.E. (1998) Conducting
    Psychologically Oriented Coach Training
    Programs, in J.M. Williams (ed) Applied Sport
    Psychology Personal Growth to Peak Performance
    (3rd ed.). Mountain View, CA Mayfield
  • Strauss, B. (2002) Social Facilitation in Motor
    Tasks, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, vol. 3,
    pp. 237-56