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Collaborating for Success: Leadership and Teaming in a


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Title: Collaborating for Success: Leadership and Teaming in a

Collaborating for Success Leadership and Teaming
in a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) and Problem
Solving (PS) System
  • Illinois ASPIREAlliance for School-based
    Problem-solving Intervention Resources in
  • Illinois ASPIRE is a State Personnel
    Development Grant-funded initiative of the
    Illinois State Board of Education. All funding
    is from federal sources.

Illinois ASPIREAlliance for School-based
Problem-solving Intervention Resources in
  • Project Goal Establish and implement a
    coordinated, regionalized system of personnel
    development that will increase school systems
    capacity to provide early intervening services
    with an emphasis on reading, aligned with the
    general education curriculum, to at-risk students
    and students with disabilities, as measured by
    improved student progress and performance.

Illinois ASPIRE Alliance for School-based
Problem-solving Intervention Resources in
  • Objectives
  • Deliver research-based professional development
    and technical assistance in Problem-Solving
    Service Delivery Systems, Response-to-Intervention
    (RTI), scientifically based reading instruction,
    and Standards Aligned Classrooms (SAC).
  • Increase the participation of parents in
    decision-making across district sites.
  • Incorporate professional development content into
    higher education general and special education
    preservice graduate level curricula.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of project activities.

Objective 1 Research-Based Professional
Development T.A.
  • 4 Regional Illinois ASPIRE Centers
  • Chicago Chicago Public Schools
  • North Northern Suburban Spec. Ed. Dist.
  • Central Peoria ROE 48
  • South Southern Illinois University
  • Collaboratives of LEAs, IHEs, regional providers
    and parent entities
  • Responsible for
  • Training to districts and parents in region
  • General technical assistance (T.A.)
  • On-site T.A. to school data collection/demonstrati
    on sites

For More Information www.illinoisaspire.n
et ISBE Kathryn Cox 217-782-5589
  • Illinois ASPIRE North
  • Dr. Mark Shinn
  • 847-275-7200
  • Illinois ASPIRE Central
  • Christy Culen
  • 309-657-9337
  • Illinois ASPIRE South
  • Dr. Melissa Bergstrom
  • 618-650-3182
  • Illinois ASPIRE Chicago
  • Amy Dahlstrom Klainer
  • 773-553-2209

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Learner OutcomesYou will be able to
  • Identify the factors shared by schools that are
    successful in increasing student achievement.
  • Identify factors to address in change initiatives
    such as RtI/PS.
  • Describe the critical stages in the development
    of a PS/RtI system.

Learner Outcomes (continued)
  • Assess status of commitment to or readiness for
    implementation of a RtI/PS system in your school
    and develop strategies for increasing commitment.
  • Assess status of prevention/intervention systems
    in your school and develop initial plans for
  • Identify team structure and processes for the
    effective implementation of RTI/PS
  • Assess status of implementation of data
    assessment systems and develop plans for

Learner Outcomes (continued)
  • Assess family involvement in the individual
    problem solving process and develop strategies
    for needed changes.
  • Assess and increase the leadership role of staff
    in the implementation of RTI/PS.
  • Identify resources to assist in the
    implementation of a RtI/PS system.
  • Identify the means to evaluate team processing
    and outcomes of implementing RTI/PS in your

Big Ideas about the Role of the Principal and
Leadership in the Development and Implementation
of a RtI/PS System
  • Implementation of RtI/PS involves change
  • Change is a complex process involving attention
    to identifiable critical factors.
  • Schools that successfully implement RtI/PS share
    common characteristics
  • core beliefs
  • role of prevention and intervention
  • collaborative teaming
  • data-based decision-making
  • parental/community engagement
  • leadership

Big Ideas (continued)
  • Successful implementation of RtI/PS is based on
    the premise that schools are responsible for the
    learning of all students and the principals role
    is crucial in setting expectations for this
    within the school.
  • Implementation of RtI/PS takes heart, courage,
    knowledge and a willingness to change for the

Big Ideas (continued)
  • Development of a RtI/PS system requires consensus
    building, infrastructure development and action
    toward implementation.

Prerequisite KnowledgeKnow what RtI and PS

Lets Briefly ReviewWhat is RTI?
One Minute Sharing with Partner
RTI Response-to- Intervention
or matching
student need to instruction or intervention in
order to increase student achievement
RTI is about.
  • having a system of instruction
  • and intervention.
  • intensity of instruction
  • and intervention.
  • using different data
  • measures.
  • using different academic
  • and behavior Interventions.
  • a different system for
  • determining eligibility.

Rather than devoting extensive resources to
finding out whether students have disabilities,
we should devote those resources to assessing
students exact instructional needs using models
like Response-to-Intervention. Schools will need
to provide this instruction through collaboration
between general and special education personnel
to ensure that all students continue to have full
access to the general education curriculum..lets
teach the children what they need to know. Harry
and Klinger, Educational Leadership
What is Problem Solving?
One Minute Sharing with Partner
What is PS (Problem Solving)?
  • A team-based, data-based decision-making
    process designed to improve educational and
    behavioral outcomes by asking these questions at
    every level of the tiered prevention/intervention
  • Problem Identification--What Is The Problem? Is
    it Significant?
  • Problem Analysis--Why Is The Problem Occurring?
  • Plan Development--What Are We Going To Do About
  • Plan Evaluation--Did The Plan Work?

Why RtI/PS NowMany of its basic tenets have
been around for some time.
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  • Malcolm Gladwell in his book, The Tipping
    Point How Little Things Can Make a Big
    Difference, analyzes what he calls, social
    epidemics. The Tipping Point is thatmoment when
    an idea, trend or social behavior crosses a
    threshold, tips, and spreads like wildfire.
  • One impetus to this is the power of
    contextenvironmental features that impact how
    people behave.

Right now in education we operate in a context
ofAccountability!!!!and we see this in this
educational legislation.
Contextual Issues Affecting The RtI/PS Process in
General and Special Education
  • ESEA Legislation-No Child Left Behind and AYP
  • IDEA Re-Authorization
  • Focus on academic outcomes
  • General education as baseline metric
  • Labeling as a last resort
  • Increasing general education options
  • Pooling building-based resources
  • Flexible funding patterns
  • RtI Introduced as option for LD eligibility
  • National Emphasis on Reading and
  • Reading First Initiative
  • Evidence-based/Scientifically-based
  • Interventions
  • Heartland, June, 2006 (modified)

Quote from ISBESchool Improvement Plan
  • (In reference to looking at ISAT and local
    assessment data)
  • respond(ing) to three prompts a) What do
    these data tell you? b) What factors are likely
    to have contributed to these results? and c) What
    conclusion for school improvement do you draw?
  • List key factors that are within the
    schools capacity to change or control which
    contribute to low achievement

Seven Common Traits Observed in Successful Schools
  • Strong Leadership
  • Positive Belief and Teacher Dedication
  • Data Utilization and Analysis
  • Effective Scheduling
  • Professional Development
  • Scientifically Based Intervention Programs
  • Parent Involvement
  • Crawford, E., Torgesen, J. Teaching All Students
    to Read Practices from Reading First Schools
    with Strong Intervention Outcomes-Complete
    Report, Florida Center for Reading Research

More Thoughts on What It Will Take to Change
Whats Wrong with the Current Educational System
  • Richard Elmore
  • The pathologies of the existing
    institutional structurea normative environment
    that views all matters of practice as matters of
    idiosyncratic taste and preference, rather than
    subject to serious debate, discourse, or inquiry
    a structure of work in which isolation is the
    norm, and collective work is the exception and a
    managerial philosophy in which it is the job of
    administrators to protect or buffer teachers from
    the consequences of their instructional decisions
    and from any serious discussion of practicethese
    pathologies are all being addressed, in one way
    or another, in isolated school systems that are
    seriously at work in the problems of large-scale
    improvement. (p.35)

One Minute Sharing with Partner
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Big Picture Overview Stages Of RtI/PS
  • Consensus Building
  • Infrastructure Development
  • Implementation
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Stages of Implementing Problem-Solving/RtI
  • Consensus
  • Beliefs are shared and agreed upon
  • Vision statement exists
  • RtI and PS are understood
  • Implementation requirements are understood
  • Leadership is provided by the principal and key
    school staff
  • Infrastructure Development
  • System self-study completed
  • Universal screening and benchmarking system has
    been developed
  • System of prevention/intervention has been
  • Core Leadership team identified and committed
  • Problem solving team(s) and processes developed
  • Plan for sustainability has been developed
  • Revision of special education eligibility
    processes has been developed
  • Implementation
  • Roll out of RtI/PS begins or continues with
    increasing sophistication
  • Evaluation of student outcomes, system data,
    problem solving process and consumer satisfaction

Stage One
  • Consensus Building

What Beliefs Should Be Shared???
  • RtI/PS is a General Education Initiative, not
    primarily a Special Education initiative.
  • Improving the effectiveness of core instruction
    is basic to this process
  • NO Child Left Behind Really Means NO Meeting
    AYP through RtI!
  • Assessment (data) should both inform and evaluate
    the impact of instruction
  • Beliefs must be supported by research

Beliefs (cont.)
  • There is a shared responsibility for student
    achievement across the entire school community.
  • Parents are vital members of the team to support

Two Minute Reflection
Consensus Building Activities What to Do?
  • Discuss how RtI/PS relates to state and district
    goals and initiatives with district leadership
    and gain support for building implementation.
  • Identify school leadership to support RtI/PS.
  • Provide information to school staff.
  • Why RtI/PS?
  • What is it? What is it not?
  • What are the benefits of RtI/PS?
  • What will it take to implement?

Consensus Building Activities (cont.)
  • Identify the consensus level among staff for
    implementing RtI/PS.
  • Determine next steps with leadership team.
  • Plan to support this change initiative in the

Definitions of Change
  • To leave one train, bus, etc and board another
  • To put on other clothes
  • To make different to alter to vary
  • Heartland, June, 2006 Websters New World

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Faced with the choice between changing ones
mind and proving that there is no need to do so,
almost everybody gets busy on the proof. (John
Kenneth Galbraith)
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Why do people resist change?Fear of.
  • Failure
  • Success
  • Losing Power
  • Hard Work
  • Having to be different
  • Source The All Star Company

Why do people embrace change?Excitement about
  • The unknown
  • The possibility of success
  • Being the best you can be
  • Proving something
  • Being able to be different
  • Source The All Star Company

Table Talk
  • Think about your own involvement as an
    educator in a significant change in your
    district, school or classroom. How did you react
    to this change and what factors either made you
    hesitant or enthusiastic about the change?

McRELs View of Change
  • A change is defined by the implications it has
    for the people expected to implement it and/or
    those who will be impacted by it.
  • The same change can be perceived
  • differently by different stakeholders
  • McREL

Definitions Order of Change
  • First-order of change
  • Second-order of change

First or Second Order Change?Do staff perceive
the change as
  • First-order Implications
  • an extension of the past?
  • consistent with prevailing organizational norms?
  • congruent with personal values?
  • easily learned using existing knowledge and
  • Second-order Implications
  • a break with the past?
  • inconsistent with prevailing organizational
  • incongruent with personal values?
  • requiring new knowledge and skills?
  • McREL

Table Talk
  • Discuss whether implementing RtI/PS is going to
    be a first-order or second-order change for your

Personal Impact of Change
  • Its not so much that were afraid of change or
    so in love with the old ways, but its that place
    in between that we fear Its like being on a
    trapeze. Its Linus when his blanket is in the
    dryer. Theres nothing to hold on to.
  • Marilyn Ferguson, The Aquarian Company

Managing Complex Change

Action Plans

Managing Complex Change

Action Plans

Mission vs Vision
  • A Mission Statement reminds a school why it
  • A Vision Statement paints a picture of what a
    school can become in the future.

  • Blankstein, Failure is Not an Option, p.84

Managing Complex Change

Action Plans

Managing Complex Change

Action Plans

Managing Complex Change

Action Plans

Managing Complex Change

Action Plans

Having a Shared Vision Why?
  • Shared vision provides incentive to all involved.
  • Shared vision provides coordination and focus to
    your actions.
  • Shared vision promotes sustainability.
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Table Talk
  • Discuss the status of your school in regard to
    the following
  • How well does the vision of our school match
    the beliefs underlying RtI/PS? What can we do to
    improve the match?

Role of the Principal
  • Sets vision for problem-solving process
  • Supports development of expectations
  • Responsible for allocation of resources
  • Facilitates priority setting
  • Ensures follow-up
  • Supports program evaluation
  • Monitors staff support/climate

The PrincipalContent Knowledge
  • Understanding of
  • Need for research-based core, supplemental and
    intensive instructional strategies and
  • Components of a successful professional
    development plan
  • Need for and skills in data-based decision-making
    and the need to share outcome data frequently
  • Need to publicly recognize the relationship
    between staff efforts and student outcomes
  • Need to involve and inform parents of the
    essential elements of RtI/PS and their role in
    the process

From Research
  • Leaders are change-makers and these are some
    of the things they do to make change happen.
  • articulate a shared vision
  • plan and provide resources
  • invest in professional development and
  • check or assess progress
  • continue to give assistance
  • create a context conducive to change
  • Southwest Educational Development Laboratory,
    Spring 2000, Issues About Change

Research on principals in schools embracing RTI/PS
  • Do principals exhibit research-based leadership
    competencies/attributes in these schools?
  • Yes, they demonstrate instructional leadership,
    support professional development, foster a
    collaborative climate,focus on student
    achievement and understand the change process.
  • Dissertation Dr. Diane Morrison

  • However

Principals arent the only ones who can exercise
leadership within a school.Teachers do so as
What fosters the growth of teacher leaders?
  • A school culture that---
  • focuses on learning, inquiry and reflectice
  • encourages initiative
  • expects teamwork and shared decision-making
  • values teachers as role models for other
  • has a sense of community that fosters

What fosters the growth of teacher leaders?
  • Relationships that
  • recognize and respect teacher leaders with
    subject-area and instructional expertise
  • reflect high trust among teacher peers and
    between teachers and administrators
  • encourage work central to the teaching and
    learning process
  • reflect clearly defined teacher-leader and
    administrator-leader domains, as well as shared
    leadership responsibilities.
  • reflect positive interpersonal relationships

What fosters the growth of teacher leaders?
  • Structural supports that
  • provide adequate access to materials
  • provide adequate time and space
  • facilitate professional development
  • What is clearis that traditional forms of
    management must be modified to be more horizontal
    and less hierarchial for teacher leadership to
  • York-Barr,J., Duke, K. (2004) What do we know
    about teacher leadership? Findings from two
    decades of scholarship. Review of Educational
    Research 74(3), 255-316.

Table Talk
  • What practices exist in your school right now
    that encourage teacher leadership? How might
    these practices be expanded or improved? How
    would these relate to the implementation of
    RtI/PS in your school?

Leadership Team Activities
  • Assess school needs
  • Develop and define expectations
  • Plan staff development
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of efforts
  • Create and maintain an action plan to guide
    ongoing efforts
  • Plan for sustainability (change in team members)
  • Communicate to stakeholders
  • Obtain or allocate other resources
  • Obtain staff buy-in

  • Think about what motivates teachers.
  • A shared vision?
  • Improved student performance?
  • Data that shows growth?
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Final Thought
  • What Can Be Done To Sustain Your Efforts?
  • Sustaining Your Reform Five Lessons from
  • BenchmarksThe Quarterly Newsletter of the
    National Clearinghouse for Comprehensive School
  • Summer, 2002
  • http//

Useful Internet Sites for Information on RtI/PS
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//

Stage Two
  • Infrastructure Building

PART 1 Establishing the Prevention/Intervention
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Infrastructure Guiding Questions
  • Is the core program sufficient?
  • If the core program is not sufficient, why isnt
  • How will needs identified in the core be
  • How will the effectiveness and efficiency of the
    core be monitored over time?
  • Have improvements to the core been effective?
  • For which students is the core program sufficient
    or not sufficient and why?
  • What specific supplemental and intensive
    instruction is needed?
  • How will supplemental and intensive instruction
    be delivered?
  • How will effectiveness of supplemental and
    intensive instruction be monitored?
  • Which students need to move to a different level
    of instruction?
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Think School Improvement Process
Data to Know that Things Went Well
Patterson 1st to 2nd grade cohort R-CBM Data by
Percent meeting CBM/ISAT Standards
Courtesy of Christine Martin, Indian Prairie
School District, IL
Building Effective Problem Solving Teams
The Traditional Way Referral Driven
Problem-Solving Only
The New Way RtI and Individual
Referral-Driven Problem Identification
  • Combines the use of benchmark data from the
    universal screening process to identify students
    needing supplemental or intensive instruction
    (RtI), along with continued use of an individual
    student referral driven process to identify
    students who may require additional academic or
    behavioral intervention.

Common Types of Teams
  • Grade Level TeamsReview Universal Screening data
    after each benchmark period and progress
    monitoring data on students receiving Tier 2 and
    3 instruction.
  • Core Leadership TeamReview outcome data from
    implementing RtI/PS and identify goals for next
  • Individual Problem Solving Team--Develop
    individualized plans for students not responding
    to intervention.

  • Building Teams Are NOT Business as Usual with
    an Emphasis on SE Eligibility and/or
    Pre-Referral Intervention--
  • How They are Structured (Skill Sets vs License or
  • How They Act (Less Talk, More Action)
  • Decisions Based on Data
  • Translating Problems Into Better Tools, Better,
    Training, and More Support
  • Problem Solving Decisions

Teaming is
  • the process of working as a cohesive,
    integrated, and representative collection of
    individuals who lead the systems change and
    implementation process (OSEP, 2004).

Problems with Some Current Building Teams
  • Lots of talking about impressions
  • Long meetings
  • Few shared perspectives and common data systems
  • Pervasive negative feelings or lack of knowledge
    about the process
  • Lots of dumping (on teachers, parents and
    sometimes students)
  • The development of weak interventions and poor
    support for our colleagues
  • Limited, if any, documented gains for students
  • Lack interdisciplinary collaboration or trust

Too Often, Teams are Considered a Procedural,
Necessary Evil for
  • Finally getting tested for special education
  • Passing the problem and responsibility for the
    solution to someone else
  • Assigning blame to someone else (student, family,
    school, past teacher)
  • OR
  • A waste of time!

Characteristics of Effective Teams
BIG Ideas of Effective Teaming
  • Work less and get more
  • Consolidate prioritize
  • Communicate
  • Be strategic about problem solving

Essential Vocabulary
  • Team structure
  • organization of team
  • Team processes
  • group structure and communication dynamics that
    enhance, or detract from, intervention planning
    and implementation.

Team Structure
  • Membership
  • Schedule
  • Roles/functions
  • Models

WHO? Team Membership
  • 4-8 People.
  • Representation of ALL building resources that
  • Administrator
  • General education (consider grade level
  • Special education
  • Special services (e.g., school psychology,
    counselors, social worker)
  • Parent(s)
  • Constant Membership

When Selecting Membership
  • Effective teams are comprised of personnel who
    have expertise in the teams topic (Iverson,
  • Select members of the team who not only have
    interest, but also have skills necessary to
    support system wide problem solving

WHAT? Roles and Responsibilities
  • Principal / Administrator
  • Timekeeper
  • Note Taker
  • Case (Data) Manager
  • Teacher Requesting Assistance
  • Facilitator
  • All Team Members

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  • All Team Members
  • What they do Participate during team meetings.
    Help collect data and implement interventions
    outside of the meetings.
  • Characteristics Trained on the problem-solving
    process and related skills.
  • Tips Not necessary for team members to know the
    student. All members should be committed to the
    success of the problem-solving process.

WHEN? Meeting Time
  • A consistent meeting time.
  • Use time efficiently.
  • Never do at a meeting what can be done at another

WHERE? Location
  • Consistent meeting area.
  • Room should be comfortable for teaming
  • Should have access to confidential student files.

Table Talk
  • Create or evaluate the following about your
    problem-solving team
  • Who? Team Membership
  • What? Roles and Responsibilities
  • When? Meeting Time
  • Where? Location

Team Models
  • Case management model-
  • Diverse membership
  • Team members receive training to do all roles and
  • Meets to identify case manager
  • Case manager then meets with referring teacher
    and parent
  • Broad participation model
  • Diverse membership
  • All team members meet with referring teacher and

Team Processes
  • Purposes
  • Processes
  • Problem Solving Tasks
  • Evaluation of Teaming

Underlying Belief
  • group decision-making and collaboration produce
    better outcomes than individual decision-making!

  • Decide
  • Major decisions after data are collected
  • Document
  • To ensure that there is a record of what needs to
    be done
  • Delegate
  • Who is going to do what
  • Manage
  • Make sure the work gets done

Some Suggestions for Efficiency
  • Distribute agenda prior to meeting
  • Remind team members to complete tasks and come
  • Use timer to enforce time limits
  • Take meeting notes
  • Keep all agenda, notes, materials in 3-ring
  • Meet at same time on same day
  • Description of Problem Solving Method in meeting

Making Purpose of Meeting EXPLICIT
  • At start of meeting
  • Review goal of meeting (what is to be
    accomplished in the timeframe)
  • Review problem solving process to reach goal
  • Provide steps of problem solving process both
    orally and written
  • Point out each p-s step throughout the meeting to
    help stay on track

Steps of the Problem Solving Process Problem
Identification 1. Identify the primary area of
concern and describe it in measurable, observable
terms. 2. Based on collected data write a
discrepancy statement that defines the difference
between the student of concern and typical
peers. Problem Analysis 1. Using the domains of
Learner, Environment, Curriculum and Instruction
generate hypotheses that describe the possible
causes of the students problem. 2. Select the
alterable hypothesis(ses) that are supported by
RIOT data. 3. Collect additional data, if
necessary, to confirm hypothesis(ses). Program
Development 1. Write a measurable goal. 2.
Brainstorm possible ways to intervene to achieve
goal. 3. Select those interventions that are most
likely to address the causes of the students
problem and that are supported by research and
the classroom teacher. 4. Write an intervention
and progress monitoring plan. Plan Evaluation 1.
Review progress monitoring data. 2. Determine
success of intervention(s). 3. Identify status of
goal achievement. 4. Make necessary revisions, if
appropriate. 5. Set next review date.
Respecting Teachers- Interview Before Meetings
and Plan After
  • Interviewing during meetings may
  • Create potential defensiveness as it can feel
  • Requires spontaneous, less thought out answers
  • Create the elephant in the room phenomenon
  • Be time consuming for teachers and others
  • Complete planning interventions with teachers
    after meetings
  • - Takes LESS time for other team members yet
    allows MORE time for actual planning at the
    convenience of teachers

Additional Considerations for Teams
Consider Different Team Models
  • Grade level teams (Cluster teams) Organized
    around particular grade levels
  • Pathway teams Organized around multi-grade
    groupings of classes (i.e., a primary team for
    grades K-3, and intermediate team for grades 4-6)
  • Building Teams One team for all grades in a
    particular building
  • Unit Teams Organized around a physical unit of
    a school (i.e., house of a high school)

Considerations continued.
  • How will teachers/staff refer a problem to the
  • How is the team notified about new cases/meeting
  • If you have a dual system, (e.g., a problem
    solving team and a child study team) consider
    criteria for bringing cases to either team.
  • How are roles and responsibilities assigned
    (permanent or rotating?)

Recommended Timelines
  • Request from referring teacher
  • 1-2 weeks for team to collect Problem
    Identification and Analysis data
  • Intervention Support
  • A member of Problem-Solving team should meet with
    the referring teacher/staff member during the
    first 2 days of intervention implementation and
    follow-up weekly
  • Intervention Evaluation
  • Follow-up meeting should be scheduled at initial
    Problem-Solving meeting based on individual
    student case and progress monitoring data should
    be collected weekly

Develop Useful, User Friendly Forms
  • Necessary for documenting information and should
    be aligned with your process.
  • Should be easy to follow and contain only the
    most useful information.
  • Some helpful forms
  • Request for Assistance
  • Team and Parent Notification
  • Documentation of Problem-Solving Steps
  • Intervention Planning Form (IPF)
  • Create a manual to ensure long-term
    implementation and institution of the process.
  • Mission Statement
  • Visual of schools process
  • Logistics (e.g., meeting time, roles and
    responsibilities, team membership)
  • Forms

Stage Three
  • Implementation

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Look at Student Outcomes
Look at the Process and System Outcomes
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Looking at Consumer Satisfaction
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Final Activity
  • Create a next steps plan by completing the
    following. Be ready to share at least some part
    of your plan with the group.

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Possible Actions
  • Identify written material on RtI/PS that can be
    used for a book study.
  • Involve the staff in writing a vision statement
    for the school.
  • Investigate possible universal screening/benchmark
    ing system.
  • Train staff on how to administer and score early
  • Develop an informational brochure on RtI/PS for

Also Check Out.
  • http//

In the middle of difficulty lies
opportunity.Attributed to Albert Einstein
  • Heartland AEA
  • Pam Radford

  • Response to InterventionPolicy Considerations
    and Implementation
  • National Association of State Directors of
    Special Education, Inc.
  • December, 2005
  • The Tipping Point How Little Things Can Make
    a Big Difference
  • Malcolm Gladwell
  • 2002
  • The All Star Company People, Performance,
  • Nick Marsh
  • 1994
  • The RtI Guide Developing and Implementing a
    Model in Your Schools
  • John E. McCook
  • 2006
  • A Principals Guide to Intensive Reading
    Interventions for Struggling Readers in Reading
    First Schools
  • Joseph Torgeson

  • Failure is Not an Option Six Principles
    that Guide Student Achievement in High
    Performing Schools
  • Alan M. Blankstein
  • 2004
  • Whole Language High Jinks How to Tell When
    Scientifically-Based Reading Instruction Isnt
  • Louisa Moats
  • Thomas B. Fordham Institute
  • Iverson, Annette M., (2002). Best
    practices in problem solving team structure and
    process, Best Practices in School Psychology IV,
    pp. 657-670.
  • Elmore, Richard, (2000). Building a New
    Structure for School Leadership, Albert Shanker
    Institute, Winter 2000.
  • Harry, Beth and Klinger, Janette, (2007)
    Discarding the Deficit Model, Educational
    Leadership, V.64, 5, pp.16-21.

Thank You!!!!!
Supplemental Slides
Core Program
  • Question 1 Is our core program sufficient?
    (Problem Identification)
  • Step 1 Identify screening tool(s)
  • Step 2 Identify proficiency cut points for
  • identified tools
  • Step 3 Collect universal screening data
  • Step 4 Enter, organize, summarize data
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Core Program
  • Question 1 Is our core program sufficient?
  • Step 5 What percentage of proficiency
  • is acceptable?
  • Step 6 What percentage of our students are
    proficient and not proficient?
  • Step 7 Make Comparison
  • Step 8 Fork in the Road - What work, if
  • any, do we need to do with our Core
  • programming?
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Core Program
  • Question 2 If the core is not sufficient, why
    isnt core sufficient? (Problem Analysis)
  • Step 1 Review Assessment
  • Step 2 Review Instruction
  • Step 3 Review Curriculum/Standards
  • Step 4 Review CIA Alignment
  • Step 5 Consider other distal factors
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Three Stages of Assessment Needed to Guide
  • Stage 1 Screening Assessment - Targets a group
    of students
  • Stage 2 Diagnostic Assessment - Pinpoints
    instructional needs
  • Stage 3 - Progress Monitoring/Formative
    Assessment - Shows whether the student is being
    affected by the intervention or learning is
    accelerated by the intervention
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Review Assessment
  • Assessment Measuring or judging the learning
    and performance of students.
  • Consider
  • Do you have three types of assessment?
  • Do you have a data system that is easy to use and
    is someone using it?
  • Is your data used for instructional
    decisions/guiding instruction?
  • Are assessments technically adequate?
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Review Instruction
  • Instruction How the curriculum is taught.
  • Consider
  • What tools, methods and strategies are used to
    deliver the instruction?
  • Are SBR practices used?
  • Adequate time? (Efficiency and Effectiveness)
  • What evidence indicates teachers are following
    the state teaching standards?
  • Is there evidence that instruction is driven by
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Review Curriculum/Standards
  • Curriculum is the body of knowledge that all
    students are expected to learn. Curriculum can
    be specific knowledge and learning processes.
    Curriculum is defined in district standards and
  • Consider
  • Are the Big Ideas (Important concepts, knowledge
    and skills) covered in the written curriculum and
    taught curriculum?
  • Is the curriculum driven by the
  • Is there breadth and depth to the curriculum
    across grade levels?
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Review CIA Alignment
  • Alignment is the degree to which the
    individual parts of an educational system fit
    together, with each other and as a whole.
  • Check alignment across curriculum, instruction,
    assessment and standards
  • Check vertical alignment (the match across grades
    in one component)
  • Check horizontal alignment (the degree of
    alignment across two or more components within
    the same grade.
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Consider Other Distal Factors
  • Professional Development
  • Leadership/ Supervision
  • Internal Communication
  • Culture and Climate
  • Heartland, June, 2006
  • External Environment
  • Stakeholders
  • Resources
  • Technology

Core Program
  • Question 3 How will needs identified in core be
    addressed? (Plan Development)
  • Step 1 Determine needs
  • Step 2 Identify resources/training needed to
    address identified needs.
  • Step 3 Develop an action plan
  • Step 4 Implement the plan.
  • Step 5 Evaluate the impact of the plan on your
    core program.
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Core Program
  • Question 4 How will the sufficiency and
    effectiveness of the core program be monitored
    over time? (Progress Monitoring)
  • Step 1 What are the key indicators of success?
  • Step 2 What is baseline performance?
  • Step 3 What is the desired goal?
  • Step 4 Determine your data collection plan.
  • Step 5 Make decisions about sufficiency and
    effectiveness of the core.
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Core Program
  • Question 5 Have improvements to the core been
    effective? (Plan Evaluation)
  • Step 1 Consider student achievement data
  • Step 2 Compare current with baseline data
  • Step 3 Consider implementation data
  • Step 4 Make decision about effectiveness
  • Step 5 Begin needs assessment again
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Supplemental and Intensive
  • Question 6 For which students is the core
    instruction sufficient and not sufficient, and
    why? (Problem Identification/Problem Analysis)
  • Step 1 List students for whom the core is not
    sufficient. (Significantly exceeding or less than
  • Step 2 Determine diagnostic assessment
    tool(s)/process to identify instructional need.
  • Step 3 Determine expectations of performance for
    the diagnostic tool(s)/process.
  • Step 4 Plan logistics and collect diagnostic
  • Step 5 Organize, summarize, display results
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Supplemental and Intensive
  • Question 7 What specific supplemental and
    intensive instruction is needed? (Plan
  • Step 1 Identify current resources to match
    instructional needs.
  • Step 2 Identify additional resources needed to
    match instructional needs.
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Find the GAPS
Supplemental and Intensive
  • Question 8 How will specific supplemental and
    intensive instruction be delivered?
  • Step 1 Review materials/strategies/processes
    selected for instructional groups
  • Are materials/strategies/processes organized for
  • Is professional development needed for
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Supplemental and Intensive
  • Question 8 How will specific supplemental and
    intensive instruction be delivered?
  • Step 2 Who will provide instruction?
  • Consider doing a Personnel Resource Inventory
  • General Education
  • Title Teachers
  • Special Education
  • Gifted Education specialist
  • ESL specialist
  • Para-Professionals
  • Trained Volunteers
  • Trained Peers
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Supplemental and Intensive
  • Question 8 How will specific supplemental and
    intensive instruction be delivered?
  • Step 3 When, where, and how often will
    instruction occur?
  • Follow guidelines of materials/strategies/processe
    s being used, when available.
  • Consider intensity of the problem
  • Step 4 How will you monitor treatment integrity?
  • Step 5 Document on a written intervention form
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Supplemental and Intensive
  • Question 9 How will the effectiveness of
    supplemental and intensive instruction be
    monitored? (Supplemental)
  • Step 1 Select progress monitoring/formative
  • Step 2 Set goals for student performance using
    baseline data
  • Step 3 Organize materials for on-going data
  • Step 4 Determine who will collect the data and
    how often
  • Step 5 Determine decision making rule
  • Step 6 Provide instruction as designed and
    monitor student performance and implementation
  • Heartland, June, 2006

Progress Monitoring
Supplemental and Intensive
  • Question 10 Which students need to move to a
    different level of instruction? (Plan Evaluation)
  • Step 1 Review progress monitoring/formative
    assessment data
  • Is the student making expected progress?
  • If NO, is instruction being provided as
    designed?Is the instruction a match to the
    student needs? Is the instruction intense enough?
  • If YES, should the instruction continue? Is
    another level of instruction needed?
  • Step 2 Plan for instructional changes if needed
  • Heartland, June, 2006