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Leadership and Management in Occupational Therapy

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The leadership challenge. CA: ... 1999 The Five Practices Inspire a Shared Vision Model the Way Encourage the Heart Challenge the Process Enable Others to Act ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership and Management in Occupational Therapy


1
Leadership and Managementin Occupational Therapy
  • Sandee Dunbar DPA, OTR/L
  • Chair and Professor
  • Nova Southeastern University - Fort Lauderdale,
    Florida

2
Objectives
  • Identify the differences between leadership and
    management
  • Compare and contrast major leadership theories
  • Understand the role of an occupational therapy
    manager
  • Identify the Five Leadership Practices
  • Understand the benefits of leadership and
    management tools
  • Apply leadership concepts to occupational therapy
    philosophy

3
Leadership
  • What characteristics do you
  • look for in a leader?

4
Questionnaire Results
  • HONEST
  • FORWARD-LOOKING
  • COMPETENT
  • INSPIRING
  • Kouzes, J. Posner, B. (2002). The leadership
    challenge. CA Jossey-Bass

5
Manager vs. Leader
  • Manager Leader
  • Administration Innovation
  • Maintenance Development
  • System oriented People oriented
  • Control Trust
  • Bennis, 1989

6
Leadership Theories
  • Transformational Leadership
  • Transactional Leadership
  • Servant Leadership
  • Situational Leadership
  • Bass, B. Stogdill, R. (1990). Bass and
    Stogdills handbook of leadership.
  • Free Press.

7
Transformational Leadership
  • Leaders and followers working together for higher
    performance
  • Support for common purpose
  • Morality and motivation
  • Mutual needs, values, goals
  • Modeling by the leader

8
Transactional Leadership
  • Exchange of one thing for another
  • Often based on self-interest
  • Maintain
  • More related to management aspects
  • Grady, A. (2003). From management to leadership.
    In G. McCormack, E. Jaffe, M. Goodman-Lavey
    (Eds) The occupational therapy manager. Bethesda,
    MD AOTA Press.

9
Servant Leadership
  • Various authors
  • Leader is servant first
  • Other peoples needs take priority
  • Lead others into serving for the public good
  • Greenleaf, R. (1977). Servant leadership. Mahweh,
    NJ Paulist Press

10
Other Leadership Theories
  • Path-Goal
  • Trait Theory
  • Leader-member exchange Theory
  • Contingency Theory
  • Look up one independently and compare to theories
    described in class

11
Situational Leadership
  • Participating
    Selling
  • Delegating
    Telling
  • Able/ Able/ Unable/
    Unable/
  • Willing Un-
    Willing Un-

12
OT Analysis for Leadership - Example
  • Person Environment Occupation
  • Student Clinic/Comm. Client care
  • Supervisor Staff
    interaction

13
Application of Theories for OT Student Supervision
  • Example 1
  • Student (person aspect) who is unable to document
    a note, but willing to learn.
  • Application of Situational Leadership Use
    of a selling approach.

14
Application of Theories for OT Student Supervision
  • Example 2
  • The fieldwork supervisor provides opportunities
    (environment) for successful client interaction
    (occupation).
  • Application of Transformational
    Leadership-Empowering, caring, and motivating in
    style

15
Leadership Inventory
  • What are your own strengths/areas of need in
    leadership as it relates to your role as a
    student and/or worker?

16
Inventory
  • 1 Rarely
  • 5 Sometimes
  • 10 - Often
  • I make sure that the people I work with follow
    the standards that were agreed on.
  • I easily give recognition for other peoples
    accomplishments.
  • I encourage others to share their dreams and
    aspirations.
  • I can clearly articulate my own dreams for my
    future.
  • I consistently look for new opportunities in the
    work/school setting.

17
Inventory cont.
  • 1 - Rarely
  • 5 - Sometimes
  • 10 Often
  • 6. I allow other people to make decisions on
    their own when I am not needed.
  • 7. I consistently look for ways to improve if a
    situation is not going well.
  • 8. I try to create a work/school environment
    where people feel comfortable.
  • 9. I encourage others with positive comments.
  • 10.I follow through with what I say I am going to
    do.
  • Adapted from LPI Rollins College, 1999

18
The Five Practices
  • Inspire a Shared Vision
  • Model the Way
  • Encourage the Heart
  • Challenge the Process
  • Enable Others to Act
  • Kouzes, J. Posner, B. (2002). The leadership
    challenge. CA Jossey-Bass

19
Inspire a Shared Vision
  • Awareness of where you want to be
  • Lessons from experience
  • Forward thinking
  • Imagine possibilities
  • Develop a theme

20
Shared Vision cont.
  • The potential for building global service
    provision from values embedded in individual
    therapist-consumer relationships can place
    occupational therapy in the forefront of health
    care provision
  • Grady, A. (1990, p 1065)

21
Model the Way
  • Clarify your own
  • values
  • Give voice to
  • your values
  • Look for optimal
  • leader examples

22
Model the Way cont.
  • Occupational therapy has a specific contributive
    function that can be realized through effective
    evaluation and comprehensive programming.
  • Lela Llorens

23
Encourage the Heart
  • Recognize Contributions and Best Efforts

24
Encourage the Heart Cont.
  • Leaders -
  • Make expectations clear
  • Pay attention to performance
  • Recognize approximations in skill development
  • Provide ongoing feedback
  • Personalize recognition
  • Provide positive images
  • Listen to others

25
Challenge the Process
  • Leaders Seek and Accept Challenge
  • Major Change
  • - new program
  • - new product
  • - new way of doing things
  • Risk and Experimentation

26
Challenge the Process cont.
  • It matters most of all that we recognize the
    responsibility of the profession to change with
    changing demands for its services, to adapt via
    new approaches, to assume different roles, to
    recruit in a new mold, rather thanrecasting the
    prototype of an earlier time.
  • West, W. (1968 pp.14-15)

27
Enable Others to Act cont.
  • Foster collaboration and build trust
  • The energy created by working together is
    directed toward exploring possibilities.
  • Persons or groups engaged in creating,
    sharing ideas and resolving conflicts will create
    something that could not be accomplished by one
    person.
  • Grady, A. (1990, p. 105)

28
Management
  • Accomplishing tasks through others
  • Produce results

29
Functions of a Manager
  • Strategic Planning
  • Organizing
  • Leading
  • Controlling
  • Grieshaber, L. (1997). The healthcare
    practitioners handbook of management. Boca
    Raton, FL St. Lucie Press.

30
Management Roles
  • Monitor
  • Decision-maker
  • Negotiator
  • Spokesperson
  • Information sharer

31
Examples of Management Roles/Functions
  • View, then discuss the following as guided
  • Budget
  • Strategic Plan
  • Employee dispute case example

32
Summary
  • Leadership and management are key roles for
    occupational therapists in a variety of settings.
    Maintaining the value of occupation in these
    challenging positions can enhance the success of
    the individual.
  • Keeping current in social and political
    issues will also optimize a leaders/managers
    ability to optimize their performance in todays
    healthcare arena.

33
Case Examples
  • Miriam Student
  • Karen Level I Fieldwork Supervisor
  • Jane Student
  • Susan Level II Fieldwork Supervisor

34
Next Step
  • Research Questions
  • What is the effect of implementing the Five
    Practices on fieldwork student performance
    outcomes?
  • What is the extent of Leadership Theory
    integration into OT curricula?
  • What are the leadership styles of OT Fieldwork
    Supervisors?

35
Conclusion
  • Leadership is an identifiable set of skills and
    practices that are available to all of us, not
    just a few charismatic men and women.
  • Kouzes Posner (2002 p.20)

36
Fieldwork Supervision
  • The primary role of a supervisor is to maintain
    the provision of quality care for individuals
    receiving services while simultaneously
    facilitating learning.
  • Barnes, M. Thornton, A.L. (2002, p.107)

37
Supervision Interest
  • Increasing issues among students/supervisors
  • Involvement in supervision for role-emerging
    sites
  • Best practice standards

38
Shared Vision cont.
  • Dialogue about students future goals
  • Share professional experiences
  • Integrate occupation-centered practice themes
  • Role-model visioning with clients

39
Model the Way
  • Express your values
  • Provide examples
  • Provide opportunities for students to develop a
    sense of their own values
  • Exemplify professionalism
  • - advocacy
  • - research
  • - organizational involvement

40
Challenge the Process cont.
  • Look for opportunities for new ideas
  • Challenge with purpose and meaning
  • Use assigned work

41
Enable Others to Act
  • Engage students in the problem-solving
  • Empower
  • Grade the activity
  • Ask for student feedback about the general
    process
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