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Language Arts and Reading: Study Topics

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Language Arts and Reading: Study Topics Vicki Sterling Understanding Literature Narratives Elements of a story (story grammar) Plot elements -Rising action ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Language Arts and Reading: Study Topics


1
Language Arts and Reading Study Topics
  • Vicki Sterling

2
Understanding Literature Narratives Elements of
a story (story grammar)
  • Plot elements
  • -Rising action
  • progressive, episodic, flashbacks
  • - Internal and external conflict
  • - Complication, problem
  • - Suspense, cliffhanger
  • - Crisis
  • - Climax or turning point
  • - Resolution

3
Understanding Literature Narratives
  • Characterization (through a characters words,
    thoughts, actions, appearance, etc.)
  • Setting established through description of
    scenes, colors, smells, etc.)
  • Tone (manner of expression in speech or writing)
  • tongue in cheek, edgy, soft
  • Theme
  • Point of view (first person, third-person
    objective, third person omniscient)
  • Perspective (attitude of the narrator of the
    story)

4
Understanding Literature Narratives
  • Literary devices and style elements
  • Foreshadowing
  • Figurative language (e.g., metaphor, simile,
    hyperbole, personification)
  • Symbol
  • Imagery
  • Glossary of Terms

5
Understanding Literature Narratives
  • Literary devices and style elements
  • Word choice
  • Mechanics (e.g., punctuation, sentence structure)
  • Use of dialect or slang

6
Understanding Literature Narratives
  • In class we use
  • Fiction
  • Realistic
  • Fantasy
  • Traditional
  • Non-fiction
  • Biography
  • Informational
  • Poetry
  • Fiction genres
  • Novel
  • Short story
  • Science fiction
  • Fable
  • Myth
  • Legend
  • Folk tale
  • Fairy tale
  • Play (comedy, tragedy)
  • Mystery
  • Historical fiction
  • Adventure story
  • Fantasy

Genres in Childrens Literature
7
Nonfiction
  • Comprehension of nonfiction
  • Identify the authors point of view or
    perspective
  • Identify the main idea, primary hypothesis, or
    primary purpose (e.g., to persuade, to inform, to
    analyze, or to evaluate)
  • Evaluate the clarity of the information
  • Make valid inferences or conclusions based on the
    selection

8
Nonfiction
  • Identify, where appropriate, an authors appeal
    to reason, appeal to emotion, or appeal to
    authority
  • Evaluate the relationship between stated
    generalizations and actual evidence given
  • Evaluate organization of a selection
  • For informational texts, evaluate the
    effectiveness of their organizational and graphic
    aids

9
Nonfiction genres
  • Trade Book
  • Biography
  • Autobiography
  • Essay
  • News article
  • Editorial
  • Professional journal articles
  • Book review
  • Political speech
  • Technical manual
  • Primary source material
  • Lewis and Clark

10
Poetry
  • Construction of meaning in poetry
  • Main idea or theme
  • Symbolism
  • Tone, emotion

11
Poetry
  • Roses are red,
  • Violets are blue,
  • Sugar is sweet
  • And, so are you.
  • If you love me
  • As I love you,
  • No knife can cut
  • Our love in two.
  • Tell me not in mournful numbers
  • My love for you
  • Will never fail
  • As long as pussy
  • Has
  • a
  • tail.
  • Poetic elements
  • Verse, stanza
  • Meter
  • Line length
  • Punctuation

12
Poetry
  • A goblin lives in our house, in our house, in our
    house,
  • A goblin lives in our house all the year round.
  • He bumps
  • And he jumps
  • And he thumps (thump thump)
  • And he stumps (stump stump.)
  • He knocks (knock knock)
  • And he rocks
  • And he rattles at the locks.
  • A goblin lives in our house, in our house, in our
    house,
  • A goblin lives in our house all the year round.
  • - Rose Fyleman
  • Rhyme and Sound Patterns
  • Rhyme scheme
  • Onomatopoeia - words such as buzz or murmur that
    imitate the sounds associated with the objects or
    actions they refer to
  • Repetition of words
  • Alliteration - same kinds of sounds at the
    beginning of words
  • Assonance - repetition of identical or similar
    vowel sounds

13
Poetry
  • Imagery and figures of speech
  • Personification - Flowers danced about the lawn
  • Metaphor - All the world's a stage
  • Simile - How like the winter hath my absence been
    or So are you to my thoughts as food to life
  • Hyperbole - I could sleep for a year or This book
    weighs a ton.

14
Poetry
  • Poetic types and forms
  • Lyrical
  • Concrete
  • Free verse
  • Narrative
  • Couplet
  • Elegy
  • Sonnet
  • Limerick
  • Haiku

This is the BEST review site English Poetry
http//www.leavingcert.net/skoool/junior.asp?id14
77
15
Resource and research material
  • Reference works
  • Dictionary
  • Encyclopedia
  • Thesaurus
  • Atlas
  • Almanac

16
Resource and research material
  • Internet
  • Keyword search
  • Databases
  • Bulletin boards

17
Resource and research material
  • Other sources
  • Books
  • Newspapers and magazines
  • Professional journals
  • Readers Guide to Periodical Literature
  • Primary sources, including reproductions of
    original documents

18
Resource and research material
  • Using resources and reference material
  • Appropriateness of various sources to the project
  • Quotations and paraphrases of experts
  • Footnotes
  • Bibliography

19
Text Structures and Organization in Reading and
Writing
  • Organizational patterns in text

20
Patterns of expository writing
  • Compare and contrast
  • Chronological sequence
  • Spatial sequence
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution

21
Structural elements in text
  • Thesis statement
  • Conclusion statement
  • Transition words and phrases
  • Supporting the thesis with the use of
  • Examples
  • Quotations
  • Paraphrases of excerpts statements
  • Summaries of information found in research
    sources
  • Analogies

22
  • The only real innovation during the Renaissance
    period in terms of transport was seen in the
    Americans. By the fifteenth century, the Incas
    had constructed a network of fine roads for
    couriers. Rivers were crossed by monkey bridges
    of cable of plaited agave fibre, or floating
    bridges, or pontoons of reeds. In addition, the
    Incas used caravans of llamas, bred as beasts of
    burden even though they could only carry a
    hundredweight, and could only travel fifteen
    miles a day. These were the only important
    domestic animals of the Americas before 1492, and
    they were quite inadequate.

Structural elements in text?
23
  • Approaching ones topic
  • with the purpose of
  • Criticizing
  • Analyzing
  • Evaluating pros and cons

24
Language in WritingGrammar and Usage
  • Parts of speech
  • Noun proper, common, collective
  • Pronoun
  • Verb
  • Adjective
  • Adverb
  • Preposition
  • Definitions and quizzes
  • http//webster.commnet.edu/grammar/definitions.htm

25
Language in WritingGrammar and Usage
  • Conjunction
  • Phrase
  • Participial phrase
  • Prepositional phrase
  • Appositive phrase
  • Clause
  • Independent clause
  • Dependent clause
  • http//grammar.uoregon.edu/toc.html

26
Language in WritingGrammar and Usage
  • Syntactical Systems
  • Subject-verb agreement
  • Verb tenses present, past, present perfect,
    past perfect, future, and future perfect
  • Voice of verb active or passive
  • Pronoun-antecedent agreement and weak reference
  • Correct use of infinitive and participle

27
Sentence types and sentence structure
  • Sentence types
  • Declarative
  • Interrogative
  • Exclamatory
  • Imperative

28
Sentence types and sentence structure
  • Sentence Structure
  • Simple
  • Compound
  • Complex
  • Compound-complex
  • Sentence fragment
  • http//www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/grammar/
    sentence_types.htm

29
Orthography and MorphologySpelling Study of
Word Formation
  • Affixes prefix, suffix
  • Roots
  • Inflectional endings -indicate tense, number,
    possession or comparison
  • Most words-walks, walked, walking
  • Words ending in e-come, coming
  • Words ending in y-carry carried carrying
  • Words ending in a single vowel a consonant-hop,
    hopping, hopped
  • Clusters (combining clusters to make compound
    words)

30
Semantics
  • Homonyms
  • Antonyms
  • Synonyms
  • Multiple-meaning words
  • Words used figuratively or idiomatically (e.g.,
    he wolfed down his food)
  • Meaning-shifts due to alternative word order or
    punctuation

31
Literacy Acquisition and Reading Instruction
  • Theories and concepts concerning
  • reading development
  • Major elements of the emergent literacy theory
    and major conclusions of recent research

32
Major elements of the emergent literacy theory
and major conclusions of recent research
  • Acting like a reader is part of becoming a reader
  • Reading writing are closely related process-not
    taught in isolation
  • Social process
  • Preschoolers know a great deal about printed
    language
  • Becoming literate is a continuous, developmental
    process
  • Need to read authentic natural texts
  • Need to write for personal reasons

33
Literacy Acquisition and Reading Instruction
  • Factors influencing the development of emergent
    reading
  • Concepts about print
  • Sight vocabulary
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Alphabetic principle
  • Social interaction (support by adults and peers)

34
Literacy Acquisition and Reading Instruction
  • Frequent experiences with print
  • Prior knowledge (schema)
  • Motivation
  • Fluency

35
Literacy Acquisition and Reading Instruction
  • Experiences that support emergent readers
  • Direct instruction
  • Social interaction
  • Shared reading
  • Repeated readings
  • Reader response
  • Word walls
  • Text innovation (rewrites)
  • Shared writing

36
Concepts to Think About
  • What are some of the major relationships between
    and among reading, writing, speaking, listening,
    and viewing, and why are these relationships
    important for teacher of emergent readers to
    understand?

37
Childrens literature
  • Selection of materials
  • Who selects and in what situations?
  • Quality of material
  • Appropriate content
  • Needs and interests of children
  • School curriculum
  • Balance in the collection

38
Childrens literature
  • Traditional criteria for evaluating fiction
  • Plot
  • Character
  • Theme
  • Specialized criteria for these types of
    literature
  • Picture books
  • Poetry
  • Informational books
  • Biography

Newbery and Caldecott Awards
39
Childrens literature
  • Additional criteria for these genres of fiction
  • Realistic story
  • Mystery
  • Historical fiction
  • Modern fantasy

40
Strategies for Word study/solving
  • Cues and how students use them
  • Semantic (refers to the meaning of language-the
    words and parts of words that convey meaning as
    well as the way sentences, paragraphs, whole
    texts are interpreted by listeners and readers.)
  • Syntactic systems (refers to the patterns of
    rules by which words are put together in
    meaningful phrases sentences)
  • Mary ran of to see her friends.

41
Strategies for Word study/solving
  • Phonological system (the way listeners construct
    meaning from streams of sounds)
  • Visual information (what you see when you read)
  • -Relationship to print
  • -Recognizing whole words
  • -Word patterns
  • -Syllables
  • -Letters in sequence

42
  • Samuel and his cousin John Adams felt the
  • indenture
  • same way about Americans independence.
  • operations racing
  • Yet they had different opinions about riding
  • agreed
  • horses like other men did. Samuel argued
  • cannon
  • that walking or riding in a carriage suited
  • him better.

43
Children's Literature Strategies for
Comprehension
  • Use of prior knowledge
  • Retelling
  • Guided reading
  • Fluency
  • Reader response

44
Children's Literature
  • Strategies for comprehension
  • Solving words
  • Adjusting reading according to purpose and
    context
  • Metacognition
  • Maintaining fluency
  • Making connections (personal, world, text)

45
  • A class is reading a book that has chapter
    numbers but no chapter titles. The teacher asks
    the students to think of an appropriate title for
    each chapter. What is the main purpose in
    choosing this activity? Why is it a useful
    activity?

Concepts to Think About
46
Children's Literature
  • Study skills and tools
  • SQ3R
  • KWL
  • Note taking
  • Marking and coding
  • Graphic organizers
  • Finding information in charts, tables, graphs

47
  • What are some effective ways to use graphic
    organizers if students understand most of the
    details in a unit, but not the central idea of
    the unit?
  • What are some effective ways of guiding students
    to understand articles that feature text and
    variety of graphics?

Concepts to Think About
48
Communication SkillsStages of writing development
  • Phase
  • Picture writing
  • Scribble writing
  • Random letter
  • Invented spelling
  • Conventional writing
  • Concurrent development with reading

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Communication Skills
  • Stages of the writing process
  • Recursive nature of the process
  • Explore/Prewrite
  • Draft
  • Edit
  • Publish

53
Communication Skills
  • Spelling development Constructive nature of the
    development stages
  • -Scribble
  • -Prephonemic
  • -Early phonics
  • -Letter name
  • -Transitional
  • -Derivational
  • -Conventional

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Communication Skills
  • Elements of speaking
  • Purpose
  • Audience
  • Inclusion of visuals
  • Tone
  • Opening and closing

58
Communication Skills
  • Details and anecdotes
  • Volume, pitch, pace, gestures
  • Eye contact
  • Voice modulation
  • Focus, organization, structure, point of view

59
Communication Skills
  • Elements of listening
  • Listening to and following directions
  • Responding to literature read aloud
  • Agreeing or disagreeing with the ideas in a
    speech
  • Asking for clarification
  • Expanding on an idea

60
Communication Skills
  • Repeating or paraphrasing to verify ones
    understanding
  • Calling for evidence
  • Summarizing major ideas and supporting evidence
  • Interpreting volume, pitch, pace, gestures
  • Evaluating mood or tone
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