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Poetry: An Essential Review


Poetry: An Essential Review A brief, essential review of lyric poetry, which are short poems packing an idea and an emotional response to that idea. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Poetry: An Essential Review

Poetry An Essential Review
  • A brief, essential review of lyric poetry, which
    are short poems packing an idea and an emotional
    response to that idea.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Lyric poems can be thought of as snapshots of a
    moment in time that have some meaning, some
    significance to the poet. Instead of using a
    camera, however, the poet uses words to express
    the idea and emotion of the moment.
  • The poet uses words to make pictures, just as you
    might use a camera to take a picture of a
    beautiful sunset or to capture forever a special
    moment with friends or family.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • In the same way as a special photograph, at the
    heart of each lyric poem is an idea and an
    emotional response to that idea. This is the soul
    or core of any lyric poem, the poet expressing
    feelings and thoughts about his/her life
    experiences in the world around him/her.
  • A poet chooses to reveal this idea and emotional
    response using the tools available to him/her as
    a writer.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • A writer chooses the tools that best work, in the
    same way a carpenter uses hammer, nails, a level
    and saw to build a house, or a cook uses flour,
    eggs, flavour and milk to make a cake.
  • The more skilled the builder or cook, the more
    interesting and enjoyable will be the house or
    cake. In the same way, the skill of the poet
    using the tools at his/her disposal will produce
    the more interesting and captivating poem.
  • But what are these tools?

Poetry An Essential Review
  • The first tool available to the poet is words.
    This ingredient is as essential as wood to the
    builder or flour to the cake-maker.
  • The term we use to discuss the use of words by a
    poet is the word diction.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Diction is simply the word choices the poet
    makes. But finding the exact word to use to be
    the most effective at his/her goal, which is to
    communicate those two things
  • - what are they again?
  • - is part of a pain-staking and timely process.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • When discussing word choice, we must
    differentiate between the denotation of a word
    and the connotation of that word.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Denotation is the objective dictionary meaning of
    a word.
  • Connotation is the subjective, emotional meaning
    of a word.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • An example that might help to understand this
    concept is the word vomit. If we look it up on
    Dictionary.com, we find the word means
  • to eject the contents of the stomach through the
    mouth regurgitate throw up or to eject from
    the stomach through the mouth.
  • This is the words denotation.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • But the words connotation for most of us would
    definitely be a negative one.
  • For example, if a poet says of the words of a
    lover to a loved one, She vomited words of love
    into his ear, the meaning is substantially
    different than if he or she used verbs like
    cooed, whispered or breathed.
  • But remember, and this is important the choice
    of a word is entirely dependent on the intention
    of the writer and what he/she wants to

Poetry An Essential Review
  • The second tool a poet has at his/her disposal is
  • There are three categories of imagery
  • A. Sensuous Imagery
  • B. Figurative Imagery and
  • C. Symbolic Imagery
  • Lets take a look at these categories.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • A. Sensuous Imagery
  • Simply put, sensuous imagery is the choice of
    words by a poet in which our senses are
  • The poet wants us to hear and feel and see the
    things he/she is experiencing to bring us more
    immediately to the scene or emotions being
    described. The poet wants us to experience the
    poem just as we experience the world around us in
    every day lifethrough our senses.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • There are 6 types of sensuous imagery that we
    will examine. They are
  • Visual Words that appeal to our sense of
  • Auditory Words that appeal to our sense of
  • Tactile Words that appeal to our sense of
  • Gustatory Words that appeal to our sense of
  • Olfactory Words that appeal to our sense of
  • Motor Words that appeal to our sense of motion.
  • Lets look at real examples of these to help us

Poetry An Essential Review
  • The Red Wheelbarrow by William Carlos Williams
  • so much depends upon
  • a red wheel barrow
  • glazed with rain water
  • beside the white chickens.
  • What words in this short poem appeal to our
    sense of sight?
  • http//www.roberthuntstudio.com/alterego/archives/

Poetry An Essential Review
  • This Is Just to Say William Carlos Williams
  • I have eaten the plums that were in the
    icebox and which you were probably saving
    for breakfast Forgive me they were delicious
    so sweet and so cold
  • Are there words in this short poem that appeal
    to your sense of taste? Or touch?
  • In the following poem by Archibald Lampman, what
    words appeal to our sense of touch? Of sight? Of
    hearing? Of motion?

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Winter Uplands Archibald Lampman
  • The frost that stings like fire upon my
    cheek,The loneliness of this forsaken
    ground,The long white drift upon whose powdered
    peakI sit in the great silence as one boundThe
    rippled sheet of snow where the wind blewAcross
    the open fields for miles aheadThe far-off city
    towered and roofed in blueA tender line upon the
    western redThe stars that singly, then in
    flocks appear,Like jets of silver from the
    violet dome,So wonderful, so many and so
    near,And then the golden moon to light me
    homeThe crunching snowshoes and the stinging
    air,And silence, frost and beauty everywhere.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • B. Figurative Imagery.
  • Figurative imagery are figures of speech that
    help us to see things or understand things in a
    fresh new way. There are six to which well give
    our attention here.
  • 1. Simile Comparisons using like or as
  • 2. Metaphor Direct comparisons
  • 3. Personification Giving life-like qualities
    to an inanimate object
  • 4. Apostrophe Addressing the dead or absent as
    if alive or present
  • 5. Hyperbole Gross exaggeration not meant to
  • 6. Metonymy Using a part to represent the whole
  • Lets take a closer look at each.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • 1. Simile A simile compares two unlike objects,
    finding the quality they share, using like or
    as. Again, the poet wants these comparisons to
    be fresh and new to engage us in our experience
    with the poem.
  • Lets check out some examples.
  • In the following piece by Christina Rossetti,
    can you find a number of similes? What two things
    are being compared?
  • Name some visual imagery from the second stanza.
  • It may help you to know that halcyon means calm
    and peaceful dais is a raised platform where
    people are placed to give them respect and
    honour and vair are furs.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • A BIRTHDAY Christina Rossetti (1830-1894)
  • MY heart is like a singing bird
  • Whose nest is in a water'd shoot
  • My heart is like an apple-tree
  • Whose boughs are bent with thick-set fruit
  • My heart is like a rainbow shell
  • That paddles in a halcyon sea
  • My heart is gladder than all these,
  • Because my love is come to me.
  • Raise me a daïs of silk and down
  • Hang it with vair and purple dyes
  • Carve it in doves and pomegranates,
  • And peacocks with a hundred eyes
  • Work it in gold and silver grapes,
  • In leaves and silver fleurs-de-lys
  • Because the birthday of my life
  • Is come, my love is come to me.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • 2. A metaphor is a comparison of two unlike
    objects with a quality in common, just as in a
    simile, but a metaphor is a direct comparison.
  • Lets checkout a poem that contains examples of
  • Ask yourself What is the metaphor in the
    following poem? What are the common attributes to
    the two things compared?

Poetry An Essential Review
  • I Am a Rock Paul Simon
  • A winters dayIn a deep and dark December-I am
  • Gazing from my window
  • To the streets belowOn a freshly fallen silent
    shroud of snow.I am a rockI am an island.
  • I build walls.A fortress deep and mightyThat
    none may penetrate.I have no need of friendship
  • Friendship causes pain.Its laughter and its
    loving I disdain.I am a rockI am an
    island. (more)

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Don't talk of love.Well, I've heard the word
    beforeIts sleeping in my memory.I wont
    disturb the slumber
  • Of feelings that have died.If I never loved I
    never would have cried.I am a rock,I am an
    island.I have my booksAnd my poetry to protect
    me.I am shielded in my armor,Hiding in my room
  • Safe within my tomb.I touch no one and no one
    touches me.I am a rockI am an island.And a
    rock feels no pain,And an island never cries.
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vX4_-uinXzwo

Poetry An Essential Review
  • 3. Personification is the giving of life-like
    qualities to a non-living or inanimate object.
  • What is personified in the following poem? Why do
    you suppose the poet chose to use personification
    in this way?

Poetry An Essential Review
  • The Sound of the Stream Henry Wadsworth
  • The sea awoke at midnight from its sleep,
  • And round the pebbly beaches far and wide
  • I heard the first wave of the rising tide
  • Rush onward with uninterrupted sweep
  • A voice out of the silence of the deep,
  • A sound mysteriously multiplied
  • As of a cataract from the mountain's side,
  • Or roar of winds upon a wooded steep.
  • So comes to us at times, from the unknown
  • And inaccessible solitudes of being,
  • The rushing of the sea-tides of the soul
  • And inspirations, that we deem our own,
  • Are some divine foreshadowing and foreseeing
  • Of things beyond our reason or control.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • 4. Another figure of speech is apostrophe. This
    is when the poet addresses the absent as if
    present or the inanimate as if alive.
  • The most famous example would be the poem
    Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star, in which the
    speaker is speaking to the absent star as if it
    were alive and present.a double whammy
    apostrophe! Heres another

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Dandelion Hilda Conkling  
  • O little soldier with the golden helmet,
  • What are you guarding on my lawn?
  • You with your green gun
  • And your yellow beard,
  • Why do you stand so stiff?
  • There is only the grass to fight!

Poetry An Essential Review
  • 5. The next figure of speech is hyperbole.
    Hyperbole is a gross exaggeration that is not
    intended to deceive, but used for emphasis.
  • Example Ive told you a million times not to
    shoot fireworks in the house!

Poetry An Essential Review
  • 6. Metonymy is a figure of speech in which part
    of something represents the whole.
  • Examples
  • All hands on deck!
  • Friends, Romans, countrymen lend me your
  • May I approach the bench, your honour? (in
    this case, its the judge the lawyer wants to
    approach, not the bench itself the bench
    represents the judge)

Poetry An Essential Review
  • C. Symbolic Imagery.
  • A symbol is the use of a concrete object to
    represent an abstract idea.
  • Symbolic imagery, then, is the extended use of a
    symbol in a poem to communicate meaning.
  • In the following poem, what symbols are used?
    What abstract ideas do they represent?

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Up-Hill Christina Rossetti
  • Does the road wind up-hill all the way?       
    Yes, to the very end.Will the day's journey take
    the whole long day?        From morn to night,
    my friend.
  • But is there for the night a resting-place?   
        A roof for when the slow dark hours
    begin.May not the darkness hide it from my
    face?        You cannot miss that inn.
  • Shall I meet other wayfarers at night?       
    Those who have gone before.Then must I knock, or
    call when 'ust in sight?        They will not
    keep you standing at that door.
  • Shall I find comfort, travel-sore and weak?   
        Of labor you shall find the sum.Will there
    be beds for me and all who seek?        Yea,
    beds for all who come.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Another set of tools available to the poet, the
    third in our review, are sound devices. These
    help bring out the musical qualities of lyric
    poems. The six we will examine are
  • a. Alliteration The repetition of initial sounds
  • b. Assonance The repetition of vowel sounds
  • c. Consonance The repetition of consonant sounds
  • d. Euphony An overall pleasant and calming sound
  • e. Cacophony An overall harsh, unpleasant sound
  • f. Onomatopoeia Words that imitate sounds

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Alliteration is the repetition of initial
    consonant or vowel sounds in a line of poetry.
  • The well-known childrens poem, Peter Piper
    Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers illustrates
    this well. Lets look at another example.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • High Flight by John Gillespie MaGee
  • Oh! I have slipped the surly bonds of earthAnd
    danced the skies on laughter-silvered
    wingsSunward I've climbed, and joined the
    tumbling mirthOf sun-split clouds - and done a
    hundred thingsYou have not dreamed of - wheeled
    and soared and swungHigh in the sunlit silence.
    Hov'ring thereI've chased the shouting wind
    along, and flungMy eager craft through footless
    halls of air.Up, up the long delirious, burning
    blue,I've topped the windswept heights with easy
    graceWhere never lark, or even eagle flew -And,
    while with silent lifting mind I've trodThe high
    untrespassed sanctity of space,Put out my hand
    and touched the face of God.
  • Look for the alliteration used in lines 1, 2, 4,
    5, 6, 9, 11 13.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • B. Consonance is the repetition of consonant
    sounds in a line of poetry.
  • Do you remember what consonants are?
  • Lets re-visit High Flight, and find examples
    of consonance.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • C. Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in
    a line of poetry.
  • Do you remember what vowels are?
  • Look for assonance in the following poem.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • "REQUIEM"By Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-94)
  • Under the wide and starry sky,Dig the grave and
    let me lie,Glad did I live and gladly die, And
    I laid me down with a will.
  • This be the verse you grave for meHere he lies
    where he longed to be,Home is the sailor, home
    from sea, And the hunter home from the hill.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • D. Euphony is the use of long vowels and
    soft-sounding consonants that result in a poem
    having an overall sound of quiet, calm and
  • What sounds in the following poem help create a
    sense of quiet and calm? Let us read the poem,
    and then make a list of sounds used that create

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Velvet Shoes ELINOR WYLIE
  • Let us walk in the white snowIn a soundless
    spaceWith footsteps quiet and slow,At a
    tranquil pace,Under veils of white lace.I
    shall go shod in silk,And you in wool,White as
    a white cow's milk,More beautifulThan the
    breast of a gull.We shall walk through the
    still townIn a windless peaceWe shall step
    upon white down,Upon silver fleece,Upon softer
    than these.We shall walk in velvet
    shoesWherever we goSilence will fall like
    dewsOn white silence below.We shall walk in the

Poetry An Essential Review
  • E. Cacophony is the use of hard consonants and
    short vowel sounds that give a poem an
    unpleasant, harsh sound.
  • Look at the following excellent example. How does
    the harshness of the sound of this poem help
    communicate the idea within it? After reading it,
    make a list of the harsh sounds used.
  • By the way, the expression Dulce et Decorum Est
    Pro Patria Mori means It is good and honorable
    to die for ones country.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Dulce Et Decorum Est Wilfred Owen
  • Bent double, like old beggars under
    sacks,Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed
    through sludge,Till on the haunting flares we
    turned our backsAnd towards our distant rest
    began to trudge.Men marched asleep. Many had
    lost their bootsBut limped on, blood-shod. All
    went lame all blindDrunk with fatigue deaf
    even to the hootsOf disappointed shells that
    dropped behind.GAS! Gas! Quick, boys!-- An
    ecstasy of fumbling,Fitting the clumsy helmets
    just in timeBut someone still was yelling out
    and stumblingAnd floundering like a man in fire
    or lime.--Dim, through the misty panes and thick
    green lightAs under a green sea, I saw him
    drowning. (more)

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Dulce Et Decorum Est (continued)
  • In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,He
    plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.If
    in some smothering dreams you too could
    paceBehind the wagon that we flung him in,And
    watch the white eyes writhing in his face,His
    hanging face, like a devil's sick of sinIf you
    could hear, at every jolt, the bloodCome
    gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,Obscene
    as cancer, bitter as the cudOf vile, incurable
    sores on innocent tongues,--My friend, you would
    not tell with such high zestTo children ardent
    for some desperate glory,The old Lie Dulce et
    decorum estPro patria mori.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • F. Onomatopoeia is the use of words that imitate
    the sound they represent.
  • A partial list of words would include oink,
    bark, ring, meow, clang, bang and
    hundreds more. Make a list of at least 5 more.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • The fourth group of tools the poet uses to create
    his/her work are formal devices.
  • Formal devices are the use of form in a poem, or
    the physical structure of the poem.
  • Lets focus on two formal structure and rhythm.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • A poet has the option of a variety of styles for
    building a poem. Here is a partial list
  • Stanza the paragraphs in which any poem is
  • Ballad a sung story, divided into 4-line
  • Sonnet both types are 14 lines of iambic
    pentameter, but each is organized differently
    from the other
  • Elizabethan or English Sonnet
  • Petrarchan or Italian Sonnet
  • Couplets two rhymed lines of iambic pentameter
  • Blank Verse 5 feet or groups of iambic
  • Free Verse a non-regular rhythmic and organic
  • Concrete takes a shape that reflects its
  • Haiku a three-lined, short poem of Japanese
  • Limerick 5 lines of usually humorous poetry

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Stanzas are the building blocks of poems. It is
    the name we give the paragraphs found in a
  • Well see many examples and uses of stanzas as we
    read poetry.
  • How many stanzas are in the following poem?
  • And to review, how is personification used in
    this poem? And in what form is the poem written?
    Be specific!

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Check by James Stephens
  • The Night was creeping on the ground!
  • She crept, and did not make a sound
  • Until she reached the tree, And then
  • She covered it, and stole again
  • Along the grass beside the wall.
  • I heard the rustle of her shawl
  • As she threw blackness everywhere
  • Along the sky, the ground, the air,
  • And in the room where I was hid!
  • But, no matter what she did
  • To everything that was without,
  • She could not put my candle out!

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Ballads are made up of quatrains (four-line
    stanzas), the typical form being that the first
    and third lines are of four feet, and the second
    and fourth lines of three feet.
  • Ballads are probably the oldest poetic form in
    English. It is a form meant to be sung, and many
    popular songs are still written is this form.
  • Some relatively recent, famous examples are The
    Ode to Billy-Joe, by Bobbie Gentry or The Wreck
    of the Edmund Fitzgerald by Gordon Lightfoot.

Poetry An Essential Review
    Burns (1759-1796)
  • O MY Luve's like a red, red rose,
  • That's newly sprung in June.
  • O, my Luve's like the melodie,
  • That's sweetly play'd in tune.
  • As fair art thou, my bonie lass,
  • So deep in luve am I,
  • And I will luve thee still, my dear,
  • Till a' the seas gang dry.
  • Till a' the seas gang dry, my dear,
  • And the rocks melt wi' the sun!
  • And I will luve thee still, my dear,
  • While the sands o' life shall run.
  • And fare thee weel, my only luve,
  • And fare thee weel a while!

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Ode To Billie Joe by Bobbie Gentry
  • It was the third of June, another sleepy, dusty
    Delta dayI was out choppin' cotton and my
    brother was balin' hayAnd at dinner time we
    stopped and walked back to the house to eatAnd
    Mama hollered out the back door "y'all remember
    to wipe your feet"And then she said "I got some
    news this mornin' from Choctaw Ridge""Today
    Billy Joe MacAllister jumped off the Tallahatchie
  • And Papa said to Mama as he passed around the
    black-eyed peas"Well, Billy Joe never had a lick
    of sense, pass the biscuits, please""There's
    five more acres in the lower forty I've got to
    plow"And Mama said it was shame about Billy Joe,
    anyhowSeems like nothin' ever comes to no good
    up on Choctaw RidgeAnd now Billy Joe
    MacAllister's jumped off the Tallahatchie Bridge

Poetry An Essential Review
  • And Brother said he recollected when he and Tom
    and Billie JoePut a frog down my back at the
    Carroll County picture showAnd wasn't I talkin'
    to him after church last Sunday night?"I'll have
    another piece of apple pie, you know it don't
    seem right""I saw him at the sawmill yesterday
    on Choctaw Ridge""And now you tell me Billie
    Joe's jumped off the Tallahatchie Bridge"And
    Mama said to me "Child, what's happened to your
    appetite?""I've been cookin' all morning and you
    haven't touched a single bite""That nice young
    preacher, Brother Taylor, dropped by today""Said
    he'd be pleased to have dinner on Sunday, oh, by
    the way""He said he saw a girl that looked a lot
    like you up on Choctaw Ridge""And she and Billy
    Joe was throwing somethin' off the Tallahatchie

Poetry An Essential Review
  • A year has come 'n' gone since we heard the news
    'bout Billy JoeAnd Brother married Becky
    Thompson, they bought a store in TupeloThere was
    a virus going 'round, Papa caught it and he died
    last SpringAnd now Mama doesn't seem to wanna do
    much of anythingAnd me, I spend a lot of time
    pickin' flowers up on Choctaw RidgeAnd drop
    them into the muddy water off the Tallahatchie
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vCZt5Q-u4crc

Poetry An Essential Review
  • The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald by Gordon
  • The legend lives on from the Chippewa on downOf
    the big lake they call Gitche GumeeThe lake, it
    is said, never gives up her deadWhen the skies
    of November turn gloomy.With a load of iron ore
    - 26,000 tons moreThan the Edmund Fitzgerald
    weighed emptyThat good ship and true was a bone
    to be chewedWhen the gales of November came
    earlyThe ship was the pride of the American
    sideComing back from some mill in WisconsonAs
    the big freighters go it was bigger than
    mostWith a crew and the Captain well seasoned.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Concluding some terms with a couple of steel
    firmsWhen they left fully loaded for
    ClevelandAnd later that night when the ships
    bell rangCould it be the North Wind they'd been
    feeling.The wind in the wires made a tattletale
    soundAnd a wave broke over the railingAnd every
    man knew, as the Captain did, too,T'was the
    witch of November come stealing.The dawn came
    late and the breakfast had to waitWhen the gales
    of November came slashingWhen afternoon came it
    was freezing rainIn the face of a hurricane West

Poetry An Essential Review
  • When supper time came the old cook came on
    deckSaying fellows it's too rough to feed yaAt
    7PM a main hatchway caved inHe said fellas it's
    been good to know ya.The Captain wired in he
    had water coming inAnd the good ship and crew
    was in perilAnd later that night when his lights
    went out of sightCame the wreck of the Edmund
    Fitzgerald.Does anyone know where the love of
    God goesWhen the words turn the minutes to
    hoursThe searchers all say they'd have made
    Whitefish BayIf they'd fifteen more miles behind
    her.They might have split up or they might have
    capsizedThey may have broke deep and took
    waterAnd all that remains is the faces and the
    namesOf the wives and the sons and the

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Lake Huron rolls, Superior singsIn the ruins of
    her ice water mansionOld Michigan steams like a
    young man's dreams,The islands and bays are for
    sportsmen.And farther below Lake OntarioTakes
    in what Lake Erie can send herAnd the iron boats
    go as the mariners all knowWith the gales of
    November remembered.In a musty old hall in
    Detroit they prayedIn the Maritime Sailors'
    CathedralThe church bell chimed, 'til it rang 29
    timesFor each man on the Edmund Fitzgerald.The
    legend lives on from the Chippewa on downOf the
    big lake they call Gitche GumeeSuperior, they
    say, never gives up her deadWhen the gales of
    November come early.
  • http//youtube.com/watch?veS6G_3TTbmE

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Sonnets are another popular poetic form. There
    are two kinds of sonnets. Both types have 14
    lines and are written in iambic pentameter, but
    they differ in their internal structure.
  • The two types of sonnets are
  • A. Elizabethan or English or Shakespearean
  • B. Petrarchan or Italian

Poetry An Essential Review
  • The Shakespearean sonnet has 14 lines, and has a
    rhyme scheme of abab, cdcd, efef gg.
  • The rhyme scheme helps its organization using
    it, the poet expresses a thought or problem in
    three different ways in the first three groups of
    four lines, and then summarizes in a witty or
    thoughtful way in the last two lines.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Shall I Compare Thee To A Summer's Day? by
    William Shakespeare
  • Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou
    art more lovely and more temperate. Rough winds
    do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's
    lease hath all too short a date. Sometime too
    hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his
    gold complexion dimm'd And every fair from fair
    sometime declines, By chance or nature's
    changing course untrimm'd But thy eternal
    summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of
    that fair thou ow'st Nor shall Death brag thou
    wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to
    time thou grow'st So long as men can breathe or
    eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives
    life to thee.
  • Does the rhyme scheme follow the pattern
    described earlier in these notes?

Poetry An Essential Review
  • The Italian sonnet has 14 lines, and has a rhyme
    scheme of abba abba cdecde.
  • The rhyme scheme helps its organization using
    it, the poet expresses a thought or problem in
    the first eight lines (octet) of the poem, and
    then summarizes or comments on the thought or
    problem in the last six lines (sestet).
  • Note the rhyme scheme in the following poem,
    which is written in the form of an apostrophe.
    The octet expresses the problem, that England is
    in moral decay the sestet express the qualities
    of John Milton that would help England. A classic
    Italian sonnet.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • "London, 1802" by William Wordsworth
  • Milton! thou shouldst be living at this hour
  • England hath need of thee she is a fen
  • Of stagnant waters altar, sword, and pen,
  • Fireside, the heroic wealth of hall and bower,
  • Have forfeited their ancient English dower
  • Of inward happiness. We are selfish men
  • Oh! raise us up, return to us again
  • And give us manners, virtue, freedom, power.
  • Thy soul was like a Star, and dwelt apart
  • Thou hadst a voice whose sound was like the sea
  • Pure as the naked heavens, majestic, free,
  • So didst thou travel on life's common way,
  • In cheerful godliness and yet thy heart
  • The lowliest duties on herself did lay.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • The simplest stanza form is the couplet, two
    lines which form a rhymed pair.
  • Here are some examples.
  • True wit is nature to advantage dressed,
  • What oft was thought, but ne'er so well
  • -- Eve King
  • Whether or not we find what we are seeking
  • is idle, biologically speaking.
  • -- Edna St. Vincent Millay
  • Deck the halls with boughs of hollyAnd have some
    egg nog it'll make you jolly.
  • -- Unknown
  • When shall we three meet again,
  • In thunder, lightning, or in rain?
  • -- from Macbeth by William Shakespeare
  • O, what a tangled web we weave

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Blank verse is written in iambic pentameter, and
    is often used in English poetry because it most
    resembles the rhythm of the English language.
  • All of Shakespeares plays were primarily written
    in blank verse.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Free verse is an organic form of poetry. It uses
    irregular rhythm, and rhyme is also used
    irregularly, both used depending on the needs of
    the poet.
  • Check out this example by the poet e e cummings.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Your Little Voice by e.e. cummings
  • your little voice
  • Over the wires came leaping
  • and i felt suddenly
  • dizzy
  • With the jostling and shouting of merry flowers
  • wee skipping high-heeled flames
  • courtesied before my eyes
  • or twinkling over to my side
  • Looked up
  • with impertinently exquisite faces
  • floating hands were laid upon me
  • I was whirled and tossed into delicious dancing
  • up
  • Up
  • with the pale important
  • stars and the Humorous

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Concrete poems resemble an object, usually one
    related to the poem.
  • A Christmas Tree by William Burford
  • Star
  • If you are
  • A love compassionate,
  • You will walk with us this year.
  • We face a glacial distance, who are here
  • Huddld
  • At your feet.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Another form used by poets is the haiku.
  • Haikus are three-lined poems, the first line of
    which contains five syllables, the second line
    seven syllables, and the third line five
    syllables. The first two lines usually introduce
    an image, and the third line makes an unusual but
    charged connection.
  • Examples

Poetry An Essential Review
  • A broken pencil
  • tip and a rusty breadknife
  • no matter begin.
  • -- Unknown
  • Faceless, just numbered.
  • Lone pixel in the bitmap-
  • I, anonymous.
  • -- Chris Spruck

Poetry An Essential Review
  • The last form well look at is the limerick.
  • Limericks consist of five anapestic lines.Lines
    1, 2, and 5 of limericks have seven to ten
    syllables and rhyme with one another. Lines 3
    and 4 of limericks have five to seven syllables
    and also rhyme with each other.
  • These poems are often humorous, and sometimes
    bawdy or dirty.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Here are three limericks by Edward Lear from A
    Book of Nonsense
  • There was an Old Person whose habits,Induced
    him to feed upon rabbitsWhen he'd eaten
    eighteen,He turned perfectly green,Upon which
    he relinquished those habits.
  • There was an Old Person of Buda,Whose conduct
    grew ruder and ruderTill at last, with a
    hammer,They silenced his clamour,By smashing
    that Person of Buda.
  • There was an Old Lady of Chertsey,Who made a
    remarkable curtseyShe twirled round and
    round,Till she sunk underground,Which
    distressed all the people of Chertsey.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • The second aspect well look at for formal
    structure is rhythm.
  • There are several ways a poet can create rhythm
    in a poem (remember, lyric poems are musical
    beasts, and rhythm is a part of music). Well
    look at three
  • 1. punctuation,
  • 2. run-on lines and
  • 3. meter.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Punctuation is a way to create rhythm by starting
    and stopping, slowing down or speeding up the
    reading of the poem.
  • Read the following poem with a sharp eye to the
    way the punctuation helps create rhythm.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Sweet And Low by Alfred Tennyson
  • Sweet and low, sweet and low,Wind of the
    western sea,Low, low, breathe and blow,Wind of
    the western sea!Over the rolling waters
    go,Come from the dying moon, and blow,Blow him
    again to meWhile my little one, while my pretty
    one sleeps.Sleep and rest, sleep and
    rest,Father will come to thee soonRest, rest,
    on mother's breast,Father will come to thee
    soonFather will come to his babe in the
    nest,Silver sails all out of the westUnder the
    silver moonSleep, my little one, sleep, my
    pretty one, sleep.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • The use of run-on lines is another tool at the
    disposal of the poet. This happens when the
    meaning of the words may only be heard by
    continuing on from the end of a line of poetry,
    rather than stopping at the lines end.
  • Read this next poem to see how the use of run-on
    lines affects the reading and therefore the
    meaning of the poem.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • In a Hospital by Fred Cogswell
  • in a hospital
  • a breath of infant birth blends
  • with a last-gasp death
  • the child does not know
  • he is alive nor the man
  • that his breathings done
  • nor can those watchers
  • who pronounce the one is dead
  • and the other born
  • say with certainty
  • of what they saw before them
  • any more than this
  • in a hospital

Poetry An Essential Review
  • A third rhythm device a poet has to use is meter.
    Meter is the pattern of stressed and unstressed
    syllables in a poem. There are names for the
    rhythm patterns a poet can employ.
  • They are
  • 1. Iambic unstressed/stressed (te DUM)
  • 2. Trochaic stressed/unstressed (DUM te)
  • 3. Spondee stress/stress (DUM DUM)
  • 4. Dactylic stressed/unstressed/unstressed (DUM
    te te)
  • 5. Anapestic unstressed/unstressed/stressed (te
    te DUM)
  • Lets check out some examples of each, and how
    each serves the intention of the poet.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Roofs by Joyce Kilmer
  • The road is wide and the stars are out and the
    breath of the night is sweet,And this is the
    time when wanderlust should seize upon my
    feet.But I'm glad to turn from the open road and
    the starlight on my face,And to leave the
    splendour of out-of-doors for a human dwelling
  • I never have seen a vagabond who really liked to
    roamAll up and down the streets of the world and
    not to have a homeThe tramp who slept in your
    barn last night and left at break of dayWill
    wander only until he finds another place to stay.
  • A gypsy-man will sleep in his cart with canvas
    overheadOr else he'll go into his tent when it
    is time for bed.He'll sit on the grass and take
    his ease so long as the sun is high,But when it
    is dark he wants a roof to keep away the sky.
  • If you call a gypsy a vagabond, I think you do
    him wrong,For he never goes a-travelling but he
    takes his home along.And the only reason a road
    is good, as every wanderer knows,Is just because
    of the homes, the homes, the homes to which it
  • They say that life is a highway and its
    milestones are the years,And now and then
    there's a toll-gate where you buy your way with
    tears.It's a rough road and a steep road and it
    stretches broad and far,But at last it leads to
    a golden Town where Golden Houses are. (iambic

Poetry An Essential Review
  • From a Railway Carriage by by Robert Louis
  • Faster than fairies, faster than
    witches, Bridges and houses, hedges and
    ditches And charging along like troops in a
    battle All through the meadows the horses and
    cattle All of the sights of the hill and the
    plain Fly as thick as driving rain And ever
    again, in the wink of an eye, Painted stations
    whistle by. Here is a child who clambers and
    scrambles, All by himself and gathering
    brambles Here is a tramp who stands and
    gazes And here is the green for stringing the
    daisies! Here is a cart runaway in the
    road Lumping along with man and load And here
    is a mill, and there is a river Each a glimpse
    and gone forever! (trochaic dactyl)

Poetry An Essential Review
  • One two,
  • Buckle my shoeThree, four,
  • Shut the doorFive, six,
  • Pick up sticksSeven, eight,
  • Lay them straightNine, ten,
  • A big fat henEleven, twelve,
  • Dig and delveThirteen, fourteen,
  • Maids a-courtingFifteen, sixteen,
  • Maids in the kitchenSeventeen, eighteen,
  • Maids in waitingNineteen, twenty,
  • My stomaches empty.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Each repetition of a particular rhythmic pattern
    is called a foot. Several feet can be identified
    in a line of poetry.
  • The number of repetitions of a particular
    rhythmic pattern have names, derived from the
    number of feet.
  • So, then, one measure or foot is called a
  • Two feet Dimeter
  • Three feet Trimeter
  • Four feet tetrameter
  • Five feet pentameter
  • Six feet hexameter
  • Lets re-examine the previous poems to determine
    how many feet of each rhythm there are in a line
    of the poem.

Poetry An Essential Review
  • Thats it.
  • Review these notes. You can only memorize these
    notes to know them.
  • Read poems and enjoy!
  • Live long and prosper!
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